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BATTLE OF SALAMIS . . . • To face Title 


THIS edition of the eighth book of Herodotos, 
expanded from a previous edition of the first ninety- 
chapters, is designed to help students in all difficulties 
connected with the Greek language which it contains, 
and also to supply them with full information as to the 
historical facts which it includes, or to which it refers. 
1 have hoped by the Historical and Geographical Index 
to help students to take a somewhat wider interest in 
Hellenic history, which is too apt U) mean with most of 
us merely the history of Athens and Sparta. My chief 
obligations, acknowledged frequently in the notes, are, 
among others, to the editions of Dr K. Abicht^ Leipzig, 
1882; and Dr H. Stein, Berhn, 1882. Much illustrative 
matter, however, which I have found for myself, or which 
has long been the common property of scholars, I have 
not thought it necessary to put down to the credit of 
those editors, although it may be often found in iheir 

Cambridge, 1890. 



When Darius died (b.c. 485) he left two tasks un- 
finished, — the subjugation of Greece for which he had 
made vast preparations, and on which his heart had 
been firmly set, and the reduction of a great revolt in 

The latter of these tasks engaged the attention of 
his successor first. It was thoroughly accomplished by 
B.C. 483; Egypt was brought to a state of still greater 
dependence than before, placed under the charge of 
Achaemenes one of the king's brothers, and forced to 
assist in the expedition against Greece [Her. 7, i — 7]. 

Xerxes now determined to carry out the other task, 

the subjugation of Greece. For this pur- 

^- .1 B.C. 483-1. 

pose preparations on a vast scale were 

made. All parts of the great empire were ordered to 

furnish men, provisions, money, and ships [7, 23 — 5]. 

Two expeditions had been attempted before; the first, 

under Mardonius, was conveyed by a fleet coasting down 

I from the Thracian sHore towards the south, but had 

I been ruined by shipwreck while rounding the promon- 

^^ory of Athos [b.c. 492]: a second had crossed the 

Aegean by way of the islands and had been defeated 

at Marathon [b.c. 490]. But the present plan embraced 

a double method of auack. A fleet was to start from 



the Hellespont and coast along the shore of Greece to 
the Peloponnese; while, keeping as nearly parallel with 
the fleet as possible, a grand army was to cross the 
Hellespont and march through Makedonia, Thessaly, 
and Boeotia into Attica, and thence to the Peloponnese. 
To secure the passage of these two armaments, a bridge 
of ships had, after one failure, been constructed across 
the Hellespont, while a canal had been dug across the 
neck of the peninsula of Athos. 

These two works, constructed principally by the 
skilful engineers of Phoenikia, were well conceived and 
proved of the utmost service to the expedition. The 
shipment of so vast an army across the Hellespont 
would have occupied an inconveniently long time ; while 
the canal enabled the fleet to avoid a headland which 
had already proved fatal to one Persian fleet, and was 
an object of terror to the sailors of the Levant. 

By the Autumn of B.C. 481 both fleet and army were 
ready for starting in the following spring. The fleet con- 
sisted of 1207 ships of war, with innumerable other ships 
laden with provisions and material of war ; the army, 
when numbered after crossing the Hellespont, amounted 
according to Herodotos to 517,610 men, without counting 
servants and camp-foUowers [7, 184] ^ Nor was the great- 
ness of his army all that Xerxes could reckon upon in cal- 
culating his chances of success against Greece. A large 
part of the European country he was about to traverse 
already owned his authority. The parts of Thrace and 
Makedonia which bordered on the sea had submitted 
to Darius ; and the suppression of the Ionian revolt had 

^ Herodotos reckons the whole number of land and sea forces 
at 2,317,610, without counting servants, or the crews of provision- 


placed the Islands of the Aegean north of Krete in the 
power of Persia, even including the Cyclades with the 
exception of some few south of Delos. While in Greece 
itself nearly all states north of Attica from policy or 
fear medized. The powerful family of the Aleuadae of 
Larissa had even mvited the invasion, and though their 
action was not universally approved in Thessaly, the 
loyal party of Thessahans were too feeble to resist [7, 
130, 172; 9, 1]. The Phokians were divided, but only 
a section of them ventured to offer a fitful resistance 
from their hiding-places on Parnassos [8, 32; 9, 17 — 8]; 
in Boeotia an overwhelming majority of states medized, 
only Plataea standing fast to its loyalty to Athens, while 
the Thespians abandoned their town and sought refuge 
in the Peloponnese. It was clear therefore that it was 
from Attica, and the states south of Attica, that resist- 
ance must come if it came at all. But even in the 
Peloponnese itself the important district of Argohs, with 
the insignificant exceptions of Mycenae and Tiryns, was 
ready, in its hatred of Sparta, to welcome the Barbaria.n 
[7) 150 — 2]. Still the greater part of the Peloponnese 
was loyal, and preparations were being made in Southern 
Greece to meet the storm. 

The first news of the impending invasion is said to 
have been conveyed to Sparta by the exiled 
Demaratus, who was living at the Persian 
court [7, 239]. The great army was in winter quarters 
at Sardis and its neighbourhood when the first step 
was taken by a Congress of representatives from various 
loyal States meeting on the Isthmos of Corinth [7, 145]. 
This Congress seems tr» have met late in the year 481, 
and, while sending spies to Sardis to learn the truth 
about the vast preparations which the king was re- 


ported to be making, sent at the same time envoys to 
various distant states calling upon them to aid the cause 
of Hellenic liberty. 

The spies sent to Sardis were captured, but by the 
king's order were shown all the preparations of his camp, 
and allowed to return home in hopes that their report 
might deter the Greeks from venturing upon further 
resistance [7, 146]. 

Nor did the envoys sent to Greek states meet with 
success. The Argives absolutely refused all help, on 
the ground that the envoys did not bring authority 
to conclude a 30 years' peace between them and the 
Lacedaemonians, nor were able to admit their claim 
to a joint command; though the real reason seems to 
have been that they had already made terms with Persia 
[7, 148 — 152]. The tyrant Gelo of Syracuse also re- 
fused aid on the pretext of the rejection of his claim to 
command by sea or land; really perhaps because he 
was himself threatened with an invasion from Carthage 
[7, 157 — 165J. The Kretans referred the matter to 
Delphi. But the Oracle was temporizing^ and gave an 
unfavourable reply, and they therefore declined to join 
in resistance [7, 169]. The Korkyreans indeed promised 
help and actually manned 60 triremes. But this squadron 
had secret orders to linger round the west and south of 
the Peloponnese, and wait to see which side would win; 
conduct which they afterwards tried to cover by alleging 
contrary winds as the cause of their absence from Salamis 

[7, 169]'. 

^ See note on p. 21, 1. 19. 

* The selfish policy of the Korkyreans seems to have been 
characteristic. See Thucyd. i, 31, 2 ovZevh'i 'EXX-^ywy ^vatropdoi cp. 
c. 32 ibid. 


The envoys therefore had met with nothing but cold- 
ness and rebuffs. The best report was brought by 
those sent to Thessaly. They brought word that the 
Thessalians had promised to help in guarding the defile 
of Tempe, between Olympus and Ossa [7, 175]. A 
certain number of ships were accordingly 
sent to Halos, where 10,000 soldiers were ^" * "^ °" 
landed and proceeded on foot to Tempe ; the Athenian 
contingent being under the command of Themistokles'. 
But they remained there only a few days. Alexander of 
Makedonia warned them that the pass was too wide to 
be defended against the superior numbers of the enemy. 
This warning, backed by the knowledge that the pass 
of Tempe was not the only one into Thessaly, induced 
this force to withdraw to its ships and return home 
[7, 172 — 4]. This abortive expedition took place early 
in the spring of 480 B.C. just when the royal army was 
in the act of crossing the Hellespont. 

The upshot of these transactions was that, Thessaly 
being definitely abandoned, the Thessalians were com- 
pelled to submit unconditionally to the Persians as well 
as much of the country south of Thessaly: and that 
it became necessary for the Congress of the Isthmos 
to reconsider their plan of campaign. 

The Congress now decided on sending troops to 
guard the pass of Thermopylae, between Mount Oeta 
and the sea, .both as being narrow enough to be de- 
fended, and as being a single one, for they knew nothing 
of the path which was afterwards treacherously pointed 
out to the Persians. At the same time messages were 
sent to the various states that could provide ships to 
muster them at Pogon the harbour of Troezen [8, 42], for 
^ Plutarch, Thetn. 7. 


the purpose of proceeding to Aitemisium, that the in- 
vaders might be met by sea and land at places nearly 
opposite each other. 

But these arrangements seem to have taken a con- 
siderable time. For it was not until news came that 
jum—yuiy. Xerxes was in Pieria, the southern district 

B.C. 480. Qf Makedonia, that the leaders assembled 
in the Isthmos hurried off to their respective posts at 
Thermopylae and Artemisium [7, 177]. 

The Spartans had taken the initiative in sending to 
Thermopylae a small force of 300 citizens with their 
helots under the king Leonidas, that the aUies might be 
encouraged to do the same; and eventually there were 
mustered under his command 2700 men from various 
cities in the Peloponnese, with 400 from Thebes, 700 
from Thespiae, and about 1500 Phokians and Opuntian 
Lokrians. The Spartans looked upon this force as a 
mere advanced guard. They were kept at home by the 
approach of the festival of the Karneia, which hardly 
any extremity of danger would induce them to neglect. 
They expected tliat Leonidas would be able to hold 
the pass long enough to enable the main army to come 
to his support [7, 206]. 

The Athenians were not represented in this army. 
Their whole energies and all their available men were 
devoted to strengthening the fle£t, to which they con- 
tributed almost as many vessels as all other states put 

Meanwhile the two arms of the Persian host were 
steadily approaching. Starting from Therma (Thessa- 
lonika), eleven days in advance of the navy, the land 
forces made their way unopposed through Thessaly and 
Phthiotis (Achaia). They kept the road by the sea coast 


in order to pass most easily the range of Orthrys, and 
descended into Malis. There the chain of Oeta runs 
close down to the sea, leaving what was then an ex- 
tremely narrow passage, but which now presents quite a 
different appearance. The sea has receded, and the 
Spercheios has brought down so much alluvial deposit 
that its course is changed, and a broad piece of marshy 
land covered with rice fields stretches between the 
mountains and the sea. 

Tlie pass at that time began after crossing from the 
north the mountain stream Asopos ; and its narrowest 
point was a little further south still, where a small tribu- 
tary of the Asopos, the Phoenix, flowed down from the 
hills. Behind this pass, 'where there is only a narrow 
causeway wide enough for a single carriage', there was a 
plain if miles long ending in the hot springs and the 
village round them, and containing another village called 
Anthela. At either end of this the two armies were 
stationed [7, 200 — i], while between them was the wall 
built by the Phokians as a protection against their Thes- 
salian enemies [7, 176]. 

Xerxes could not believe that such a puny force 
would venture to withstand his 'grand army'. But 
finding that there were no signs of giving in on the part 
of the Greeks, after waiting four days, on the 

i,^^ day s fight- 

fifth he sent some Medes and Kissians to ing at Thermo- 


clear the way. They were beaten back 

with considerable loss, and even the Persian 'Immortals' 

fared no better. 

Similar attempts next day met with no better success. 
The narrowness of the ground made large 

. -2110. day, 

numbers a disadvantage rather than an aid, 

and the Greeks were armed with longer spears than their 


enemies, and with heavy serviceable shields, which here, 
as afterwards at Plataea, gave them a vast superiority in 
a charge and at close quarters [7, 212]. 

But in the evening of that day a Malian named 
Ephialtes demanded an audience of the king; and being 
admitted offered to discover a pathway over the height 
called Kallidromos, which would conduct troops to the 
rear of the Greeks. Xerxes, who had watched the failure of 
his troops with every sign of violent emotion and anxiety, 
gladly accepted the proposal. At nightfall, just as the 
watchfires were being lit, 10,0 do of the Immortals led by 
Hydarnes started under the guidance of Ephialtes to cross 
this height. By day break they were approaching the 
summit. Just below the crest 1000 Phokians had been 
stationed to guard against the possibility of this danger ^ 
The hill was thickly covered with oak forest, and no 
sight of the coming enemy was possible even in the 
moonlight. But through the clear morning 
^^ '^■^ air the sound of their trampling through the 

brushwood was carried to the ears of the Phokian 
thousand. Yet their warning was brief: the Persians 
seemed to start suddenly into view, surprised no less 
than themselves to see a body of men hastily getting 
under arms where they had expected a bare mountain 
top. They fancied that they were the dreaded Spartans 
who had beaten them the day before: but reassured 
by Ephialtes, who told them the truth, they began 
pouring in volleys of arrows. The Phokians did not 
hold their ground, but fled hastily to the crest of the 
hill and there drew up. The Persians did not continue 

^ Her. 7, 217. For the existence of this path was well known 
in the Greek camp, although it had been unknown to the Congress, 
see 7, 175. 


the attack, but following the path that wound round 
the slope avoided the hill top, and descended with all 
speed on the other side. 

News had come early to the Greeks below at Ther- 
mopylae that they were betrayed. The sacrifices were 
unfavourable, and deserters came in bringing the in- 
telligence ; and these were soon followed by their own 
scouts, running down the hill with the fatal news. The 
allies immediately decided to depart, or, as some said, 
were dismissed by Leonidas that no more Hellenic lives 
should be lost. For him and his 300 the idea of retreat 
was intolerable. It was the duty of a Spartan to die at 
his post if necessary; it was an undying disgrace to quit 
it. With him the Thebans and Thespians alone re- 
mained; but with very different sentiments. The 
Thespians like the Spartans preferred death to deserting 
the post of danger: the Thebans, whose state was known 
to be medising, were retained by Leonidas as hostages, 
and took the first opportunity offered them in the battle 
of consummating the treason of their government. 

At sunrise Xerxes poured libations to his god; and 
about 10 in the morning started once more for the pass. 
The Spartans, knowing themselves to be surrounded, 
were now grown desperate. They quitted the shelter of 
the Phokian wall and advanced into the wider part of the 
pass. A determined hand to hand fight followed : two 
of the king's half-brothers fell, many of the Persians were 
thrust into the sea, while many more were trodden to 
death by the feet of their own men. Presently Leonidas 
fell, and an obstinate battle. raged round his corpse. But 
while engaged in this fierce struggle the Spartans found 
that the * Immortals' who had been led over the hill were 
on their rear. They made one more desperate charge; 


forced their way back to the Phokian wall, and thence to 
a piece of elevated ground ; and there for some time 
maintained a gallant defence, with swords and hands 
and even teeth; till, completely surrounded, they were 
overwhelmed with missiles and perished to a man' [7, 


Such was the famous battle of Thermopylae. Its 
result was to leave the way clear to Xerxes to advance 
on A.ttica, the chief object of his expedition. The whole 
army therefore moved forward to Panopeis on the frontier 
of Boeotia, and there divided into two columns; the one 
with the king continuing its advance steadily towards 
Athens, — the other taking guides marched towards Delphi 
wasting the country as they went. The fortunes of the 
first column are recounted in cc. 51 — 55 of the text as 
far as their seizure of Athens, and capture of the Acro- 
polis ; while the proceedings of the column which was 
sent against Delphi are described in cc. 34 — 39. 

The battle of Thermopylae was almost simultaneous 
with the three days' sea-fighting at Artemisium ; and the 
proceedings of the Navy occupy the rest of the chapters 
of this book of Herodotos. 

About the same time as Leonidas had started for 
Thermopylae, such of the ships as were ready pro- 
ceeded to Artemisium, the rest being told to come to 
Pogon as soon as possible, and thence to join the main 
fleet wherever it might be [c. 42]. In the earlier chap- 
ters the doings of this fleet are detailed ; their retreat to 
Chalkis ; their return to Artemisium ; their three days' 
skirmishing fight with the Persian fleet ; and their back- 

^ Only one man — Aristodemus — survived, who was not actually 
engaged. But his life was made such a burden to him that he 
courted and found death next year at Plataea, 9, 71. 


ward movement on hearing of. the disaster at Thermopylae 
[cc. 4 — 20]. Then comes the history of the bay of Salamis, 
and the divisions in the counsels of the fleet as to whether 
it were better to fight there or nearer the Isthraos where 
the army was mustering ; the trick of Themistokles ; and 
the final struggle and victory [cc. 40 — 90]. 

Though the combined fleet was commanded by the 
Spartan Eurybiades, yet it cannot be too clearly under- 
stood that Athens was the life and soul of this patriotic 
effort. Of the 268 ships which were serving at Arte- 
misium Athens suppUed and manned 127, and lent 20 
to the Chalkidians; and when the fleet was subse- 
quently reinforced in the bay of Salamis by ships from 
other states, this proportion was still maintained ; 
Athens supplying 180 triremes out of a total of 378'. 
And besides this superiority in numbers, it was the 
Athenian Themistokles who more than any other com- 
mander held the allies together, and by every means, 
persuasion, bribery, and threats, induced them to present 
a united front to the enemy. 

The story of the decisive battle of Salamis is tolerably 
clear in Herodotos \ but we have the good fortune to 
possess also the statement of an eye-witness, one actually 
engaged in the battle. And though this narrative is 
thrown into a poetical form, there seems every reason 
to suppose that it is meant to be a true and accurate 
account. The poet Aeschylos has put into the mouth 
of a messenger to Queen Atossa a detailed description 
of the battle, and though that description tallies gener- 
ally with the account of Herodotos there are two points 
in wliich there is some difficulty in reconciling the two. 

1. The first as might be expected is a question of 

* Or 366. See notes on c. 48. 


numbers. Herodotos (8, 48) reckons the numbers of 
the Greek triremes at 378 : Aeschylos {Pers. 340 — 2) 
at 310. The difference may be accounted for I think 
by supposing Aeschylos to be speaking of the number 
of the ships actually engaged, while Herodotos takes 
the tale of ships originally supplied, which each state 
would afterwards take care to have set down as their 
contribution. It seems probable however that some 
managed to get away when the alarm caused by the 
capture of Athens first fell upon the fleet (8, 56); and 
we are told that the 40 Corinthian ships did in point 
of fact avoid engaging (8, 94). Thucydides represents 
the Athenian envoy in B.C. 432 as reckoning the number 
of the united fleet to be 400 [i, 74, i] : but the orator 
is evidently speaking in round numbers, and is more 
intent on emphasizing the proportion which the Athe- 
nian ships bore to the whole than on accuracy of totals. 
Still wider differences are to be found in later writers. 
Ktesias, a contemporary of Xenophon, stated the number 
as 700 [Photios 72]; but his whole account of the 
campaign is so confused that not much weight is to 
be attached to his authority. Demosthenes \de Coron. 
306] states the number as 300, in which he is nearly 
in agreement with Aeschylos. But the same criticism 
applies to him as to the speech in Thucydides. He 
is speaking in round numbers, and intent chiefly on 
showing that the Athenians contributed about two- 
thirds of the whole. I believe, then, that Herodotos 
gives the official Hst of ships supplied, Aeschylos the 
actual numbers engaged. 

2. The second point in which there is some difficulty 
is connected with the movements of the Persian fleet 
the night before the battle. In c. 76 Herodotos says 


that when the king had received as in good faith the 
message sent him by Themistokles three steps were 
taken in consequence. First^ Psyttaleia was occupied; 
secondly^ at midnight the right (or westernmost) wing 
was moved forward 'close to Salamis by way of sur- 
rounding [the enemy]'; thirdly, the left wing which lay 
off Keos and Kynosura* filled all the strait between 
Salamis and Munychia. It is the second of these move- 
ments that seems inadequately described by Herodotos. 
Aeschylos says distinctly that the Persian fleet was 
divided into three, and that one of these divisions was 
sent round Salamis^; and Diodoros (ii, 17) says that 
it was the Egyptians who were sent 'to barricade the 
strait between Salamis and the Megarid'. Rawlinson 
suggests that the second movement was not round 

^ As to the position of these places see Historical and Geogr. 
Index. The three views regarding them are (i) Blakesley^s, who re- 
gards them as indicating the Kynosura near Marathon and the Island 
of Keos. The objection is that this extension of the Persian line is 
much too great, and the time assigned for such a movement (in that 
case) much too short. (2) Stein's, who thinks these two names refer 
to the same tongue of land on the S. of Salamis, one of them being 
the ordinary, the other the less known name. See note on the 
passage. The objection to this is that the geography is entirely 
conjectural: while on the other hand its advantage is that it suits 
the words of Herod, better than any other, ' the ships round K. and 
K. put to sea and occupied all the strait up to Munychia' seems 
to imply that Herod, is conceiving them as starting from Salamis. 
(3) Grotis, who looks upon these names as belonging to two 
unknown spots on the coast of Attica. This involves geography 
equally conjectural as the last, and does not explain the movement 
so satisfactorily. 

^ Pers. 370 aWas 8k kvkXc^ vrjaou Atavroi irepi^. Hence some 
would read in c. 76 KVK\ovfievoi ir^pi^ ttjv "Lakafuva instead of 


Salamis, but close along its northern shore so as to pass 
the Greek fleet. The object of blocking up the strait 
between Salamis and Megara would thus be equally 
secured. But I think the account of Aeschylos, as an 
eye-witness of the particular manner in which this object 
was secured, deserves the greater credence ; and more- 
over, if the movement was as Rawlinson supposed, and 
as certainly seems deducible from Herodotos, on the 
inside between Salamis and Attica, the men of the Greek 
fleet would have seen it for themselves, and would not 
have required the information of the Tenian trierarch (c. 
82), nor would Aristeides have been an 'eye-witness' of 
the movement on his voyage from Aegina (c. 78 — 79). 

In order to enable the student to compare the two 
accounts, as well as to appreciate the feelings with which 
this great achievement was regarded, the following nearly 
literal translation of the speech of the Persian Messenger 
in the play of Aeschylos is appended ^ 

Madam, the fountain-head of all our woe 
was, sure, some vengeful sprite or baleful god. 
Thus 'twas : to Xerxes from the Attic host 
a man of Hellas came with words like these: 
'Soon as the shade of black-browed night shall fall 
'the Greeks will stay no more: the rowers' bench 
'will they spring on, departing for dear life, 
'one this way and one that, in secret flight'. 
So spake he : and my Lord knew not his guile, 
his true Greek guile, nor all the hate of heaven ; 
but bade his captains straight obey this word : 
' Soon as the sun has ceased with rays t' illume 
'the earth, and darkness holds the court of heaven, 
'range ye my ships in triple line, and guard 
'the straits and outlets of the running tides: 
'others send circling round the isle of Ajax. 
'Nay! if the Hellenes 'scape the woe of death 
'your heads shall answer it: this is my doom'. 
Thus spake he with a heart bemused, and blind 

1 Persae, 355—434- 


to all the ill that fate and God had willed. 
So they, in no disorder, but with minds 
attuned to discipline, begat them straight 
to their poor meal ; and every sailor looped 
his oar upon the thole, and made all well. 
But when the light o' the sun had paled and gone 
and night was drawing on, each man of them 
that plied an oar betook him to his ship, 
and every captain of the armed host: 
warship to warship passed a word of cheer : 
and on they float each keeping order due. 
So all night long the masters of the ships 
held all their folk to labour at the oar, 
thridding the narrow seas: and night waned fast, 
yet never did the Hellenes strive to make 
a secret way of flight, or raise a sail. 
But when the white car of the risen day 
held all the earth with the sweet rays of dawn, 
first rang there forth from the Hellenic host 
a loud clear note, like to some joyous hymn ; 
and sharp and clear from rock and island came 
an answering echo. Cold on Persian hearts 
struck sudden fear: far other than we deemed 
the tale that poean told ! Not as for flight 
this solemn strain issued from Grecian lips, 
but as of men with hearts of high resolve 
eager for battle. Then rang shrill and clear 
a clarion, filling all the bay with sound : 
and straight with even stroke of dashing oars, 
that fell responsive to the master's voice, 
they smote the yielding bosom of the deep ; 
and in brief space stood out before our eyes 
full plain to see. The right wing led the way 
in order fair; and following hard astern 
the whole long fleet streamed on, not silently, 
but with shouts manifold and plain to hear: 
' Sons of the Greeks arise ! your country free ! 
* free home, and wife, and child, and grandsires' tombs, 
'and all the seats loved of your fathers' gods!' 
Nor were we silent : Persian lips gave back 
challenge for challenge. And now the hour was come; 
and straightway ship on ship did dash 
its brazen beak: and first to strike a blow 
a Grecian ship brake all the forward gear 
of a Phoenician bark : then in wild war 
ship fell on ship, or charging drave its prow 
right on a foe. At first the Persian line 
held out and brake not : but whenas the host 
of myriad ships, cramped in the narrow bay, 



crashed each on each, entangled in a maze, 
nor could yield mutual succour, — friend on friend 
struck with their brazen beaks, and oars 
M'ere splintered in the rowers' hands; and all 
the Grecian ships not letting slip the chance 
rowed round them, and charged : and many a hull 
keel uppermost went drifting: the wide sea 
was hidden with the wreckage and men's limbs, 
and all the jutting headlands and the strands. 
I'hen every ship of ours as chance gave way 
sped off in flight disordered; and our foes 
like tunny-fishers speared the swimmers' backs 
with splintered spars and oars: a dolorous cry 
filled all the reaches of the open sea; 
until the closing eye of black-browed night 
staved that fell work. But the full tale of woes, 
if 1 should count them through ten livelong dayS| 
I could not reckon; for be sure of this, 
one day has never seen such hosts of slain. 

Though the Greeks had won a victory greater than 

they had dared to hope, they had no reason to think 

that its effect would be so decisive as turned 

Sept. B.C. 480. , , ^ , 1 r 1 

out to be the case. A large number of the 
enemy's ships had been sunk or disabled, and the 
shores of Salamis as well as Attica bore witness by 
the corpses that were washed up that the slaughter had 
been great. Still an immense fleet remained, and a 
vast army was in occupation of Attica. Their ex- 
perience at Artemisium had taught the Greeks that one 
day's fighting at sea with such great numbers was not 
necessarily decisive ; and they were prepared to find 
that they still had some hard work to do. The Persian 
fleet had retired to Phalerum, harassed as they went by 
the ships of the Aeginetans and Athenians, and were 
well out of sight of the Greeks. But they might reappear 
the next morning; and at daybreak the Greeks began 
their preparations for renewing the fight [c. 108]. To 
their surprise no ship of the enemy hove in sight ; and 


they presently learned that the whole fleet had started in 
the night and was making for the Hellespont. This, 
then, was indeed a victory. They determined that the 
beaten foe should not thus escape them, and with all 
speed they set out in pursuit. 

What had happened is told in cc. 97 — 107. Xerxes 
was thoroughly frightened ; and, so far from thinking of 
renewing the engagement, was set upon returning to Asia 
with as little delay as possible. But even the master of 
the Persian Empire was obliged to have some regard for 
appearances; and a hasty retreat from an army that as yet 
had met with nothing but success, and from a fleet, which 
after all had scarcely lost a sixth of its whole tale of ships, 
was too barefaced a confession of selfish cowardice. 

The battle had begun early in the morning, and must 
have been finished some hours before night ; for Xerxes 
had time, not only to punish some of those who had 
shewn cowardice in the fight \ but also to take some 
measures for the completion of the mole across to Salamis, 
which had apparently been determined upon, and pro- 
bably begun before the battle". Some Phoenikian trans- 
ports (yavXot) were lashed together to form a temporary 
bridge across the strait, apparently with a view of aiding 
the formation of a more permanent causeway. He then 
summoned a council of war, as though he were desirous 
of their advice as to the measures for continuing the 
struggle. Mardonios however was fully aware of what 
was passing in his master's mind. He knew too that his 
own life depended on being able to redeem the disaster; 
and that his only chance of being allowed to attempt to 

^ C. 90, Diodor. Sic. 11, \^rOiv ixku ^oivIkuv twp dp^avruv ttjs 
^vyrjs Toiis aiTLwraTovi diriKTeiue. 

'■* Ktesias, Fers. 26; Strabo, 9, 1, 13. 



do so was to get Xerxes out of the reach of personal 
danger. He therefore gave just the advice that he knew 
was desired. Xerxes must return to Asia, and he 
himself be left to renew the war in the next year. The 
proposal was supported by queen Artemisia, whose 
advice Xerxes had previously found to be good\ and 
who had shewn great personal gallantry in the battle. 
This plan was accordingly adopted. Xerxes himself was 
to retire under the escort of his whole army as far as 
Boeotia, and thence with a body of sixty thousand men 
under Artabazos to the Hellespont. Mardonios was to 
select the flower of the army to winter with him in 
Thessaly, with which to attack Peloponnesos in the spring. 
But Xerxes chiefly feared that the victorious Greeks 
would shut him out from Asia by proceeding at once to 
the Hellespont, and breaking the bridge of ships which 
had been made with such labour for the passage of the 
army in the spring. This bridge had in fact already 
been broken up by a storm, or was so broken before 
Xerxes reached it ; but even if the bridge were not 
intact, he would have no difficulty in being conveyed 
across, provided that his fleet commanded the channel. 
The first thing therefore was to secure that. Immediate 
orders were accordingly given, and the fleet started under 
cover of night for the Hellespont, though the Phoenikian 
contingent appears for the most part to have deserted, 
and made the best of its way home^ 

Having committed the care of some of his children 
who were with him to Artemisia, to be conveyed to 
Ephesos, whence they could easily reach Sardis^ Xerxes, 

1 c. 68. - Diodor. Sic. ii, 19. 

•^ Plutarch's sneer {de Malign. 38) — ^ireXiXrjaTo yap ck 2o^au)p, 
lbs ioLKet', dyeiv ywaiKas, el yvvaiKeias edeovro irapaTr ofiirrji oi iraldes 


after a few days' delay, set out on his march northward. 
Of this retreat and of the sufferings of the Persian army 
in the course of it, many tales were current among the 
Greeks \ and naturally enough exaggerated stories were 
passed from mouth to mouth. One of these is related 
by Herodotos (c. ii8), which he gives good reason for 
disbelieving. And others were embodied by Aeschylos 
in his tragedy of the Fersae, first represented, it appears, 
seven years after the battle of Salamis, in b.c. 473. 
There the fleet is said to flee before the wind in great 
disorder (Kar' ovpov ovk cvkoct/xov atpovrat (fivyyjv), while 
part of the army remained in Boeotia suffering from 
want of water and disease, and the rest marched painfully 
through Doris, and along the Malian gulf to Thes^aly, 
where many died of want of food and dfink/^^c^tji^ice 
to Magnesia and Makedonia. By tlJ^Min-^^it was late 
in the season, and Jjhfcif y^fi^ijJ^s were increased by 
severe weather. Ttb^^Mfymon was frozen', though it 

— is quite misplaced. It was not because she was a woman, but 
because she had proved her fidelity and courage, that Artemisia was 
selected for this service ; and Herodotos would have good means of 
learning such a fact. 

1 Aeschyl. Pers, 484 — 516. Grote (iv. 489) objects 'that a large 
river such as the Strymon near its mouth (180 yards broad and in a 
latitude about N. 40° 50'), at a period which could not have been 
later than the beginning of November, should have been frozen over 
in one night so hardly and firmly as to admit of a portion of the 
army marching over it at daybreak — before the sun became warm — 
is a statement which surely requires a more responsible witness than 
Aeschylus to avouch it '. But to assert that the frost was only of 
one night is, I think, pressing the poet's words too closely. The 
frost was unusual at the time of year {deh% xfiM^'"' awpoi/ wpcre) ; and 
Aeschylos' words imply that there was one specially severe night, 
which was regarded as portentous, and the result of which induced 
the army to attempt to cross. Still the river may have been frozen 


was at an unusually early time of the year for that 
(November), and the army attempting to cross lost a 
large number of men owing to a sudden thaw. Thence 
the remainder painfully struggled on to the Hellespont. 

But whether the incident of the Strymon has or 
has not any foundation of fact, the account given by 
Herodotos of the retreat (c. 115) sufficiently indicates 
that it was accompanied by severe suffering to all 
concerned. The end of it was that Xerxes got safe 
to Sardis, and one act of the great drama which Hero- 
dotos undertakes to present is brought to a conclusion. 
Xerxes, — the type of Eastern pride, arrogance, and 
unrestricted power, — has been brought into conflict with 
Greek civilisation and Greek divinities, and has retired 
beaten and in disgrace. He does not appear again on 
the scene, except in that revolting tale of lust and 
cruelty (9, 108 — 113), with which Herodotos seems of 
set purpose to have concluded his History as far as the 
Persian monarchy was concerned. 

Thus it was that the Greeks found no ships to fight 
on the day after the battle of Salamis. The Persian 
camp was still visible on the Attic shore, but no ships 
were in sight. Presently they learnt the truth, that the 
fleet had departed in the night ; and they at once set off 
in pursuit. But when they had got as far as the island 
of Andros without sighting the enemy, they stopped to 

before. More serious perhaps was the objection that a bridge of 
boats had been thrown across the Strymon (7, 114), over which the 
army had marched in the spring, and which there is no reason 
to suppose had been broken up. It may perhaps have been 
temporarily open to allow passage for vessels up and down the 
stream, and the hard frost may have prevented it being joined again 
soon enough for the impatience of the suffering and demoralised 


consider what to do. Two courses appeared open to 
them. First, to make at once for the Hellespont, break 
the bridge of ships, and so guard the strait as to shut off 
the Persian army from Asia. The second was to give 
every faciHty for the enemy's army to quit Greece as 
soon and as readily as possible. Themistokles was for 
the former course : Eurybiades, the commander in chief, 
for the latter, which was also supported by the other 
Peloponnesian commanders [c. io8]. Finding his ener- 
getic counsel rejected Themistokles took up the other 
line, and advised an immediate return home ; a disband- 
ment of the fleet until the spring ; and that all should go 
to their own states, and employ themselves in restoring 
all that had been destroyed by the Persians, and in 
making preparations for the coming year. With charac- 
teristic cunning he took care that this advice should be 
reported to Xerxes, and should be represented to him 
as having been given in order to allow him time to 
secure his safety [109 — no]'. 

There were still some weeks left of the time during 
which Greek sailors ventured to stay out at sea ; and in- 
stead of returning home, some at least of the fleet remained 
at Andros, apparently at the instigation of Themistokles, 
for another purpose : that namely, of exacting punish- 
ment on those of the Andrians or inhabitants of other 
islands, who had medized ; and of levying contributions 
for the support of a fleet to keep the Aegean free of the 
Persians in the future". These proceedings perhaps 

^ Plutarch Them. c. 16. 

2 It seems probable that it was only the Athenian fleet which was 
engaged in this business : for Themistokles is spoken of exclusively 
as managing and directing it ; whereas Eurybiades was the com- 
mander in chief, and would have been responsible if he had 


were so far damaging to Themistokles' reputation at 
home as to prevent his being elected Strategus for the 
following year ^ ; but we do not hear that the Athenians 
refused to avail themselves of the money thus collected 
or extorted; and in fact the measures of Themistokles 
seem to have been the forerunners of that confederacy of 
Delos, afterwards cemented by the vigour of Kimon and 
the integrity of Aristeides [b.c. 477]; the foundation of 
which was the idea that, as the islanders and other states 
were chiefly interested in the security of the Aegean, 
they were bound to contribute to the maintenance of a 
fleet whereby that security was to be guarded. The 
banishment of individuals also for Medism, though 
apparently accompanied by corrupt practices on the part 
of Themistokles, was the expression of the idea, also 
involved in the constitution of the Confederacy of Delos, 
that there was a Panhellenic authority capable of taking 
cognizance of offences against Hellenic safety. This 
principle was again, and with greater show of legality, 
exemplified in the following year by the fine of a tenth 
levied on Thebes for medizing, as well as the execution 
of the most guilty of her citizens ^ 

Before quitting the events of this year it may be well 
to consider another passage, which called for severe ani- 
madversion from our author's critic Plutarch. This is his 

remained. Thus we find that it is Themistokles who is attacked 
afterwards for the i)roceedings of this autumn. Plut. Theni. i\. 

^ Jealousy M'as also roused by the honours he received at Sparta, 
see c. 124. Cp. Diodor. Sic. 11, c. 27 de^a/x4vov d^ tov Qefxt-aTO- 
kX^ovs ras diopedi, 6 drj/jLos tQv ^Adrjvaicov duriaTrjaeu airbv dirb rrjs 
arpaTTfyias, Kai irap^doiKe rrjv dpx'h^ '^avdltrino rif 'Api^pouos. But 
he was afterwards Strategus, apparently with the special command 
at sea {va^apxos), Plut. Them. c. i8. 

2 Herod. 9, 86—88. Polyb. 9, 39. 


statement as to the cowardice shewed by the Korinthian 
admiral Adeimantos at the battle of Salamis. It is true 
that he ends his chapter (c. 94) by acknowledging that 
the Korinthians deny the allegation, and are supported 
in their denial by the other Greeks. Still he tells the 
story first, without prefacing or concluding it with an 
expression of his own personal doubt, as he does when 
he is incredulous (cp. c. 119): and there does seem some 
unfairness in telling a story, confessedly grounded on 
the report of what was, at the time when he must have 
narrated it, a hostile state. And here Plutarch is more 
successful in his refutation than on most other points. 
He argued rather absurdly that it could not be true that 
the Greeks had determined to retreat from Artemisium 
before they heard of the death of Leonidas, because 
Pindar, a citizen of medizing Thebes, spoke of Arte- 
misium as a place 'Where sons of Athenians laid a 
brilliant foundation-stone of Liberty". But in regard to 
the conduct of the Korinthians, he was able to point to 
the fact that Korinthians who fell in the battle were 
buried in Salamis with a complimentary inscription : 

bj ^€V€, evvSpoi^ TTOT ivaio/jiev acrrv K.opLv6ov, 
vvv 8' a/xfx AtavTOS vaoros e^et ^aXafxis' 

iv6 aO€ ^OLv tor eras vrja<5 kol ITepo'as cXoVres 
Kttt MrySovs Upav EXXaSa pvofx^Oa. 

Beside the Cenotaph on the Isthmus with the lines : 

TavT avro Svcr/xei/eoji/ Mr^Scoj/ vavrat ^toSiopov 
ottA. aviuiVTo Aarot, fxvdfxaTa vav/Aavtry?. 

The proverb 'as lying as an epitaph' is not wholly 
^ de Malign. 34, 

(paevvkv Kprjwl^' iXevOepias. 


inapplicable to Greek inscriptions ; and the Cenotaph on 
the Isthmus may perhaps be held to be of no greater 
worth as evidence than the epigram on Adeimantos' tomb : 

OvTOs 'ASet/xavTov Ketvov ra^o?, 6v 8ta Tracra 
'EXXcts iXevOeptaq afxcfiiOeTo <rT€^ai/ov. 

But the fact of the tomb with its inscription having been 
set up at Salamis, without remonstrance from Athens, is 
a strong if not conclusive proof that at the time, at any 
rate, the Athenians did not hold the Korinthians guilty 
of desertion or cowardice. On the contrary, as Plutarch 
points out, they are always admitted to the place of 
honour next the Spartans and Athenians, as on the 
bronze serpents which supported the tripod offered after 
Plataea, which are still extant \ 

From c. 130 to the end of the book Herodotos 
spring of ^.c. relates the first movements of the following 
479- spring, which prepared the way for the final 

contests at Plataea and Mykale. The Persian fleet, 
which had wintered at Kyme, now mustered at Samos, 
being intent on preventing any movement from Ionia, 
while Mardonios was engaged in crushing the Greeks on 
the mainland [c. 130]. The Greek fleet on the other 
hand met at Aegina under the command of Leoty- 
chides, king of Sparta. There they were visited by 
envoys from Ionia begging for help : but though they 
proceeded with some reluctance as far as Delos, nothing 
could induce them to go any further [cc. 131 — 2]. 
There then we leave the two combatants for the present, 
— at Samos and Delos, — watching each other's move- 
ments, and neither being willing to strike the first blow. 

1 Plutarch, de Malign. 39, See also the bronze serpents 
engraved in the introduction to the qth book. 


Meanwhile Mardonios on land, having reassured him- 
self by consultation of oracles [cc. 133 — 5], determined 
to utilise the feeling of jealousy, which he 'was assured 
existed between Athens and the Peloponnesians, by an 
attempt to detach the Athenians from alliance with the 
other Greeks \ He chose as his envoy that Alexander of 
Macedon, who on a former occasion had shewn that he 
was not prepared to submit to every indignity from his 
conquerors^; and who was connected by special ties 
with Athens. This man seems to have been only 
serving with Mardonios under compulsion, and though 
he gave his message, and added formal words of his own 
in support of it, there is an air of coldness on his part 
which betrays that his wishes were not with his tongue, — 
a fact more conclusively proved, later in the year, by his 
volunteering to warn the Greeks before the battle of 
Plataea^. Naturally enough news of this negociation 
excited alarm among the Spartans : for though they 
meant once more to abandon Attica to the enemy, while 
they sheltered themselves behind the wall, which was 
being rapidly built across the Isthmus ; yet they had 
learnt from the events of the past year that the only 
way to prevent an attack by sea, which would render the 
defence of the wall nugatory, was the maintenance of an 
effective fleet; and that to this end the Athenians were of 

^ dia^orjdeiarjs 5^ ttjs tuu 'Adrjvaiuu irpbs rods ""EWrjuai AWorpid- 
rrjTOS '^Kov els rets 'Adrjvas irp^a^eis Trapa HeparQv Kal irapa tQiv 
"EXKrjvfcv. Diodor, Sic. ii, 28. Though Herodotos does not 
distinctly say anything of the alienation of feeling between the 
Athenians and the rest of the Greeks, yet substituting 'Pelopon- 
nesians' for 'Greeks' his narrative implies it; and the offer which 
Alexander was instructed to make was an appeal to a separatist 
feeling, which it was presumed would be actuating them. 

^ 5. 19- ^ 9. 44—6. 


supreme importance. They therefore hurriedly sent off 
envoys to counteract the offers of Mardonios. The Athe- 
nians had felt sure that they would do so, and therefore 
waited for the arrival of these envoys from Sparta before 
giving their final answer to Alexander. The scene and 
the speeches which follow are of course partly dramatic, 
but there is no reason to doubt that they represent 
substantially what occurred. They bring into prominence, 
as they were meant to do, the contrast between the truly 
Hellenic spirit at that time animating the Athenians, who 
had dared and suffered so much in defence of Greece, 
and the selfish caution which chilled and retarded the 
efi'orts of the Spartans in the cause of Hellenic liberty. 

The mention of a king of Makedonia leads Herodotos 
to a digression on the origin of the Makedonian dynasty. 
He could, of course, have no prescience of the great 
part which the Temenid kings were destined to play in 
Greek history ; and preeminently in the final destruction 
of that vast empire, whose unwilling agent Alexander 
then was : but he may have felt even then the importance 
to Hellenism of a power which was ever struggling with 
the barbarian and piratic tribes of the West ; and which 
formed a breakwater against attacks on that side, wdiilst 
it was fighting for its life on the East. It is the reward of 
a diligent observer, who lets nothing escape him as unin- 
teresting, that what seemed his least important record 
should be fruitful in interest and importance to posterity. 

The great drama is now approaching its final denoue- 
ment. The two opposing forces. Barbarism and Hel- 
lenism, have been depicted by the aid of every kind of 
research which was open to a man of the time. Nothing 
that could throw the least light on any of the incidents 
of the great contest, or on the characters of the parties to 


the struggle, has been omitted. They have met at sea 
and the fortune of the contest has been settled there : it 
remains only to see whether the god of battles will 
decide in the same sense on land ; and, that having been 
put beyond question at Plataea, Mykalfe will prove to 
be the beginning of a system of retaliation by the 
Greeks upon their enemy; which, after many vicissitudes, 
will reach its. final consummation a century and a half 
later in the victories of Alexander. 


[A, Medicean MS. in Laurentian Library, loth Century. 

B, Angelicanus, nth Century, 
R, Vatican, 14th Century. 

V, Vindobonensis (Vienna), loth Century. 
S, Sandcroft, 14th Century. 

C, Florentine, nth Century.] 

p. -2, 1. 23. ipovXevov. One group of MSS. has i^ovXe^ovro. 
But this use of ^ovXeveadai with an accusative seems unexampled. 
Cp. CO. 18, 97, 100; 5, 124. 

p. 10, 1. 19. Ikclcttovs irvp. Cobet eKaarov irvpa. 

p. 12, 1. 17. S*'p|t)v. Here and at p. 36, 1. 19, one group of 
MSS. has Hep^ea. See App. C. i. (4) n. 

p. 13, 1. 22. iroivTcs 8^ TJTrio-Tc'aTO tovs Kcijievovs elvai iravras. 
Cobet iravTas de TjiriaT^aTo tovs Keifiivovi etvaL. 

p. 16, 1. 16. 8oKe€iv. Cobet boKiei, but cp. p. 12, 1. 14. 

p. 19, 1. 18. ipd. Naber dprjia. 

p. 19, 1. 21; IIpovT]tT]S. Two MSS. (S and V) have ITpovoa'T^s. 
Cp. Pausan. 10, 8, 6 'A6i}vijs Upovoias. 

p. 21, I. 19. vircKOeo-Oai. Gomperz would omit, Holder 
brackets. But it seems naturally implied by the {/Te^eKeero of 
p. 22, 1. 2. 

p. 21, 1. 24. co-Ti, Kallenberg omits, and Holder brackets. 
The MSS. vary the order, some giving iari ixekirbeaaa^ others 
fieXLvdeacxd eari. This however, a very common occurrence, is not 
a sufficient reason for omitting a word which it is not the general 
manner of Herodotos to leave out. 

p. 23, 1. 22. aXXat. Cobet proposes 8eKa, for which the symbol 
was t'. 

p. 30, 1. 3. TO TJKioTTa. I have omitted the ^5 of the MSS. 


p. 35, 1. 8. h\. Valcknaer Avould omit this word; but it is 
much in Herodotos' manner to begin a speech with it See cc. 137, 
142 and 5, 33. 

p. 36, 1. 17. TTJ Kf»^<ri. This is the reading of the Vatican MS. 
(R), and of the Vienna and Emmanuel MSS. (V, S). Stein reads 
dvaKpia-L with the Medicean and Augustinian (A and B) MSS. He 
quotes two passages of Plato [176 c, 277 e] to prove the inter- 
pretation which he gives the word, 'remonstrance', 'contradiction' 
{Einrede, Widerspruch). But in both these passages the sense 
seems rather to be that of 'questioning' than of 'contradiction'; 
and so probably in Her. 3, 53, though there is there a variant 
vir6Kpi(Tis. On the other hand Herodotos elsewhere uses /cptVis as 
equivalent to 'quarrel', 'contention', not as here 'expression of 
opinion' [5, 5; 7, 26]. Stein supports his interpretation of dvaKpLais 
by referring to dvuKpiveadai in 9, 56. The two words were some- 
times confounded. See Lysias 22, § 3. 

p. 52, L II. Kara TTcp "EXXtjo-i. Stein proposes TrapA. 

p. 53, 1. 26. €V Toi(ri Iltpo-Tjtri. One group of MSS. has eV 
Ilipayffi Totai. Stein omits tolci.. Valcknaer proposes roi rt, which 
Holder adopts. 

p. 55, 1. 8. ircpl oIkov tov <rdv. Abicht brackets : Stein 
connects the words with ffv/j-cpoprj, Baehr (as 1 do) with irpTiyfidTUv. 
Wesseling conjectures eS Kuixevuv for iKeivwv. 

p. 55, 1. 24 to p. 56, 1. 4. 01 8i HcSao-ecs — ^' Ep|JioTi[i,os "^v. 
Valcknaer with one MS. omits this passage. See i, 175. Such a 
repetition however is not unexampled in Herodotos; and it is 
difficult to see why a copyist should have introduced it here. 

p. 58, 1. 19. 8ia<|>6ap^eTai. Stein dia^depierai. eirtxcip^ovTi. 
The MS. R has iwix(^p^ovTi. 

p. 59, 1. 8. PaXXd|Ji€voi. Some MSS. have ^aXhtxevoi. But I 
think the present is the right tense in such conventional phrases. 

p. 59, 1. II. V€ViKT]|icvo-us. Cobet omits. Holder brackets. 
But it is not a mere explanation of ^$ dvayKai-qv direiX-qdevTas, — *I 
have known many when brought to bay, though conquered^ yet 
renew the fight etc' 

p. 67, 1. j6. 8i€V€|xovTO. Two MSS. [R and S] have ^(pepov. 
Cp. the parallel passage from the de Corona, § 229, quoted in the 
note, p. 177. The MSS. A and B have dieve/xov, which Stein adopts. 
The middle is explained by Abicht by saying that each general 


divided the voting pebbles among the soldiers of his own division. 
I think the middle is rather to be explained by the fact that the 
generals did not make the distribution with their own hands:— they 
caused it to be done. Nor can we imagine that all the soldiers 
voted J it must have been only the officers of the several divisions. 

p. 67, 1. 17. KptvovTCS. Valcknaer Kpt-viovres, I think un- 

p. 68, 1. 6. ^800-av. Cobet would supply dvSpayadiris or 
dudprjlrjs from Plutarch TZ/m. 17. But dpicrrijia may be considered 
to include this idea. 

p. 69, 1. ■28. -iraptt TOLS. Valcknaer, from Aeneas Tac. 31, 
would read irepl 

p. 70, 1. II. KaTairXrjIai. Some MSS. have /caraTrXe'^ai. In 
favour of the latter is the fact that Herodotos does not elsewhere 
use KaraTrXiJo-ffw, nor is it true that KarawXi^ai. is only given by the 
schledere Handschriftcn, as Abicht says; for one of them is the 

excellent R. 

p. 73. 1-21. XP1<^oH^«vov R. Other xMSS. have xp^^rd/xej/ov. 

p. 76, 1. 14. <t>€poi es. Stein with MSS., other than R and S, 

omits es. . 

p. 80, 1. 5. in€top.evoi<rt BCZ. Stein with other MSS. TTie^i;- 
likvoici. Cp. 3, 146; 6, 108. See Veitch. 

p. 82, 1. II. irpopwO^a-at. So MSS. R and S. The other MSS. 
have irpo^oriOTiaat, which Stein adopts. 



The States which contributed ships to the Greek fleets utider 
the command of the Spartan Eurybiades. 

I. Ot Se 'EXXt^i'coz/ e? tov vavTiKov arpaTOv 
TayQkvTe^ rjo-av oXhe' ^ KOrjvaloi jxev vea<; irape'^o- 
fievoL eKarov koI etKOcrc koL kirrd' viro he dperrj^; re 
Kol 7rpo6vfiL7)<; nXaratee?, direipoL t^? vavTLKrj<; 
i6vT6(;, avveTrXrjpovv rolai ^Adrivaioicn ra? i^ea?" Ko- 5 
pivdioL Se TeaaepaKOvra vea<; 'n'apei')(0VT0, M.€<yap€6<^ 
Se eiKocTi. Kol XaX/ctSe69 eirX'^povv e'cKocrt ^A-Orf- 
vatcDV (7(j)i irape'yovTcov Td<i V6a<;, AlfyLvrjrac Be 6/ctco- 
KaiheKa, '^lkvcovioc Be BvcoBeKa, AaKeBai/jLovtoi Be 
BeKa, ^^iriBavpiOL Be 6/cto^, ^Eperptee^ Be eTrrd, Tpoi- 10 
^tjvcoo Be irevre, XTvpee<^ Be Bvo koI Ketot Bvo re 
vea<i Kol 7revT7]KOVTepov<; Bvo. AoKpol Be (7<pL ol 
^OirovvTiob eire^or^deov TrevrrjKovrepov^ e'^ovTe^i eTrrd. 
II. ^Hcrav fiev wv ovtol ol arparevop^evoL eir Apre- 
jiicnov, eiprjraL Be fioc /cat o)? to ttXtjOo^ eKaaroi twv 15 
vewv 'irapei')(^ovro. dpiOpbo^ Be rcov avXX,e^6ecaewv 
vewv eir ^Apre/iicrLOV rjv, irdpe^ rSv TrevrrjKOvrepayv, 
BirjKoaiaL kol e^Bo/jLrjKovTa koI jjbia. tov Be arparrj- 
yov TOV TO /leyLdTov Kpdro^^ €')(OVTa iTapei')(pvTo 
^TrapTLTJTai, Ftvpv^cdBrjv tov KvpvKXelBeo). ol jdp 20 



crvyb^ia'^oi ovk etpaaav, rjv fir} 6 AaKcov T^yefiovevr), 
^AdrjvaLoicn €'>\re(T6ai '^yeofievoLO'L, dWd Xvaetv to 
fjueWov eaeadao (rrpdrevfjia. 

The unselfish patriotism of the Athenians. 

HI. ' Efyei^ ero yap Kar dp')(^d<; \6709, Trplv rj koI 
5 69 ^iKekiTjv TrifjLTretv eirl crvfjL/jia^irjv, co? to vavTiKOv 

^KOr^vaiOLai %/3eoi^ elrj eiriTpdireiv. dvTij^dvTwv Se 

T&v (Tv/ji/jLd')(^cov eiKov ol ^AOtjvolol, fieya ireTroirjiievot, 

irepuelvaL ttjv YiXXd^a, koI yp6vT6<;, el o-Taaidaovat 

TrepX T?79 i^ye/jLovlrjf;, ftj9 diTo\eeTai t) ^EXA,a9, opQd 
10 vo€VVTe<;' aTaai^ yap 6fi(j>v\o(; TroXe/jbov ojxo^pove- 

ovTO<; ToaovTw KaKiov icTTC, ha(p TroXeyu-o? elprjvrjf;. 

iiTiaTd[JbevoL wv avTO tovto ovk dvTeTeivov^ dXX! 

elKov, fte^pt '6(Tov KdpTa iSiovTo avTWv, 0)9 BiiBe^av. 

0)9 yap Bicocrd/jbevoc top Tleparjv irepl t^9 i/celvov rjBr) 
15 Tov dySva eiroievvTo, TTpocjyaaiv Trjv TLavaavleco 

v^pcv irpol(J')(o[jLevoi direiXovro Trjv rjyejjbovi'rjv tov<; 

AaKeBaL/jLOvlov<;. dXXd TavTa fxev vaTepov iyeveTO' 

The fleet arrives at Artemisium. Seeing the Persian 
armament at Aphetae the Greeks are minded to retreat 
southwards^ but the people of Euboea induce The- 
mistocles by a bribe to use his influence to keep them 

IV. Tore Se ovtoi ol kol eir ^ApTe/jil<rLov EW?;- 
vcov dTTLKOfJuevoL 0)9 elBov yea's re 7roWa9 KaTa')(^6eLaa<; 
20 €9 Ta9 'A^6Ta9 teal aTpaTirj<; diravTa irkea, eirel 
avTolat irapd ho^av Ta irprjyfiaTa twv /Sap/Sapcov 
dire^aive tj 009 avTol KaTeBoKeov, KaTappayBycavTe^; 
Sp7]a/j,bv e^ovXevov diro tov ^ ApTejJbiaiov kaco €9 
T1QV 'FiXXdSa. yv6vTe<; Be acj)ea^ ol Euy3oee9 TavTa 


^ovkevofxevovq iheovro YiVpv^iaBeco irpocrfielvai %/30- 
vov oXlyov, ear av avTol reKva re koL tov<; olKera'^ 
V7r€K6ecovTai. gj? Be ovk eirecOov, fiera^avTe^i tov 
^ AOrjvaicDv aTpaTTjyov irelOovao ^ejJbLCTTOKKea eirl 
/jLca-do) TpLr]Kovra raXdvToiac, eV tp re KaTa/jL6lvavT€<; 5 
Trpo T7J<; EuySo/?;? TroirjcrovTaL rrjv vavfJbaj^iTjv. V. 'O 
Be Se/jLtaTO/c\er)<; tov(;'' KWrjva^; iiroa'^eLV wSe Troteet* 
^vpvjSiaBrj TOVTcov Toov '^^^prj/jbdrcov fieraSiBol irevre 
ToXavra cw? Trap" eojvrov BrjOev ScSov^. 0)9 Be oi 
ovro(i dueTreTrecaro, 'ABei/jiavTO<; yap 6 ^flKvrov Ko- lo 
pLvdiOiv o-Tpar7]y6<; tSv Xocttcov rjaTraope fMovvof;, (pd- 
pbevo^ airoTrkwaeaOai re diro rod ^AprefiLcrLOu Kat ov 
irapafjueveeiv, 7rp6<; Brj tovtov elire 6 ^epLiaTOK\erj<; 
€7ro/jL6aa<;' "Ov av ye ^/jLea<; dTrokei-y^ei^, eirei rot eyoo 
" fie^co Bwpa Bcocrco, rj /SacrCkevfi av rot, 6 iS/L'^Bcov irep,- 15 
" "y^eie diroXLirovri tov<; avfifid'^^^ovf;" Tavrd re dfia 
Tjyopeve kuI TrefMirec eirl rrjv via rrjv ^ABetfjidpTov 
raXavra dpyvpiov rpla. ovrol re S?) 7rdvTe<; Bcopoiat 
dvaireireiaiJbevoi rjaav, Kal toIctl ^vfBoevai eKe^dpicnOy 
avTo^ re o Se/jLtaTOK\erj<; eKepBrjve, ekdvOave Be rd 20 
XoLird €)(^o)v, dW i^TTLarearo 01 fjLeTa\a^6vTe<i tovtcov 
TcSv ')(^pr)/jLdTa)v, eK toov *Adr)vecov i\6elv eirl tS \6y(o 

TOVTCp TO, ')^p^/jLaTa. 

The Pei'sians send 200 ships round Euboea to entrap the 

Greek fleet. 

VI. OLto) By) KaTe\xeivdv re ev ttj ^v^oltj koI 

ivavfid^rjaav. eyevero Be wBe' eirei re Brj e? ra? 25 

A<j)€Tas; irepl BelXrjv Trpcotrjv yLvofJbevrjv aTTLKaro ol 

^appapoL, Trvdojievoi fiev en Kal TrpoTepov irepl to 

ApTefXLaiov vavXo^eeiv vea^ ' \ljWr)vlBa<^ oXiya^;, TOTe 


Be avTol lBcvT€<;, irpoOvfioi rjaav eTnj^eipeeiVy el /cox; 
eXotev avrd^;. eK fiev Srj ttj^ dvrlr)*; irpoairXweiv ov 
Kw (T(^i eSofcee rcovBe ecveKev, jjlt) kw^ IBovre^ ol 
EX,X?7z/e9 7rpoa7r\a)ovTa<i 69 (pvyrjv op/jujaecav, <pev- 
5 yovTd<; re eixppovr] KaraXafi/Sdvy' kol efieXkov BrjOev 
eKcjyev^ecrOac, eBee Be fii^Be irvpcfyopov rS eKelvoiu 
Xoyo) iK(j>vy6vTa irepiyeveaOai. VII. IIpo? ravTa 
(hv TaBe epbrj'^aveovTO' roov vewv diracrewv diroKpi- 
vavT€<i Bi7]K0fTla<; irepieTreiJiirov e^coOev %Kid6ov, 009 

10 av fir) 6(j)6e(i)tn, virb twv irokepbiayv irepLTrXwovcraL 
^v^oiav Kara re Ka^Tjpea Kal VepaLarov 69 rov 
^vpiTTov, cva Brj TrepLXajSoiev, ol fiev ravrrj airvKo- 
{Mevot Kal (jypd^avre'i avrcop rrjv oirlcra) tpepovaav 
oBov, cr(^efc9 Be eTncnropbevoL e^ evavTlr]<;. ravra fiov- 

15 Xevadfjuevoi aTreTrepLTrov roov veoov Ta9 Ta^^etcra9, av- 

Tol OVK iv v6(p e')(0VTe<; Tavrrjf; Trj<i r}pbep7)(; rolcrc 

''EWr^cTi enTtdrjaeaOaL, ovBe irporepov rj to avvOrjfid 

a<pL e/xeXXe (fyamjcreaOaL Trapd rcov irepiirXwovrcov 

ft59 rjKovTwv. ravraf; puev Brj TrepteTrepLTrov, roov Be 

20 Xoiirewv veSv iv rfjcrt *A(f>eTfj(TL iiroievvro dpidpuov. 

The Persian design is betrayed to the Greeks by the diver 
Skyllias of Skione. 

VIII. 'Ei^ Be TovT(p ra> 'y^povo), iv ra> ovtol 
dpiOpov iTTOievvTO tSv vecov {rjv yap iv tq) (rrparo- 
TreBo) TOVTO) ZiKvXklr}'; %Kto)vato<; Biit7]<; toov rore 
dv6pa>7ro)v dptarofi, 09 Kal iv rfj vavrjyly rfj Kara 
2t TO JlrfKiov yevopevr) iroXXd puev eacoae t(ov ')(^pr)pbdT(ov 
ToXcri JIepo-r)a-i,, TToWd Be Kal avTO<^ irepie^dXeTo), 
ovTO<; 6 'EkvXXIt)'; iv vow puev eZ^e dpa Kal irporepov 
avTopboXrjaeiv 69 TOf 9 ' EXX?;ya9, aXX ov yap 01 


'irapea')(e co<; tots. brect) fjuev Brj Tpoirco to ivOevrev 
en dirUero €9 rov<^"l^Wr)va';, ovk e')(Oi elirat oLTpeKeco^y 
Ooyv/Jbd^o) Be, el rd Xeyo/jLevd ean dXrjOea. Xeyerat 
ydp, CO? ef ^A(f)eT€0}V 81)9 €9 ttjv 6d\aaaav ov nrpo- 
repov dvea')(e, irplu tj diriKero eirX to Apre/JLLcnov, 5 
araSiou^; fjidXiard /cy toutol'9 €9 oyScoKOvra Bid t/;9 
6a\d(Tar)(; Bie^eXOcov. Xejerac fxev vvv dWa yjrevBeai, 
tfceXa irepl tov dvBpd<; rovroVy rd Be pLere^erepa dXr)- 
6ea. irepl jjuevTOi tovtov yvafiT] fiot dTroBeBe^dco 
TrXotft) fjbLv aTriKeadai eirl to 'ApTepLLcnov. W9 Be 10 
diriKero, avTiKa €cnjp,7)ve toIctl (jTpaTrjyoidt, T7]v re 
pavr]yL7)v 009 yevoiTo, Kal Ta9 irepUTreix^Oeiaa'^ tcop 
vewv Trepl Kv^ocav. 

The Greeks resolve to remain at Artemisium during that 
day^ and in the night to go southward to meet the 200 
Persian ships that were sailing round Euboea. 

IX. ToOto Be dKOV(TavTe<s 01 ' ^XXrjve^i Xoyov 
(r(f)L(TL avTolcTi eBiBoaav. ttoXXcov Be Xe^OevTccv eviKa 15 
Tr]v rjp.epr}v eiceivTju avTov p,eLvavTd<; re Kal avXicrOev' 
Ta^, p^eTeireiTev vvKra fiecnjv irapevTa^; iropeveadat, 
KoX diravTav Trjo-t ireptTrXwova-yaL twv veoov. pbeTd 
Be TOVTO, (W9 ovBei<^ a(pL eireirXwe, BelXrjv o^^irjv yivo- 
/jbevrjv TT]<; rip,epr}<^ (f)vXd^avTe<; avTol eiraveirXooov errl 20 
Toi)9 PapjBdpov^, diroTTeLpav avTwv Trotr'jaaadac ^ov- 
Xofievoi T^9 re //.a^?;? koI tov Bie/cirXoov. 

First Day' s Fighting. Thirty ships of the Persian fleet 
are captured, but night-fall finds the battle still undecided. 

X. OpeovTCf} Be a(^ea<^ oX re dXXoi crTpaTLOdrat 
ol B^ep^eco Kal oc aTpaTrjyol eiriirXwovTa^ vtjvctI 
6Xlyr)cn, ir/iy^^v (Tcfyi p.avLr)v €7repeiKavTe<i dvrjyov Kal 25 


avTol Ta9 vea<^, ekTricravTe^^ <7^ea? ei^TreTew? alprjaetv, 
OLKora Kapra i\'TrLaavTe<i. ra? [xev ye toov 'KW'^vcov 
6p€OVT6<i o\^7a9 via<;, ra? Se icovToov irX'qdet re TroXXa- 
7r\7](TLa<; koX dfieivov wXcoovo-a^, KaTa^povr}aavTe<; 

5 ravra i/cvK\ovvTO avTOv<; e? fiicrov. ocrot fiev vvv 
Twv ^Icovcov rjaav evvooL toIctl '^KXXrjcri, deKovre^ re 
earparevovTo, avjJL^oprjv re iiTOievvTO fJue'yaX'qv, opeov- 
re? 7r6pC6')(^ofJb6vov<; avToii^ koI iiriorrafjievoi a><; ouSet? 
avToov d'TrovoaT'qcreL' ovrco daOevea acpi e(f)alveTO eivai 

lo Tci Toov *^\Xt]V(ov Trp'tjy/JLara. oaoLcrt Be koX rihofxe- 
voKTi rjv TO yivofjbevov, a/jucWav eTTOievvro, ^k(o<; avTo^ 
€/<:aaTO<i ttjOCuto? via ^ArTCKrjv eXoov Bcopa irapd ^aort- 
Xeo9 Xdpu'y^eTaL. ^A67]va[cov <ydp avTolai X0709 ^v 
ir\€L<TTO^ dvd TCb cTTparoTreSa. XL Totct Be ' E\- 

15 XrjaL <»9 io-tjfjiTjve, irpcora fiev avruTrpcopoL toIctl ^ap^d- 
poicri yevojJbevoi €9 to fjuiaov Ta9 irpviiva^ crvvrj'yayov, 
Bevrepa Be crr)/jLr)vavTO<; epyov elyovTO, ev oklyco Trep 
d'jr6\aix<^6evTe<; fcal Kara (TTOfia. evdavra rpirjKovra 
V6a<; alpeova-L toov ^ap/3dpcov koX top Topyov tov 

20 ^aXafjitVLcov ^acnXeo^ dBeX(f>edv ^tXdova tov li.ep(rco<^, 
Xoytfiov iovTa ev tw aTpaTOTreSan dvBpa. TrpcoTO*^ Be 
^FiXX'^vcov via twv TroXe/jiicov elXe dvrjp ^A67)vaio<; 
AvKO/JLr)Br]<i Al(T')(^paLov, Kal to dpiaTrjiov eXa^e ovto^. 
T0v<; S' iv TTj vavfia'^ir) TavTrj eTepaXKico<; aycovc^o- 

25 fJbivov<; vv^ iireXOovaa BiiXvore. 01 fiev Brj ''KXX7]ve<; 
iirl TO ^ApTefxiaiov diriTrXcoov, ol Be ^dp/3apoL 69 Ta9 
'A^eTa9, TToXXov irapd Bo^av dycovKra/ievoc. ev 
TavTTj Trj vavfia'^Ly ^AvTiBajpo^; Ar]fjivto^ fiovvo<; toov 
crvv ^aaCXil ^FiXXyvoov eovTcov avTO/juoXiec 69 toi'9 

2o"KXXrjva<;, Kal ol ^AOr/vatot Bid tovto to epyov eBoaav 
avT(p '^copov iv %aXa/jLLVL 


In the night there is a violent storm of rain and thunder^ 
which terrifies and distresses the Persian fleet at 

XI I. 'II9 Se €V(f)p6v7} iyeyovee, rjv fiev rrj^ oop7]<; 
/jbiaov d6po<;, iyivero Se vhcop re airXerov Bia ira- 
arjf; r7]<i vvkto^ koX crKXrjpal ^povraX airo rod 
UrjXLOv ol Se veKpol koI to, vavrjyia e^e<f)opeovTO 
€9 Ta9 'A(^6Ta9, KoX TTepu T6 Ta9 TTpcopa^; TWV 5 
vecov elXeovTO kol irapaaaov toi)<; Tapaov^ rwv kco- 
iricov. ol Se arpaTLajrac ol ravrrj aKouovT€<; ravra 
€9 ^o^ov KartcTTiaTO, eXiri^ovTef; iray^v aTroXeeaOai 
69 ola KaKCi rjKov irplv yap rj kol avairvevaai a(f)ea<; 
€K re Trj<; vavTjyir)^ koL tov '^eifjLwvof; rod yevo/juevov 10 
Kara TIijXlov, vireXa^e vav/JLa')(^b7] fcapreprj, i/c Be Trj<; 
vav/jLa')(^i7]<; 6fi^po<; re Xa^po^ koX pevfjuara la')(ypa 69 
OaXaaaav opfjurj/jLeva j^povrai re a-KXrjpai. 

and entirely destroys the detachment which was sailing 
round Euboea, dritmig the ships upon ''The Hollows' 

XIII. Kat TovTOiai fiev roiavrr) vu^ iyivero, 
rolcTi Be ra'^decat avrcov irepLnrXweLv ^v^oiav rj avrr] 15 
irep eovcra vv^ ttoXXov yv en dypioorepT), roaovrw 
oacp ev TreXdye'i (fiepofjuevoLai eireiriiTTe, kqX to T6X09 
o-(^t eyevero d')(api' 0)9 ydp Brj TrXooovai, aurolac ^6t- 
/jb(6v re Kol TO vBcop eireylveTO eovcTL KaTou tcl KotXa 
T7J9 EuySot779, (j>ep6fjLevot rw TrvevfjuaTO /cat ovk elBore^ 20 
TTJ e^epovTo, e^eiriiTTov irpo^ Ta9 ireTpa^. eiroieeTo 
Te Trap vtto tov ueov, okw^ av e^cacoueir] tqj tiXXTj- 
VLKa> TO TiepaiKov firjBe ttoXXo) irXeov elrf. Ovroi 
fiev vvv Trepl tci KotXo. t?79 Eiv/SoLT]^ Bie<f)delpovTo. 


Second Day. The Persians at Aphetae after their 
terrible night attempt no movement. The Greeks are 
reinforced fy SS Athenian ships, and attack and 
destroy some Kilikian vessels. 

XIV. Ot 8e ev ^A(f)6rfj(Ti ^ap^apoi, &<; cr^t 
dajjuevoiaL ^//-e/o?; iTreXaix-^e, drpejjLa^i re el')(ov Ta<; 
vea<;, Kai <j(j)t dire'^pdTo KaKco^; 'Trpr/acrovcn rjo-v^urjv 
d<y6iv iv tS TrapeovTL rolai Se "^Wr^cn, eirePor)6eQV 

5 vee^ Tp€L<; koI irevrrjicovTa ^AmKaL avrai re Brj 
a^ea<; iireppcocrav aTTiKO/jLevaL, kol ajjua dfyyeKiT] iX- 
Oovaa CO? twv ^ap/Sdpcov ol 7r€pL7rXcoovT€<; rrjv Ev- 
jBoiav TTCLvref; ecTjaav Soecj^OapfMevoL virb rod yevofievov 
j^eifjiwvo^. (j)v\d^avT6(; Srj rrjv avrrjv wprjv TrXwoz/re? 

lo eireireo-ov vrjvcrl ILiXiorarjcri, ravra^; Be hia<f>6eLpavTe'^, 
(0(; €V(f)povr] iyevero, aTreifKcdov ottlctco iirl to 'Apre- 

Third Day {the day of the fall of Leon Idas at Ther- 
mopylae). The Persians advance with their ships 
arranged in a C7'escent, far outnumbering the Greeks. 
There is severe fighting., and the Greeks suffer heavily., 
but the losses of the Persians are still greater. 

XV. TpiTTj Se rifiepr) heivov ri iroii^adixevoi ol 
(jTpaT7)yol tSv /Sap^apcov vea<; ovtw a(f)L 6\iya<; 

15 Xv/JbaLve€r6at kol to diro Hep^eo) BeifjiaivovTe<; ovk 
dvefxeivav en rov^ ^ ^'Kk7]va^ fid'^Tjf; dp^ai, dXXd 
irapaKeXevcraiJievoL Kara [leaov i^fiiprj^; dvrjyov ra? 
vea<;. crvveiriirTe Se wcrre rfjau avrfjai i^fiepyac ra? 
vavfjbay^ia^; yiveaOai ravra^ fcal ra? 7re ^ofia-^ia<; ra? 

20 ev Sep/jLOTrvXyaL rjv he ird^ 6 dyodv rolcrt Kara 
OaXaaaav irepi tov RvpiTTov, (ocrirep rolai dfi(p) 


Kewvihrjv TTJv ia^oXrjv (fyvXaaaetv. ol jxev hi) ira- 
peKekevovTO okco^ /jltj TraprjaovaL e? ttiv 'EXXaSa tov<; 
/3apl3dpov<;, ol B' o/c(0(; to ' RWtjvckov arpdrevfia Bca- 
(f)66LpavTe<; rou iropov Kpanjaovac. XVI. 'II9 Be 
Ta^dfievoi ol '^ep^eco eVeTrXwoz/, ot 'EXXT/z/e? drpefia^ 5 
el')(OV irpo'^ Tw ^Apre/jLLcrla). ol Be jBdp^apoL firjvo- 
etBe<; iroirjaavre^ rwv vecov eKVKkeovro, 0)9 irepuXa- 
^oiev avTov^. evOevrev ol "EX\r)ve^ eiraveTrkayov re 
Koi avve/Jbtayov. ev ravry rrj vav/jLa'^^^Ly TrapaTrXrjo'Coi 
dWrfkoicri eyevovro. yap Piep^eco arparof; vtto 10 
fjLeyd6e6<; re kol 7r\y 6eo<; avro'i vir ecovTov eTTtTrre, 
rapao-o-Qfjuevcov re rwv vewv kol irepLTriirTovaecov 
irepl dX\,r}\a<;' o/jlci)<; jxevTOL dvre2')(e koX ovk elKe' 
Beivov yap '^prjfxa eTroievvro viro vecov oXlycov 69 
(f)vyi^v rpdweaOai. TroXXal fiev Brj rcov '^X\7]vcov 15 
2/669 Biec^OeipovTO, ttoWoI Be dvBpe^, TroXXoS S' en 
7rXevve<; vee<i re rayv jSap^dpcov /cal dvBpe^. Ovrco 
Be dr^wvi^OjievoL Btearrjo-av %ci)/)l9 eKdrepoc. 

The best in the fight. 

XVII. 'Ei/ ravrrj rfj pav/jLa'^urj Alyvimot fiev 
Twv aep^eco arpartcorecov rjpiarevaav, o't dWa re 20 
epya fxeyaka direBe^avro Kal vea<; avrolac dvBpdat 
elXov 'EXkT]viBa<; irevre. toop Be 'FXXrjvcov Kara 
Tavrrjv rrjv ijfieprjv yplarevaav 'AOTjvatot, Kal ^AOr}- 
vatcov K.\eLVi'r)<; 6 ^AXKC^idBeco, 09 Bairdvrjv oI/ctj'ltjv 
7rap€-)(^6/jLevo<; iarparevero dvBpdai re BLT]/coaLOi(Tc Kai 25 
OLKrjtr] vrjL 


The Greeks decide to retreat, Themistodes is the leading 
spirit. They first slaughter as much of the Euboean 
cattle as they can to prevent the enemy getting them. 

XVIII. 'n? ^6 SciaTTjaav dafievoL eKarepoc, e? 
opfxov TjireifyovTo. ol Se ''EXX??i^69 g)9 huaKpiOevTe^^ e/c 
T?79 vavjjLa'^iTjf; aTTTjWd^dTjcraVj roov jxev veKpwv koI 
Twv vavrjyicov iireKpareov, Tpr}')(^6cof; Be 7r6pi€^6evT6<; 

5 Koi ovK rjKiara ^ K6rjva2oi, tcov al rjiiiaeaL tmv vecov 
Terpcofjuevai rjaav, Sprjcr/jubp 8?} i^ovXevov ecrco 69 rrjv 
^EiWdSa. XIX. Noft) Se \a^(ov 6 @€/jbtaTOK\ir)<;, C09 
el diTOpparyeirj diro rod ^ap/Sdpov to re ^ImvcKov 
^vXov KoX TO K^apLKov, oloi T€ ecrjaav dv tcov Xoittcov 

10 KaTvirepOe <yevecr6ai, eXavvovTwv twv ^v^oecov irpo- 
^aTa eirl ttjv OdXaacraVj TavTy avWe^a^ tov<; (TTpa- 
TTjryovf; eXeye a<f>i, co<s BoKeoi e^eti/ TLvd iraXd/juTjv, Trj 
eXTTi^oc Twv fia(n,X6o<; (TV/jL/jud'^cov dTrocrTTjaeiv toi)v 
dpiaTov^. TavTa fjuev vvv €9 ToaovTO Trapeyvfivov, 

15 eVl 8e Totac KaTTjKOvcTL irprjyfiacfL TdBe TrocrjTea elvai 
acpL eXeye' twv re irpoj^dToav toov I^v^oIkoov oaa tc<; 
edeXoL KaTaOveuv {Kpeaaov yap elvai ttjv (TTpaTLrjv 
€')^ecv 7J TOL'9 TToXefjuLov^) TrapaLvee re TTpoecTrelv toIctv 
ecovTcov eKdaTov<; Trvp dvafcaleov KOfjLcBrjf; Se irepc Trjv 

20 (Joprjv avTM fjueXr](reiv ooaTe d(TCvea<; dTTiKeaOai 69 Trjv 
' EJXXdBa. TavTa rjpecre a(^i iroieeiv Kal avTLKa irvp 
dvaKavcrd/jbepoc eTpdirovTO 7rp6<; Ta TrpojSaTa. 

A neglected Oracle. 

XX. Ot yap ^vfio6e<; 7rapa')(^p'r]o-d/jLevot tov Ba- 

klBo^ '^(^prjafjLov ©9 ovBev XeyovTa, ovTe tc e^eKOfjui- 

25 oravTO ovBev ovTe Trpoead^avTO ft)9 irapeaofievov a^t 

TToXefjbov, irepLireTea re eTTOirjaavTO acf^icrt avTOicrt Ta 


TTprjyfiara. IBnKtBt yap woe €^€t irepl tovtcop o 

^pd^eo, ^apl3ap6(j)(ovo<; orav ^vyov eh oka l3aWrj 
Pl^Xivov, Eu/3ot779 direx^Lv TroXvp.rjKa^a^ alya<;. 
TOVTOcai Be ovSev rolcrt eireai, ')(^pr}a'afJbevoLcn ev Toldi 5 
Tore irapeovGi re koX irpoahoKipbOLcrt, KaKolcri Traprjv 
<7(f)t av/JL(f)opfj ■)(pda6aL irpo^; rd fxeyiGTa. 

In the evening a scout arrives with news of the disaster 
at Thermopylae. The Greek fleet accordingly start on 
their retreat. 

XXI. Ofc yLtez/ hr) ravra eTrprjcraov, Traprjv Be 6 e/c 
Tprj'^tvof; KardaKOTro^. rjv fxev yap eir ^ApTefMtaicp 
KardaKOTTOf; IloXu'a?, yevo<; ^Avrtfcvpev^;, tw Trpoaere- lo 
raKTo, Kal elye ifKolov Karrjpe^ erolfxov, el iraXr^aeLe 

6 vavTiKo^i (TTpaT6<;, arjfxalveLv roicn ev Sep/jLOTrvXrjcrc 
eovcrr 0)9 B auro)? yv * K^pwvL')(o<; 6 AvcriK\eo<; 'A^t;- 
valo<; Kal irapd AecovlBrj erolfMOf; Tolai eir ^AprefiLCTLa) 
eovat ar/yiWeiv rpiTjKovrepq), rjv n /caraXa/jL/Sdvr} 15 
vecorepov rov ire^ov. ovro^i Sv 6 *Affp(6vL'^o<; diTLKo- 
jxevo^; arc^i earj/juaive rd yeyovora irepl AeayviBrjv Kal 
Tov cTTparbv avrov. ol Be 009 eirvOovro ravra, ovKeri 
€9 dva^o\a<; eiroievvro rrjv aTro^ooprjatv, eKOfil^ovro 
Be ct>9 eKaaroc era')(B7)(Tav, ^opivdiov irpwroi, vararoc 20 
Be Adr]valoi. 

The pla7i of Theinistocles for detaching the Ionian allies 

from Xerxes. 

XXII. Adr)vatcov Be vea<; rd<; dpcara rrKwovaa^ 
i7n\e^dfjLevo<; ^efjutaroKXerj^i iiropevero irepl rd irori- 
pia vBara, evrdpLvcov ev rolai Xidoiai ypd/jLp,ara, rd 


"1 6)1/69 eTreXOovTe^i rfj vcrrepalr) rfjuLepy eiri to ^Apre- 
fiLo-LOV iireXe^avTo. ra he ypa/jufiara rdSe eXeye' 
"^'AvSp6<; "Iwi^e?, ov Troieere SiKata eirX tov<; irarepa'^ 
" arparevoixevoi koI ttjv 'EWaSa KarahovKov fxevoi,. 

5 " aXka fiaXiara fiev tt/oo? rjfiecov yiveade' el Se vfilv 
" icrrl TOVTO /uurj hvvarbv TrocrjcraL, v/jb6L<i Se €TC Kat vvv 
" e/c Tov ixeaov rjfuv e^eade /cat avrol, koX twv K.apcov 
" SeecrOe ra avrd vpZv Troieeiv el Se /jurjBerepov tovtcov 
" olov re rylveaOac, aX)C vir dvayKair)<; fie^ovo^; Kare- 

lo " ^ev^de 7J coo-re diriaTaadai, vfielf; je ev rw epycp, 
" iiredv (ru/jL/j,ta-<y(Ofjbev, iOeXoKaKeere, fie/jipr]fievoc on 
" aTT Tjiiewv yeyovare koI on dp')(r}6ev rj e'^dpr] irpof; 
" TOV jSdp^apov dTrvfiecov tj/jllv jejove." SefjLcaTOKXirjf; 
Be TavTa eypa'^^re, SoKeecv i/xol, iir dficfiorepa voecov, 

15 Lva Tj XaOovTa ra fypd/jL/juaTa ^aacXea "Icova<; Troorjo-j} 
/jLeTa/SaXetv koI yevkaOai 7rp6<; ecovToov, rj eirei re dve- 
vei'^Sy Kol Sca^XrjOfj '7rp6<; 'Sep^TjVy dirlaTOV^; iroir^ari 
TOV<; "lcova<; /cat tcov vav/jua'^^^cecov avTOV<; dTToa'^y. 

Fourth Day. JVext morning the Persians are informed 
of the retreat of the Greeks, and follow them as far 
as Histiaea, starting at noon. 

XXI 1 1. ^epaaroKXer]^ puev TavTa ive<ypa'\jre, rotac 
20 Se ^apl3dpotai avTiKa puerd TavTa ttXoiw rjXOe avrjp 
*laTLacev<{ dyyeXXcov tov hprjapuov tov air Apre- 
pLiaiov TCOV 'KXXrjvcov. ol 8' vir airucTTLr]'^ tov puev 
dyyeXXovTa el'^ov ev (pvXaKrj, vea<; Se Ta')(ea<^ aire- 
aTecXav irpoKaToy^ropieva^. dizayyeCXdvTWV he tovtcov 
25 T<x '^v, ovTO) Srj dpua rfXiw crKthvapbevw irdaa rj aTpaTcrj 
eVA^coe dXrj<; eirl to ^ApTepbiacov. eir La')(^ovTe': Se ev 
TOVTw Trp %fwpft) p>e')(^pi> pbeaov ypLepr)<;, to airo tovtov 


eifKwov €9 *J(TTLat7]v. diTiKo^evoL he rrjv ttoXlv e(T')(ov . 
Twv ^laTiaiewv, koX rrj^; 'EXXott/?;? /JLOipr]<iy 7779 Be t^9 
I<jTtafc^TtSo9 Ta9 irapaOaKaaaia^ KWjjba^; iraaaf; eire- 

At Hisiiaea the men of the Persian fleet are invited by 
Xerxes to cross to the mainland to view the slaughtered 
Greeks at Thermopylae. Xerxes contrives to conceal 
the amount of his oivn loss. 

XXIV. ^Yivdavra he tovtcov eovrcov Sep^r)(; eroi- 5 
fiaad/jievo<^ rd irepl tov<; veicpov^ eirefxTre e<; rbv vav- 
TLKOV dTparov KTjpvKa' Trpoerocfidaaro he rdhe' ocroi, 
Tov arparov rod ecjvrov rjcrav ve/cpol ev Sep/jbOTrvXrjat 
(rjaav he koI hvo fivptdhef;), v7ro\i'7r6/jLevo<; tovt(ov cw9 
')(^i\LOv^, TOu<s XoLTTOv^ Td(^pov<i opv^dfMevof; edayjrey 10 
<l>vX\,dha re eTTL^aXcov kol yrjv eTra/jbrjcra/jLevo^, iva 
fir) 6(f>6ei7]aav virb rod vavriKov arparov. W9 he 
hte^T) 69 rrjv 'lariatrjv 6 Krjpv^, crvXko<yov rroirjcrd- 
/jLevo<; iravro^ rov crrparoirehov eXeye rdhe- "''Avhpe<; 
^' avfi/jLa'^oL, I3acn\ev^ ^ep^rj^ rw ^ov\ofjLev(p vfjuecop 15 
" irapahihol eKXiirbvra rrjv rd^tv koI ekOovra drjr)- 
" aaaOai, okco^ fid'^erat irpo^; rov<^ dvorjrov<i rcov 
" dvOpcoTTCov, oc rjXTricrav rrjv ^aaC\eo<; hvvapLiv virep- 
" ^aXeeaOaL." XXV. Tavra eTrayyetXafievov, fierd 
ravra ovhev eylvero ttXolcdv airaviwrepov. ovrco 20 
TToXXol rjOeXov OrjiqaaaOat. hcairepaicodevre^; he eOj)- 
evvro hte^Lovre^ rov<; veKpov^i' rrdvre^ he r^TTiarearo 
T0i)9 Ket/jLevov(; elvai 7rdvra<; AaKehaL/jLovLOv<; /cal 
0€O'7rtea9, 6peovre<; kol tol'9 etXwra?. ov fiev ovh^ 
iXdvOave rov<i hia^e^rjKora^; B,ep^r]<; ravra irprj^a^; 25 
irepl rov<i veKpov^ rovt; eeovrov' kol yap hrj Kal 


yeXoiov rjv rwv fiev '^(^iktoc e^aivovro veKpol K€L/jL€vot, 
ol he TravTe<i eKearo aXee<? avy/ceKO/jbLa/jievoL i<; t(ovt6 
'^coptov, Teaaep6<; ')(^cXta8€<;. ravTrjv fjuev rrjv rjfjbeprjv 
TTpo^i Oerjv eTpaiTOVTO, rfj S' varepair) ol fiev aTreirXoaov 
5 69 *lo-TLai7]v iirl Ta<; vea^, ol he dfju^l 'Bep^rjv e? ohov 

The Olympic Games [Jufy, B.C. 480]. 

XXVI. *Wkov he <j(pt avTOfjboXoi avhpe^ air 
^ApKahi7](; oXiyoc TLvh, /3lov re heojuevot koX evepyol 
^ovkofievoi elvai. dyovTe<; he tovtov<; e? o-^lv rrjv 

10 ^aaCkeo^; eTTvvOavovro ol Tleporat, irepi rwv EWrj- 
vcov ra Troieocev eh he rt? irpo iravTcov '^v 6 elpcoreMv 
avroxjf; ravra. ol he a^u eXeyov, W9 OXv/JLiria 
ayoiev koX Oecopeotev aywva yvfiviKov Kai ittttlkov. 
6 he eTreipero, o n to ae6\ov elrj a^L Kelfxevov, nrepl 

15 orev dycovi^ovrar ol S' elirov rrj^; eXairjf; rov hiho- 
fievov <7Te(f)avov. evOavra etira'^ <yvwiJi/qv yevvacora- 
T7JV Tcypdv7]<; 6 ^Apra^dvov heiXlrju oo(p^e tt/jo? 
^aaCkeo^. 7rvv0av6/jievo<; yap to deOXov eov <7Te<^a- 
vov, dX)C ov ')(^prjixaTa, ovTe rjve(T')(eTO cnywv elire re 

20 69 7rdvTa<; Tahe* " Hairal, iS/Laphovie, ko[ov<; eir dvhpa<^ 
" 1770.769 ixa')(^e(TO[jbevov<^ rjfjbea^, ot ov irepl '^pijfidTcov 
" Tov dycova iroLevvTac, dXXd irepX dpeTrj<;." 

The quarrels of the Phocians and Thessalians. A Tlies- 
salian invasion repelled. 

XXVII. TouTft) yuev hrj TavTa etprjTO, ev he tm 
hid fieaov '^p6v(d, eirei re to ev SepfioTrvXrjai Tpw/xa 

25 eyeyovee, avTiKa SeaaaXol ireinrovau KrjpvKa 69 ^(o- 
Kea<i, aTe acfn ev€^ovTe<; alel -^oXou, diro he tov 


vardrov rpco/jLarof; koX to Kapra. icrl3a\6vT€<i yap 
Travarparirj avToi re ol ©eaaakol kol ol gv yi>yba')(oi 
avToov €9 TOi)? <l>&)/cea9 ov TroWolai ereat, irporepov 
TavT7}<; Trj<; ^aaiXeo^; aTparrjXaatTjfi eaacodrjaav vtto 
t(jov ^coKecov Kal Trepticpdrjaav rprj'^ea)^. eirei re yap 5 
KaT€i\r)6r]aav e? rov Yiapvrjabv ol ^Q)/cee9 eyovre^ 
fiavTLV TeWirjv rov 'HXetoz^, ivOavra o T6XXt?79 
ovTO<^ ao<f)L^€Tai avTolai rocovBe- yvyjrcocraf; avSpa<i 
i^a/coaiov^i rodv ^coKecov rov^i apicrrovq, avrov^; re 
TOVTOvf; Kal to. oifka avroov, vvkto^ iTreOrjKaro rolcn 10 
%e(T(Ta\oLai, TrpoeiTraf; avrolac, rov av /juy Xev/cavOu- 
^ovra liBcovTai, rovrov KreiveLV. tovtov<; wv aX re 
^vXaKal Toov ©ecraaXcov TrpcoraL IBovaao i<j)o/3r]67}- 
aav, Bo^aaac aXXo rt, elvai repa^;, Kal jxera ra^ 
(f)vXaKa(i avTTJ rj o-Tpanrj ovrco wo-re TeTpaKLa')(^iXia)v 15 
Kparrjaat veKpcov Kal aairihcov ^coKeaf;, tcop Ta9 fiev 
r}p.L(Tea<; e? "A/9a9 aveOeaav, tol^ Se 69 A6X(/)0U9' ^ Be 
heKO/TTj iyevero rcov '^prj/jbarcov eK ravrrji; Trj<; //,ap^7;9 
ol fieyaXoc dvBpLavre^ ol irepl rov rpiiToBa avveare- 
c3t69 efiirpoaOe rov vr]ov rov iv AeXcj^olcri,, Kal erepoi 20 
TOLovTOL ev "K^rjaL dvaKearai. XXVIII. Taura 
fjuev vvv rov ire^ov epydaavro twv ©eaaaXwv ol 
<l>Q)A:ee9, iroXtopKeovTa^i €(ovtov(;, icr/SaXovaav Be 69 
TTJv '^^(oprjv rrjv Xttttov avroov eXvfi^vavro dv7]Kecrrco<;. 
iv yap Ty ea^oXy, rj icm Kara 'TcifiTroXtv, ev ravrrj 25 
Td(f>pov fieydXTjv opv^avre^ dfi^opea<^ Keivovf; 69 av- 
rrjv KaTeOrjKaVy %oi)y Be e7n(^opr]aavre<; Kal opioid)' 
aavre^ tw akXw X(^p(p eBeKovro tov<; @eo-aaXov<; 
ia-^dXXovTa^i. ol Be, 009 dvapiraaop.evoL tov<; ^(OKea<;, 
(f)ep6p,evoL eaeireaov e9 tou9 dfic^opea^. evOavra ol 30 
XiTTTOL rd aKeXea Bi,e<p6dp7)aav, 


The Thessalians offer for a large indemnity to avert a 
Persian invasion from Phocis. 

XXIX. Toi^TO)!^ S?7 G^i dfKporepcov e'^ovres: 
eyKOTov ol ^eaaakol Tre/xylravref; KrjpvKa yyopevov 
rdBe' "'H ^coK6e<^, tJSt] tl fidWov yvcocrijia'^eeTe fjurj 
" elvac ofiotoL tj/jllv. irpocrOe re <ydp ev Tolat '^^Wrjai, 

5 " ocrov '^povov eKelva tjimv rjvBave, ifkeov alei Kore 
" vjjbeoyv e^epojjieOa, vvv re Trapd rS ^apjSdpM roaovro 
'' Svva/jbeda, coare eTT rjfuv iaTt, Trj<; yrj^; re iareprjodat, 
*' Kol Trpo? rjvZpaTrohicrOai Vfi6a<;' rjjjbel^ jjuevronb irdv 
*' e^^oz^re? ov fjuvrjo-tKa/ciofieVy aXX' i^filv yeveadco dvT 

lo " avT&v irevrriKOVTa raXavra dpyvpiov, koI v/xcv vito- 
" hsKOfjieOa rd einovTa eirl rrjv '^(hprjv dirorpi'^eLV.'* 

The Phocians refuse. 

XXX. Tavrd acpi eTn^yyeWovro ol SecraaXoL 
ol ydp ^(OKe€(; [xovvol tSv TavTy dvOpooircov ovk 
efir/So^ov, Kar dWo fiev ovSev, 0)9 67C0 av/jL^aXko- 

15 fievo<; evpiafcco, Kara Se to €'^0o<; to SecraaXoov el 
Be SeacrdXol ra '^Wrjvcov av^ov, 0)9 e/jiol Bo/ceetv, 
ijirjBi^ov dv ol ^(OKee<;. TavTa eTrayyeWofjuevcov 
%eaaaXwv ovTe Bwcretv ecf^aaav '^prj/jLara 7rape')(eLV 
T6 a-^lac %eaaa\oL(TL 6fjLOLco<i fjbrjBi^eiv, el dWco^; /Sov- 

70 kolaTO' dW OVK eaeaOat eKome^; elvai irpoBorac t^9 

The Thessalians therefore guide the Persians into Phocis. 
The inhabitajits retreat, some to Parnassus, others to 
the country of the Ozolian Locrians. The Persians 
lay waste Locris with fire and sword. 

XXXI. ^Y/rreiBr} Be dv'r]veiyQ7)(Tav ovtol ol Xoyot, 
ovTO) By ol @eaad\ol Ke^oXcofjievoc Tolac '^coKevai 


iyevovTo yyefiove^ tm fiapfBapo) t^9 oBov. eK fiev hrj 
Trj<; Tprjx^VLTjf; eV ttjv AcoptSa iae^aXov. rrji; yap 
Aft)jOtSo9 %w/3^? TToSecov (7Teivo<; ravry Karareivei, 0)9 
TpcrjKOVTa arahiwv /jboXiara Ky €vpo<;, Keijxevo^ //,€- 
ra^i) Tr)<; re M7]XiSo<; koI Trj<; ^(oklSo<; %w/3^9, V irep 5 
rjv TO iraXaiOV ApvoTvir r) Be X^PV ^^'^^ ^^'^^^ fir)Tp6- 
TToXif; Acopiecov roov iv TieKoirovviqacp. ravrrjv oov 
Trjv AcopiBa yrjv ovk ealvavTO ea^aXovre^ 00 /3ap- 
^apoc ifirjBL^ov re yap Kol ovk iBoKee ^eacroKolcTi. 
XXXII. 'II9 Be e/c T779 AcoplBo^ €9 rrjv ^coKuBa 10 
eae/SaXov, avrovf; fiev tov<; <l>a)/cea9 ov/c alpeovarc. oi 
fiev yap tcov ^co/cecov 69 Ta aKpa rod TlapvTjcrov 
dve/Srjaav {earv Be /cal eTriTTjBer} Be^aaOac OfJuiXov 
Tov Tlapprjaov rj KOpv^rj, Kara ^ecova iroXtv KetjievT] 
iir ecovTtjf;, Tcdopia ovvofxa avrfj, 69 Trjv Brj dvrjvei- 15 
KavTO Kal avTol avej^rjaav), ol Be 7r\evpe<; avTwv 69 
Toi)9 'OfoA-a9 AoKpoix; i^e/cofMLcravro, €9 "Afjicfuaaav 
ttoXlv rrjv virep tov K.piaaLOv ireBiov olKeojjbevrjv. ol 
Be ^dpPapOL TTjV ^J^PV^ irdcrav eireBpajJiov Trjv ^coKiBa' 
^eaaaXol yap ovtco yyov tov (TTpaTOV oKoaa Be 20 
eireaxpv, irdvTa eTre^Xeyov Kal eKeopov, Kal 69 Ta9 
7r6Xt9 evtevTe^ nrvp Kal e<; tcl ipd. XXXIII. Uo- 
pevofievoL yap TavTrj irapd tov }^7j(j)La6v iroTajjiov 
eBrjtovv irdvTa, Kal Kara fiev eKavaav Apvfiov iroXcv, 
KaTCL Be ^apdBp7]v Kal "^pco^ov Kal TeOpcovcov Kal 25 
^AfKpiKacav Kal ^ecova Kal n6Stea9 Kal TpcTea^ Kal 
^^XoLTetav Kal 'TdfiTroXcv Kal YlapairoTapbiovf; Kal 
*'A/Sa9, evda rjv Ipbv ^AttoXXcovo^ irXovaiov, Orjaav- 
polai Te Kal avaOrifiacn iroXXotaL KaTecrKevaajMevov 
rjv Be Kal TOTe Kal vvv iaTl XPV^'^VP^^^ avToOc 30 
Kal TOVTO TO Ipov av\rjaavTe<^ eveirprjaav. Kai TLva<i 

H. VIII. 2 


BccoKovT6(; etXov ro^v ^coKecov tt/jo? toictc ovpeat, koI 
<yvualKd<; Tiva<; St6<j>Secpav. 

The Persian army arrives at Panopeis ott the frontier of 
Boeotia. There it divided into two columns; the 
stronger of the two with Xerxes himself advanced 
info Boeotia ; the other took guides and wound round 
Parnassus with the vieiu of attacking the temple of 
Delphi^ wasting the country as they went. 

XXXIV. HapaTTOTa/jLLov^ Be Trapafiec/So/jievoL ol 
^dp/Bapoc diriKovTo €9 Tiavonrea'^. ivOevrep Be rjBr] 

5 BiaKpLvofjbevri rj crrpaTLrj avroov i(j')(^l^eTo. to fiev 
irKelaTov koI Bwarcorarov rod arparov d/jua avrS 
'Biep^rj iropevofievov iir ^A6r)va^ eae(3aXe e? Botcoroi)?, 
€9 fyrjv rrjv ^Op'^ofjuevLcov. ^oiwrodv Be ttolv to 7r\rjOo<; 
i/jLrjBc^e, Ta9 Be 7r6\t9 avTcov dvBpe<; M.aKeB6ve<; BiaTe- 

to Tayfievoi eaco^ov, vtto AXe^dvBpov d'7roiTefJi^6evTe<;. 
eaco^ov Be TjjBe, fiovXofievoL BtjXov Troceetv 'Bep^jj, otl 
TCi M^Scwz^ BoiWTol (jypoveotev. Outoc jaev Br) tmv 
^ap^dpcov TavTT} erpdirovTO. XXXV. dXKoi Be 
avToov rj^efjbova'^ e^ovTe^; cop/jieaTO iirl to Ipov to ev 

15 Ae\<f>ol<Tty ev Be^ty top JJapvrjcrov d7repyovTe<;. oaa 
Be KoX ovToi e'Trea')(ov t^9 ^coklBo<;, iravTa ecrova/jbco' 
peov KoX yap Tcov Uavoirecop ttjv ttoXlv eveirpTjaav 
Kol AavXlcov Kol AloXiBecov. eiropevovTO Be TavTrj 
diroa'x^LcrdevTe'i Trj<; dXX7)<; o-TpaTtrj<; ToopBe etveKev, 

20 0K0)<; (TvXr]aavTe(; to Ipov to ev AeX^olcn /SaatXe'C 
Btip^r] diroBe^aiev Ta '^prjfMaTa. TrdvTa K rjirlcTTaTO 
rd ev tS IpS oaa Xoyov rjv d^ia Btip^rj^;, 0)9 eyco 
TrvvOdvofiaL, dfieLVOV rj Ta ev Tolai olKioLai eXcTre, 
TToXXcov alel XeyovTcov, fcal fjudXiaTa Ta KpoLO-QV tov 

25 ^AXvaTTeco dvaOrj/JiaTa. 


The God will protect his own. The Delphians send their 
women and children across to Achaia. 

XXXVI. Ot Se AeXcfiol TrvvOavofjuevot ravra e? 
iracrav dppcoSirjv diriKaro, ev Bel/jbart, 8e fjueyaXo) 
KarearewTe^ ifiavrevovro irepl tcov Ipwv '^^^prj/judrcov, 
€LT€ a(j)ea Kara 7779 fcaropv^coac elVe eKfCOfiLacoaL e? 
dWrjv "^(eprjv. 6 Se Oeo^ (T<f>ea^ ovk ea Ktveecv, ^a9 5 
avTOf; iKav6(; elvai tcov ecovrov irpoKarrjcrOaL AeXcfyol 
Be ravra aKovaavre^; crcfiecov avrSv Tripe icppovn^ov. 
reKva fiev vvv Kal 'yvvalica^; ireprjv e9 rriv ^K')(adr]v 
BieTrefjLyjrav, avrwv he 01 jxev ifkelcrroi dve/Sijcrav €9 
rod IIapvr]<Tov rd<; Kopv(j)d<; Kal €9 to JLcopvKCov 10 
dvrpov dvrjve'iKavro, ol Be €9 "A/x^cacrav rrjv AoKpiBa 
V7re^7]\dov. 7rdvre<; Be wv ol AeX^ot e^eKirrov rrjV 
rroXiv rfkrjv e^rjKovra dvBpccv Kal rod nrpoc^rjreco. 

The miraculous preservation of Delphi. The barbarians 
retreat towards Boeotia. 

XXXVII. 'Evret Be dy^ov re rjaav ol ^dpjSapoi 
e7rc6vre<; Kal dircopeov ro Ipbv, ev rovrw 6 'irpo(jyi]r7j<^, 15 
Tft) ovvojia r)v ^A^Kiqparo^, opa rrpb rod vrjov oirka 
TrpoKei/jieva eacoOev eK rod /leydpov e^evrjvety/jLeva 
Ipd, rodv OVK oaiov rjv aTrreadaL avdpcoTrcov ovBevl, 

ixev Brj Tjie Ae\(f)oov rolcri irapeodcn aTjfiavecov rb 
repa<;, ol Be /3dp^apoi eVetS?} eylvovro eiretyoixevoi 20 
Kara ro ipov rijf; Tipov7]tr]<^ ^A.0rjvai7]<;, einyiverai 
cr<^t repea en /jie^ova rod irplv yevojievov repeo<;. 
Bcovfia jxev yap Kal rodro Kapra earl, oirXa dprj'ia 
avrofxara (pavrjvac e^co irpOKei^eva rod vrjov' rd Be 
Brj eirl rovro) Bevrepa eTrtyevo/iieva Kal Bid irdvrwv 25 
^aafiartov d^ca Ooovfjudcrai. fidXiara. eirel ydp B^) 

2 — 2 


^aav eVtoz/re? ol ^dpf^apoL Kara to Ipov t^9 Tlpo- 
vr}L7]<; AOyvaiTjf;, ev rovrcp i/c fiev rod ovpavov k€- 
pavvol avTolcTi eveTTLirTov^ airo he rov Tiapyrjcrov 
airoppayeicral 8vo Kopvcj^al €<pepovTO ttoWw Trarayo) 

2 e? avTOv<^ Kol KareXa/Sov crv^vov*; ^(pecov, i/c Be rov 
ipov Trj<i TIpov7]C7]<; fioy to kol dXaXay/jbd^; iylveTO. 
XXXVIII. Xvfi/jit<yevTO)v Se tovtcov ttclvtcov (l>6f3o(; 
Tolac ^ap/SdpoiaL iveTreiTTco/cee. fia96vT€<; Se ol 
AeXipol (f)ei"yovTd<; crc^ea?, iiriKaTa/BavTe^; aireiCTeivav 

lo ir\rj66<i Ti avTcov. ol Se irepteovTe^ lOv Botwrcwz/ 
€(f)6V'yov. eXeyov he ol dirovoaTr^aavTe^ ovtol twv 
jSap/Sapcov, C09 iyoo irvvOdvopbai^ (W9 7rpo9 TOVTOtai 
Kol dWa oopeov Oeta' hvo yap 07rXtTa9 fie^ova<; rj 
Kara avOpwrrcov (jyvcnv e'^ovTa<^ eTreaOal (T<pL KTev- 

15 vovTa^ Kol Sta)fcovTa<i. XXXIX. Toutol'9 he Tov<i 
hvo AeXcpol Xeyovcn elvai eTn^copiov^ rip(jL>a<^, ^v\a- 
fcov T€ KoX KvTovoov^ Twv Ta Te/jbived ecFTL irepl to 
Ipov, ^vXdKov fiev nrap avTrjv ttjv ohbv KaTvirepOe 
Tov Ipov Trj<; IIpov7]L7]<;, AvTOVOov he rreXa^; Trj<; 

20 ^cLaraXir}^ vtto ttj 'TafiTreiy Kopv(f)f}. ol he 7recrovTe<; 
diTo TOV YiapV7](T0v XiOoL eTL Kol 69 rjjJbea'^ ycrav acoot, 
iv tS Te/juevei Trj<; Upovrjiij^; ^Adrjvalrj^; Ket/jievoL, €9 to 
iveafCTjyfrav hid twv ^ap/Sdpcov ^epofxevoL Tovtcov 
fiev vvv Twv dvhpoov avTT) diro tov Ipov diraXXayrj 

25 yiverac. 

Alcanwhile the Greek fleet arrive at Salaniis^ where on the 
entreaty of the Athenians they anchor, 

\ XL.; 'O he ^^XXr]vo)v vavTLfc6<; aTparo^; airo tov 
^ApTe/jbiaiov ^ AOr^vaioiv herjOivTcov 69 SaXa/nlva Ka- 
TLCT'^eL Ta9 vea<;. rSvhe he eiveKev TrpoaeherjOrjaav 


avTcov (T')(etv irpb^; XdXa/jLtva ^ AOtjvolol, Xva avrol 
TralSa^ re kol <yvvai/ca<; vire^aydycovrai, gk ttj^ 'At-^- -^ 
TLKrj<;, TTpof; Be koI fiovXevcrcovTai, to TroirjTeov avToiat, 
earac. iirl yap rolai KaTr]KOV(TL irprjyfiaai, ^ovKrjv 
e/jueWov TrotrjcrecrOai cJ? i'yjrevcrfjiivot yvcofjUT]^. ^^^^' ^t.iXL^ 
ovTe<; yap €vpr)aetv TLekoTrovvrjcrtovi iravBrjiiel ev rfj 
^oLcoTLr) v7roKaT7]/jievov<; tov fiap^apov twv fiev evpov 
ovoev eov, oi be eirvvoavovro tov iaufjuov avTOv<; 
T€c^eovTa(;, ttjv TieXoTrovvrjaov irepX irXeiaTov re 
TTOcevfiivov^; irepielvau Kal tuvttjv €'^ovTa<; ev (jyvXaKfj, lo 
Ta Be aXXa ainevat. TavTa irvvdavoixevoL ovtcd Br] 
irpoaeBer)6r]aav a(j)ecov cr')(^elv 7r/909 Trjv XaXa/jilva. 

The Athenian ships are employed in conveying their families 
to Troezen, Acgiiia a?td Sala?Jiis. The disappearafice 
of the sacred serpent. 

XLI. Ot p^ev Br) dWoL KaTea'^ov €9 T7]v Xa\a- 
jjuva, ^AdrjvaloL Be e? ttjv ecovTcov. fieTa Be ttjv 
diri^LV Kr]pvyiJLa eiroirjaavTO, ^AOrjvaicov TJj tl'^ Bvva- 15 
Tab croo^etv Ta TCKva re kuI toik; olKera<;. eiOavTa 
at fiev TrXetcTTOL e? Tpoi^rjva aTreaTeoXav, ol Be e? 
Atyivav, ol Be e? ^aXajxlva. eairevaav Be ravTa 
vTreKOeaOat tw '^pTjaTTjplq) re ^ovko/juevoL vTrrjpeTeecv 
Kal Bt} Kal TovBe e'lveKev ovk TjKiaTa' \eyovai ^A6rj- 20 
vaioi 6(f)LV fieyav (f)v\aKov T179 aKpo7r6\io<i evBtac- 
TaaOai ev tc5 Ipw. Xeyoval, re TavTa Kal Brj Kal w? 
eovTL eirijjbrjVLa eiriTeXeovcn TrpoTi6evTe<^' to, S' evrt- 
fiTjvia /jLe\tToea<Ta eVrt. avTij 8* 77 /leXLToeaaa ev tc5 
irpoaOe alel '^p6v(p avaLcrtfiovfievr} TOTe tjv cv^^avaTo^;. 25 
ar)p,r}vda7)(; Be TavTa Trjf; ipeir)({ fidWov tl ol ^A6r)- 
valoo Kal TrpoOvfMOTepou e^eXcTTOv ttjv ttqXlv 009 Kal 



T^9 6€0V d7ro\€\oL7rvir)<; Trjv aKpoiroXiv. co<; Be (7(j)i 
iravra vire^eKeerOj cttXcoov e? to arparoTreSov. 

The Greek fleet at Salamis reinforced by contingents which 
had mustered at Troezen. 

XLI I. 'Evrel 8e ol, air *ApT€/jbi(rLov €9 %a\a- 

fuva KaricT'^ov Ta<; via<;, crvveppee koX 6 Xoi,7r6<; irvv- 

5 Oavofjbevo^ 6 twv ^^iKXrjvcov vavTiKO<; crTpaTo<; iic 
TpoL^rjvo^:' 69 f/ap Tlcoycova rov Tpot^rjvicov \i^eva 
irpoeiprjTO crvWeyeadai. avveKeyOrjaav re Brj iroWS 
'jr\€vv€<; 1/669 rj iir ^Apre/jLCo-LW ivavfid'^eov, koX airo 
TrdXiwv Trkevpcov. vavap'^o<; fiiv vvv eTTTJv (ovro^; 09 
10 Trep eir ^Apre/Jbiaifi), ^vpv^cdBrjf; ^vpvfcXeiBeo) avrjp 
y,^^'i^^.^v ^TrapTC^TTjf;, ov jxevroL yeveo^ 76 rov ^acnXrjtov icov. 
vea<; Be itoWm 7r\e [ara^i re /cat dpicrra TrXcoovaa^i 
irapei'^ovTO ^AOrjvaloi,. 

The numbers of the ships contributed by each State. 

XLI 1 1. ^FiCTTparevovTO Be oiBe' i/c /lev IleXo- 
15 TTOvvrjaov AaKeBat/iovtoc eKKaiBe/ca vea^ 'jrape'^ofievoi, 
ILopLvOtoL Be TO avTO ifKrjpcDpba irape'^ofxevoi to kol 
eir ^ApTe/jLiaio), ^ckvcovcol Be TrevTeKaiBeKa irapei- 
'^ovTO vea^, ^YiTTtBavptoi Be BeKa, TpoL^rjviOL Be Trevre, 
'^pfiLOvee^ Be TpeU, e6vTe<; ovtol ifKrjv 'EtpfiLovecov 
20 AcopLKov T€ Kol yiaKeBvov e6po<;, i^ ^EtpLveov re koI 
UlvBov KOL T7J<; Apvo7rLBo<; vaTaTa 6pfji7j6ivTe<;. ol 
Be *^p/jLL0vee^ elal Apvo'7re<;, virb ^Hpa/cXeo^; Te /cat 
yLrjXcecov etc T779 vvv AcoplBo^ KaXeofievyf; x^PV^ 


[ IV/iy the Plataeans were absent. The names borne by 
the Athenians at different epochs^ 

XLIV. OvToi jxkv vvv TleXoiTovvTjaLcov earpa- 
T6VOVTO, ol Se eK TTJ<i e^cD rjireLpov, ^ A.6r)valoL jiev 7rp6<i 
iravTa^ tov<; aXXov<; irape-^ofievoL vea<^ oySooKovra koI 
CKarov, fiovvor iv XaXa/jblvc yap ov avvevav/jud'^Tjaav 
nXaratee? 'Adrjvaiotac Sod rocovBe n TrpTJyfjba' diraX- 5 
\aaao/j.6va)v rwv 'K\\r)V(ov diro rov 'ApTefiLaLOV, oj? 
iyivovro Kara XaX/ctSa, ol nXaratee? dbTro^avTe^ 69 
TTjV 7repa(,7]v t^9 ^olcotltj^; '^(op7]<; 7r/309 eKKopbihrfV 
erpdirovTO roiv ocKeTecov. ovroc puev vvv rovTovi 
ao)^ovT€<; iX€L(f)67](Tav, ^Adyvatot Be iirl fiev YieXao-- 10 
ywv i'^ovTcov rrjv vvv EXXaSa tcdXeofievrjv r]<jav 
Ylekaayol, ovvofia^ofievoc Yipavaol, eVl he J^eKpoiro^; 
/3a(7LXeo<; eTreKXrjdTjaav K^eKpOTTiSat, eKhe^afxevov Be 
'E/)e;)^^eo9 TTfv dp')(rjv 'AOrjvatoi, /xerovvo/jbdadTiaav, m 
"1 0)1^09 Be rov 'B,ov6ov arpardp'^eco yevgfjfvoyjE^^^^^ 
valoiat eKXrjOrjaav ^'^^/?^t/'^y^/^^^^ CJ^* 

The contributions of The various States continued. 

XLV. yieyapee<^ Be toJuto ifKrjpwiJLa iTapei')(0VT0 
KoX eiT ^Aprefico-Lw, ^ AfxirpaKiodTai Be eirrd vea<; 
e-^ovTefy eTTe/SooOrjcrav, AevKdBtot Be Tpet9, eOvo<i 
eovre^; ovrot AcopcKov diro K^oplvOov. XLVI. ^rjcrc- 20 
(orecov Be AlycvTJrat rpcrjKovra Trapeu-^^^ovro. rjaav fxev 
a(f)C Kol dXkat ireTrkrjpa) puevai vee<i, dWa ttjctl /lev 
rrjv ecovTOJV icf^vXaaaov, Tpu^Kovra Be rrjcrc dpcara 
irXwovarjCTL iv XaXa/jbivt evavjid'^rjaav. AlyLVTJrat Be 
eldt Acoptee<; diro ^KTrcBavpov rfj Be vrjao) irporepov 25 
ovvofjLa rjv OIvcovtj. fierd Be AlyiVjqTa^ ^oKKiBee^ 
Ta9 eir ^Apre/jLcala) ecKoac irape-^opievoL kol ^EpeTpiee<i 


Ta9 eirra* ovrot be icov€<; eiat. fjuera be Ketot ra 
avra(i Trapej^pixevou, e6vo<^ eov ^Ichvlkov airb ^KOrjvecov. 
ISia^coL Se irapeu^ovTO reaaepa^;, airoirefK^Oevref; fjuev 
€9 Tov<; M.r)Bov(i VTTO Toov TToXirjTecov, Kara irep wKXoi 

5 vrjcTLooTaL, aXo<yr]cravT€<i Se rwv ivroXicov airiKaTO e? 
TOL'9 "Kk\'r)va<; /^rj/jLo/cpiTov aTrev a avTo<;, dvBp6<i rcuv 
darcov hoKifjiov koX Tore Tpi7]pap'^eovTO<;' Na^tot Se 
eZcrt "Ift)z^69 d,7r ^A67]V6cov yeyovoref;. Xrvpee^; 8e Ta9 
avrdf; Trapeu^ovro vea^ rd^ /cal eir ^Apreficcricp, KvO- 

lo vcoc Be fjLiav fcal irevrrjicovTepov, iovre^ crvva/jicf)6T6poL 
ovTOL Apvoire^;. koX ^epi<pco[ re koX ^i<^viOL koI 
M?;Xtot iarpareuovTO' ovroi yap ovk eSoaav jjlovvol 
vrjo-ccorecov tS fiap^dpfp yrjv re kol vBcop. XLVII. 
OvTOi fiev diravref; ivTO<i olK7]fjLevoL SeairpcoToov koI 

15 ^ A'^ipovTOf; TTora/jLov iaTparevovro' ^eairpayTol jap 
eicrc ol 6/jbovpeovTe<^ ^A/jLirpa/ctriTrjat Kal AevKaSioiat, 
ot e^ icryarifov j^copecDV iarparevovro. rcov Be e«;T09 
TOVTcov olK7]fjbevcdv J^pOTCovLrjrat /jlovvol rjcrav, ol ifico- 
Orjaav rfj ^^WdBt KivBvvevovar) vrj't fiiy, t^9 VPX^ 

20 dvTjp Tpl<i 7rv6ioviK7]<; <^dvWo<;' K.poTcovLrJTat Be yevof; 
elo-VA'x^atoL XLVIII. Ol fjuev vvv aXkoi Tpi7jpea<; 
Trapeyofxevoi earparevovTO, M^Xtot Be Kal ^[(fyvLoo 
Kal Xepi(ptoL 7revT7jKovrepov(i. M.ijXioc fiev yevo<; eov- 
T69 dirb AaKeBai/Jbovo<; Bvo irapeiy^ovro, ^i<f>viOL Be Kal 

25 %epi(f>coo "It»z^e9 eovre^ dir 'AOrjvecov fiiav eKarepoL. 
dpL6pbd<^ Be eyevero 6 ird^ rcov vewv, irdpe^ tcov Trev- 
TijKOvrepcov, rpcTjKoo-tao Kal e^Bo/jLTjKovra Kal 6/ct(6. 
A council of war. The captains of the Peloponnesian ships 
wish to retire Clearer the Isthmus. 
XLIX. 'II9 Be 69 TTjv 'ZaXa/Mva avvrfkOov ol 
arparrjyol diro tmv elpr]/JLev(ov ttoXlcov, i^ovXevovTo 


•v^'' 7rpod€VTo<; FiVpv/ScaSeco yvcofir/v airo^aiveo-Oat rov 
s**^ jSovXofievov, oKov hoKeoi eiriTrjheoTarov elvai vavfia- 
Xi'r]V TToteeaOac tojv avTol ')(copewv iyKparee^; elo-u' 
rj yap ^Attlktj direcTo rjSr}, rSv Be XocTrecov irepL 
irpoerlOee. at yvw\xai Se rwv Xeyovrcov al irXeccrTaL 5 
avve^eTriirrov 7rp6<; rov 'laOfMov 7rXoo(TavTa<; vav/jba- , 
^eetz^ TTpo TTJf; HeXoTTOvv^aov, iirCkeyovTe^; rov \6yov 
TovBe, ft)9 'f)v viKrjOecDcn rfj vavjia'^ir}, ev ^akafjblvL 
fiev i6vT€<; TrokcopKrjaovrat ev vr](T(p, Xva cr(f)t rcficopirj 
ovSe/jLia e7rc(f)avrjaeTaL, tt/qo? Be Ta> 'laOfiS e? rovf^ 10 
ecovTcov e^oicrovTai. m^-^^ ^^y^^-v^"^^*^^ iti^n 

During the cojmcil news comes that Xerxes is in Attica 
wasting the lajid with fire and sword. 

L. TaOra twv diro Tle\o7rovv7}(rov arparrjywv 
iTTtXeyo/JLevcov ekrfkvdee dvrjp ^ KOrjvalo^ ayyeXkayv 
r\Keiv TOP jSapjSapov e? rrjv ^Attlktjv koI irdaav 
avrrjv irvpTroXeeaOat. 6 yap Bid BotwrcSz^ Tpairo- 15 
fievo<; arparo*; a/ma 'Btep^y, efMirprjaa^; SeaTTcecov rrjv 
ttoXlv avTwv eK\e\oc7r6Tcov e? HeXoTrovprjaov Kal 
rr)v YVkaraieaiv (LaavT(o<;, rj/ce re 69 ta? ^AOyva^; Kal 
irdvra eKelva iBrjfou. epeirprjae Be ^ecTTreidv re Kal 
TJXdracav irvOoiievo'^ ^rj^aicov, ore ovk efiijBt^ov. 20 

The occupation of Athens., — an empty city except for the 
treasurers of the te77iples and a feii) poor citizens. 

LI. 'Atto Be rrjf; Bta^acriof; rov '^WrjaTrovrov, 
evOev iTOpeveaOai rjp^avTo ol j^dppapoL, eva avrov 
BcarpLyjravTef; jirjva, ev tc5 Bte^atvov e? rrjv Kvpcoirrjv, 
ev rpial erepoiai firjal eyevovTO ev rfi ^Attckt}, KaX- 
XidBeoi) apy(ovTO<^ A6r]vaioiaL. Kal aipeovai eprjfiov 21; 
TO darrv, Kal Ttva<=; okiyov^ evplaKovcn twv ^AOiivaiwv 


ev Tw IpS iovra^;, rafiia^i re rod Ipov Kal TrevrjTa^; 
dvOp(£>irov^, ot (ppa^dfievot Trjv dfcpOTroXcv Qvprjai re 
KoX ^vXoLcrc TjfjLVvovTO Tov<; eiTLovTa^iy a/jba fiev vir 
d(T6ev€ir]<^ j3iov ovk eK'^copTjaavTe'; 69 XaXafuva, 7rp6^ 
5 Be avTol SoK60VTe<; e^evprjKevai to /jiavTyiov, to rj 
HvOlt] a<^i> €')(^pria6, to ^vXivov Tet'^o<; dvdXcoTov ecre- 
aOai, KoX avTo Sr) tovto elvai to Kp7)a(j)vyeTov naTa 
TO ixavTrjloVy Kol ov ra? vea<i. 

The siege of the Acropolis. 

LI I. Ot 3e Uepcrai, l^ofievoi ettI tov KaravTiov 

lo T>;9 d/<:p07r6\co<; oyOoVf tov ^Kdrjvaloi KcCKeovat ^A^prj- 

lov Trd'yov. eTroXiopKeov Tpoirov TOtovBe' ok(d<; gtv- 

welov irepX tov<; 61(jtov<^ TrepiOevTe^; d'yjretav, eTo^evov 

€9 TO (ppdyfia. ivdavTa ^AOrjvatcov ol irdXiopKeo- 

JJL6V0L ojjLox; ^[jbvvovTO, Kaiirep €9 to ea'^aTov kukov 

15 dTTiyfjuevoo kol tov (f)pay/jiaTO<; TrpoBeBcoKOTO^;. ovBk 

\6yov<^ TCDV UeoaLCTTpaTcBewv TrpoaipepovTcov irepX 

6fio\o'yL7j<; iveBi/covTO, djivvopLevob Be dWa re dvTe- 

fjbij'^aveovTO kol Brj koI irpoaiovTCOv tcop fiap/Sdpcov 

7rpo9 Ta9 irvXa^ 6\oiTp6')(^ov(; dmeaav codTe '^ip^rju 

20 eTrl '^povov av^vov aTTopirjac evk'^eaQai ov Bwdfievov 

(T(f>ea<; ekelv. 

The Acropolis is stormed, the tei7iples pillaged and burnt, 
and a triumphant message despatched to Siisa. 

LI 1 1. l^pOVCp 3' ifC TWV dTTOpCOV i(j)dv7) By Tt9 

eaoBo<; Tolai fiap^dpoLar eBee yap KaTa to deoirpo- 
TTLOV irdaav ttjv ^Attlktjv ttjv eV Ty yirelpa) yeveaOai 
25 viro TieparjaL efiirpoaOe wv irpo Trj<; dxpOTToXiOf;, 
oirio-Qe Be toov irvXecov koX Trj<i dvoBov, Trj Brj ovtc Tt9 
i<j)v\ao-cre out dv r)\iTi<je pjr) KOTe tl^ KaTa TavTa 


ava^alr) avdpcoTreov, ravrr} dve^rjo-dv Tive^ Kara to 
Ipov Trj<; Ke/cpoTTO? 6v<yarpd<; ^AyXavpov, KairoL irep 
aTTOKp'^fivov iovTO^ Tov 'ywpov. (W9 §e elhov avrov^ 
dvafie/SrjKora^; ol ^A6r]valot iirl rrjv aKpoirdXtv, ol 
fi6V ippiTTTeov ecovTov^ Kara tov rei'^eo^; fcdrco koL 5 
BL€<f)0eipopTO, ol Be €9 TO /jLeyapov Kare^evyov. rodv 
Se Yiepaewv ol dvajSe^yKore^; irpwrov fiev irpdirovro 
Trpo? Td<; TTuXa?, ravTa^ Be avoi^avre^ tov^ iKera^ 
e(f)6v6vov' eVel Bi a<^L irdvre^ KarearpcovTO, to Ipov 
(jv\r)(TavTe^ eveirp'qaav irdcrav ttjv d/cpoTroXtv. LIV. 10 
^X^^ ^^ Trai^TeXectf? Ta^; *K6rjva<i Hep^i^f; dTriire/jb'yJre 
£9 ^ovaa dyyekov linrea ^ApTa^dvo) dyyeXeovTa rrjv 
irapeovadv a(^L evirpTj^lijv. 

The sacred olive shoots out afresh after its burning. 

'Atio Be. Trj^ irepby^LO^ tov KypvKO^; BevTepy rjixepr] 
(TvyKokeo-a^; ^ AdrjvaUov tov<; ^vydBa^, ewvTw Be ctto- 15 
fievovs, iKeXeve TpoTvcp tS a(peTepcp Ovaai Ta Ipd 
dva^dvTa^ 69 T'r]v dKpoiroXcv, etre Brj (hv 6'>^iv TLvd 
lB(ov ivvTTVLOV eveTeXXeTO raOra, etre kol evOvjJbiov ol 
eyeveTO ipbirprjaavTU to Ipov. ol Be (f)v<ydBe<; tcov 
^AOrjvalcov eiroirjo-av Ta evTeTaXpueva. LV. ToO Be 20 
eiveKev tovtwv eTre/jLvrjcrOi^v, cfypdao). eaTC ev Trj dKpo- 
iroXi TavTT) E/D6^^eo9 tov yrjyeveo'; Xeyofievov elvat, 
vr}0<;, ev tco iXaur) re kol OdXaaaa evi, ra X0709 wap* 
^ AOrjvaiwv YioaeiBewva re koX ^ AOrjvalrjv eplaavTaf; 
rrepX T179 ^^PV'^ p^apTvpca deaOai. TavTrjv cov ttjv 25 
eXalrjv d/jia tw aXX(p IpS KaTeXa^e ifXTrprjaOrjvaL 
VTTO T(ov ^ap^dpcov BevTepT) Be rifxeprj dirb Trj^ 
€fjL7rpr}(Tio<; Adrjvalcov ol Oveiv vtto paatXeof; KeXevo- 
fievot co9 dveffrjaav €9 to ipov, oopeov pXaaTov eV tov 


<rTeXe;^eo9 ocrov re Trrj'^vaiov dvaSeSpa/irj/cora. Ovtol 
fiep vvv ravra ecppaaav. 

The 7iews of the fall of the Acropolis caused S7ich tej'ror in 
the fleet at Salajiiis that many of the captains hurried 
to their ships to set sail ; a7id the council determine on 
the movement towards the Isthmus. 

LVI. Ot he iv %dkafj^lvi ^^KWijve^;, w? (T(J)l 
i^ijyjekOri, w? ea-^^^e rd irepl rrjv 'Adrjpiayv aKpoirdXiv 

5 €9 ToaovTov dopvjSov diTiKovTOj ware eviot toov crTpa- 
T7)ya)v ovSe KVpwOrjvai, kfievov to irpoKeiidevov Trprjyfia, 
aXX' 69 re Td<; vea<; eaeimrTov koI laTia rjeipovTO UvU 
d)<^ diroOevaoiJievoL. rota I re UTroXetTrofievoccTL avTWv 
iKVpcoOr] Trpo rod ^laOfiov vavfjua^eeiv. vv^ re iyl- 

lo V6T0, Kol ol hioXvdevTe'i eK rod avvehplov iaefSaivov 
€9 Ta9 vea<^. 

Themistocles is persuaded to make another attempt to induce 
the Greeks to stay at Salamis. 

LVI I. ^^vOavra Srj SefjUcrroKXea diriKofJuevov 
eTTi rrjv vea elpero M.vr]o-i(f>L\o(; avrjp A6r)vato<i, o ri 
cr<f)L elr) ^e^ovXevfjievov. irvOoixevo^ he irp6<; avTov, 

15 e»9 etr) SeSoyfievov dvdyetv Ta9 vea<^ irpb'^ top \a6fiov 
KoX TTpo T^?? T[e\oiTovvr}orovvaviia')(^eeiv, elire' "Ov rot 
"dpa, rjv diraeLpwcTi Ta9 vea^ aTTO ^aXa/nlvo^, irepl ov- 
"hepbLTj^; en irarpiSo^ vau/jua'^^^rjaei^. Kara yap 7roXt9 
" e/caaroL rpe'^ovTat, fcal ovre a(^ea<^ ^vpv/StdBij^; Kare- 

20 " vetz^ hwrjcreraL ovre Tt9 dvOpcoTrcov dXXo^ ware firj 
'' ov Bcao-KeSaaOrjvai rrjv arparir^v, diroXeerai re r) 
"'EXXrt? d^ovXlycTi. dXX ec Tfc9 earc firj^civr}, Wt, Koi 
" ireipoc) Staxeat rd ^e/SovXev/bieva, rjv kw^ hvvr) dva- 
" yvcoaat F^vpv^Lahea fjiera^ovXevaaaOai wcrre avrov 


^' fieveeivy LVIII. J^dpra 8r} rS ©e/jUicrTOKXei rjpeae 
rj v7To6f']/cr), KoX ouSev tt/oo? ravra d[Jiei'^aiievo<; rjie 
eVt T^v vea rrjv ^upv/SLaSeco. ainKOfxevof; Be €<p7] 
iOeXeov ol kolvov tl Trprjiyfjua o-vfifiL^ai. 6 8' avTOV €? 
TTjv vea eKekeve ia/Savra Xijeiv, ec to eOeXoi. ev- 5 
Oavra 6 Se/jbLcrroKXer)^ TrapL^o/jbeuof; ol KaraXeyeL 
ifcelvd re irdvTa, rci rjKovae ^IvrjcncplXov, ecovrov 
7rotevfjLevo<^, koI dXXa TroXXd 7rpoaTi6u<;, e? b dve- 
yvcoae '^pyt^cov e/c re t^9 z^eo? eKJBrjvau avXXe^at re 
TOv<; aTpa77]yoi)<^ e? to avvehpiov. 10 

The council reassembled. A sharp debate. 

LIX. 'II? Se dpa (TvvekeyQ7]Gav, irpiv rj rev 
\Lvpvl3id8ea TrpoBelvai tov Xoyov toov eiveKev avvr}- 
yaye tov<; <TTpaT7]yov<;, 7roXXd<^ rjv 6 (^^e/jUicrroKXerjf; ev 
Tolai Xbyoiai ola Kapra Se6/jLevo<^. Xejovrof; Se avrov 
6 l^opivOio^ arpaTTjyo'i 'ASet/xo-z/TO? £Ikvtov eiTre' 15 
"'n Se/jLiaroKXee^y ev rolat dywo-c ol irpoe^aviard- 
" fxevoL paTTL^ovraL." 6 Be dTroXvofievo^ e(f)7]' "Ot Se ye 
" eyKaTaXeiTTO/jLevoc ov aTe(f)avevvTaL' LX. Tore 
fiev rj'jTi(M3<; 7rp6<i tov J^opuvOcov d/jLel-yjraTO, tt^oo? Be tov 
Rvpu/StdBea eXeye ifcelvcov fiev ovKeTt ovBev tq)v 20 
TTpoTepov \e')(^devT(Dv, w? eiredv diraeipdXTi diro ^aXa- 
pZvo^, BiaBprjaovTat' irapeovTwv yap t<1dv av/nfid'^cov 
ovK €06/06 ol KoapLOV ovBeva KaT7]yopeeiV' 6 Be dXXov 
Xoyov et^eTo, Xeycav TaBe. 

The speech of Thetnistocles. 

I. Cii' doi vvv eaTi acoo-at ttjv tjXXaoa,7]v epLOL 25 
" Treldrj vavfjLa')(^Lr)v avTOV p^evwv TroteeadaL, p,7)Be ttcl- 
" 66/jLevo<; TovTCOv Tolai Xeyovai dva^ev^r}<; tt/oo? tov 



" ^laOfJLoi/ ra? 1^60,9. dvTiOe^^ <yap i/carepov aKOvaa^. 
" irpo^ jxev rat 'laO/jbo) (rv/jbfidWajv iv TreXdye'i dva- 
*' ireTrrafJukvcp vav/jia')(i]o-€t,<;, to rjKio-Ta Y]yuv (TV/jL(f)op6v 
" eVrt v€a<; €')(ovo-i ^apvTepa<^ koI dptO/juov i\dao'ova<;, 
^\- 5 " TOVTO Se aTToXeef? %aXa/jLlvd re kol ^liyapa kol 
'* Alytvav, rjv irep kol rd dWa evrv')(r}awiJiev. d/jua 
" yap TO) vavTLKo) avToov €^jr6Tat koI 6 Trefo? (TTpaTO^. 
" Kai ovTco a(j>6a<i avTo<; a^ei? eirl ttjv TleXoTTovvrjcrov, 
" KLvSvv6va-ei<; T6 dirdcrr) ttj 'EXXaSi. 2. 'Hv Be Ta eyw 

10 "Xef/ft) irotrja'pf;, Toadhe iv avToZcn y^prjcTTa evprjaet^' 
" irpwTa fiev iv aTeivw avfju^dWovTe'^ vrjval oKLyyav 
" irpo^ 7roXXa9, rjv Ta oiKOTa etc tov iroXe/jiov iK^aivrj, 
" TToWov KpaT7](T0/jiev, — TO yap iv aTetvo) vavfMa')(^6€iv 
" 7rj0O9 rjfJiecDV iaTi, iv evpv')(wp[r) Be irpo^ iKelvayv, — 

15 " avTi^ he %a\a/xl<; TreptytveTai, 69 ttjv rjixlv VTreKKeerai 
" TeKva Te Kal yvvatKe<;. Kal fxrjv Kal ToSe iv avTolorc 
" eveaTC, tov Kal 7repte')(^e(T6e /ndXca-Ta' 6/jloI(o^ avTov 


^ " Te ijuevcov 7rpovavfu,a'^7]aeL^ TleXowowTjcrov Kal 7rpo9 

TO) LO-u/jLo), ovoe a<pea^, ec irep ev (ppove€L<;, a^ei^ eTri 

20 ' TTJV UeXoTTovvrjG-ov. 3' '^H^ ^^ 7^ '^^'' "^^ ^'7^ iXirl^Q) 

" yevr]Tat Kal viKT^aoy/Jiev Trjai vrjvcrl, ovTe v/jlcv 69 tov 

" ^lad/jidv irapeaovTai 01 jSdpjSapoi, ovTe Trpo/SrjcrovTai 

" eKao-repo) ^79 ^Attik7J(;, aTrlacTL Te ovBevl Koa/JbO), 

^ , " M.eydpoLaL re Kephavio/Jbev irepLeova-i Kal Klyivrj Kal 

25 z,aXafjbLvi, ev ttj tj/jliv Kai Xoycov eaTt twv e^upcov 

^ " KUTVirepOe yeveaOai. olKOTa fxev vvv jSovXevofJievoKri, 

^} " dvOpooiroLG-i 009 TO iirinrav ideXeo ylveadac, fJirj he 

" olKOTa /SovXevofjuevoLac ovk iOeXei ovhe o Oeo^ irpoa- 

" ')^a)peeiv 7rpo9 Ta9 dv6po)7r'r]ca<; yvcofxa^! 

t\jL. A-^mul 


A retort and a threat. 

KopLvOLo<; ^ AheifxavTO'^ iire^epero, ai^av re KeXevcov 
TO) fi'^ iarc TrarpU, koI J^vpv/StdSea ovk iwv iiTi'^T)- 
<j)L^€LV clttoXl dvSpl' TToXiv 'yap Tov %6fjLiaT0K\ea 
Trap 6^6 /JL6V0V ovTco eKeXeve yvoo/Jba'i avfi^dWeaOai. 5 
ravra 8e 01 irpoe<^ep6, on rfKooKeadv re Kal /carel- 
"yovTO at 'AOrjvaL t6t€ Srj 6 S€/jLiaT0KXi7j<; eKelvov ^ 

re Kal tov<; K.opiv6iov<; TroWd re Kal KaKa eXeye, 
icovTolai T6 iSr/Xov Xoyo) co? etr} Kal TToXt? Kal yrj 
fjii^cov rjTrep iKeivoKTCy ear dv BcTjKoo-iat z^ee? (T(f)t 10 
€0)(Ti ireTrXripcoiJbevaL' ovBa/jLou^ <ydp '^XXtjvcov avTov<; 
eiTLovra^ dTroKpovaeaOai. LXI I. ^ij/jiaivcov Se ravra 
rep \6y(p hie^aive 69 l^vpvjStdSea, Xeywv fiaXXov 
eTrearpa/jii^iii/a' "%v el fM€V6€t<i avrov Kal jievwv ecreai 
" dvrjp dyado^' el he fjirj, dvarpeyjreL'; rrjv 'EXXa3a. to 151- - 
" Trdv yap rjixlv rod TroXe/uLov ^epovac at vee^;. aW'vu*^ 
*' i/iol rreiOeo. el he ravra firj iroirjaeL^, '^fiet<; fxev, (W9 
*' e')(oiJLev, dvaXa^6vre<; toi)? olKera^ KO/jbcevfjieOa e? 
** '^Ipiv rrjv ev 'IraXirj, rj rrep tj/jLereprj re eari eK 
" rraXaiov en, Kal rd Xoyia Xeyec vir rjfjLeayv avrrjv 20 
" heeiv KriaOrjvaL' vfjuel'^ he avfifid'^cov rocdovhe fMovvco- 
" 6epre<^ /jiefivrjaeaOe rwv e/jiwv Xoywv." ^ 

Eurybiades is persuaded. 

LXIII. Tavra he SefMiaroKXeof; Xeyovro^ dve- 
hihdaKero ^vpv^tdhrj<;. hoKeecv hi fiOL, dpp(i)hr](7a<^ 
fidXiara T0O9 *A67]valov<^ dvehihdaKero, jxr} a(^ea<^ 2$ 
diroXLirwaL, rjv irpb^i rov Io-O/jlov dvdyrj ra? vea^i. 
diroXiirovrcDV yap Adijvalcov ovKen eylvovro d^co- 


i^ciypi ot XoiiToL TavT7]v he alpeerac Trjv 'yvcofjurjv 
avTov /ii6vovTa<; Siavavfia'^eeLv. 

A?i earthquake. The Aeacidae, national hei'oes of Salamis^ 

are sent for. 

LXIV. QvTOi \xev 01 irepl ^aXaix7,va eTrecrt aKpo- 
l3o\iaa/jL€voi, iirei re JLvpv/ScdSrj eSo^e, avrov irape- 
5 aKeud^ovTo 009 vavp.a')(f]aovTe^. rjfiepr] re iylvero koI 
dfjia Tfe) rfKi(p dviovn creicr/jLOf; iyevero ev re rfj ryrj koX 
TTJ OaXdaarj. eSo^e Se a(f)L ev^aaOat roccrt deolcn 
,Kal eTTiKoXeaaaOaL tov^ AlaKiSa^; avfifjid'^ov'^. 0)9 
he a(f)L eSo^e, koX eiroievv ravra' ev^dfjuevoi yap irdac 
10 Tolai 6eotac avroOev fiev ex ^a\aplvo<; A'iavrd re 
Kol TeXap-wva irrefcaXeovro, eirl he KlaKov koX tov<; 
d\Xov(; Ala/clhai; pea dneareXXov 69 Ktyivav. 

The mystic procession is seen co7ning along the Sacred way 
from Eleusis^ and the sacred Bacchic shout is heard. 

LXV. "E(f)r} he AtfcaLO<; 6 Seo/cvheo^; dvrjp ^AOrj- 
valo^, (f)vyd<^ re Ka\ irapd ISlir^hoiau X6yi/Jbo<; yev6[jievo<^ 

15 TovTov Tov ')(^povov, iiTei re eKeipero r) ^ Attiki] yj^pt] 
viro TOV TrefoO arparov tov 'Bep^eo) eovaa ep7]/iio<; 
^Adrjvaicov, Tv^elv Tore ecov d/jua ArjfiapTjTft) ro) Aa- 
KehaifJLoviw ev tw Spiaatq) irehlcp, Ihelv he KovLopTov 
ywpeovTa diro '^Xevalvo^; W9 dvhpcov pidXtcrTd kjj 

20 TpiafjivpiwVy aTToOwv/Jbd^eLV re cr<^ea9 tov KoviopTov 
oTewv KOT€ etr) dvOpcoTTCov, Kal irpoKaTe (f)coi>7/<; aKOveuVy 
KaL 01 ^aivecrQai Tr)v cj^covi^v elvai tov fivaTiKov 
laKyov. elvac 3' dharj/mova tq)V ipcov tcov ev ]^Xev- 
alvi yovofxevcov tov At] fid p7]Tov, elpeaOai re avTov, 

25 o TL TO (^Beyyojievov etr] tovto' avTO^; hk elirai' " A?;- 
" IJidpr)Te, ovK eo-Tt okco^ ov pueya ti alvo^ ecTTac TJj 


" ^aaiKeo^ crTparcrj. rdSe yap dpLBijXa ipy/nov iovarjf; 
" TTJfi 'ATTi/c^9, OTC Oelov TO ^Oeyyofxeuov, diro 'EA,ey- 
" crlvo^s iov €9 TificopLTjv AdrjvaioicTt re kcli tolctl crvfju- 
" fid')(OLaL. KoX Tjv jjuev ye KaraaKTjxj/rj eV rrjv IleA-o- 
" irovvrjaov, klvSwo^; avro) re ^aatkel koI rfj arparty 5 
" rfi ev rfj rjirelpw earat, yp Se iirl Ta<^ vea<i rpdTrrjraL 
" ra? ev XaXap^lvo, rov vavnicov arparov KCvSvvevaei, 
** fiaaiXev^ dirojBakelv. rrjv Se oprr/v ravryv dyovac 
"^AdrjvaloL dvd irdvra erea rfj M.7)Tpl kol tt} K.oupr), 
" Kal avToov re 6 fiovX6fieL'o<i kol tcov dWwv '^Wr]V(i)v 10 
" /jLvelrat kol rrju (pcovrjv, rrjf; dfcov€L<^, ev javir) ry oprp 
" laK'^d^ovo-L." Upo^ ravra elTrelv AyfidprjTOv "Xiya 
" re Kol fjL7]Sevl dWo) top \6yov tovtov ec7rrj<;. rjv ydp 
" Toi €9 ^acriXea dvevetydfj Ta eirea ravra, dTToj3aXeeL<; 
" Trjv Kec^aXrjV, Kal cre ovre eyco BwycrofiaL pvaaadac 15 
" OUT dXXo<; dvOpcorrcov ovSe €69. dXX' e%* ^0"i>^09, 
" Trepl Be aTpaTirj<^ TtjaBe Oeolai fieXijaei.'^ Tov fiev By 
Tavra irapaiveeiVy e/c Be tov KoviopTov Kal t^9 (j)(ovrj<i 
yeveadai ve<f>o<^ Kal fJueTapa-icoOev (^epeoOai eirl SaXa- 
fiLV0<; iirl to aTparoTreBov to twv ' EtXXyvcov. ovtco 20 
Be avTov<i fiaOe'lv, on to vavriKov to Hepfew diroXee- 
a6ai> fxeXXoL. Tavra fxev ^iKalo<^ 6 @eoKvBeo<; eXeye, 
Ai]/jLapr)TOv re Kal dXXcov fiaprvpcov Kara7rT6/jbevo<;, 

The Persian navy meanwhile had left Histiaea and in six 
days arrived at Fhalerum. 

LXVI. Ot Be €9 TOV aep^eo) vavriKov arparbv 
Ta')(devTe<;, eireoBr) etc Tprj^^lvo^; dyyadfjbevoc to rpaofia 25 
TO AaKcovtKov Bcel37]aav €9 ttjv 'larcatyv, eiria'^ovre'i 
yfiepa*; T/3€t9 eirXcoov Bt l^vplirov, Kal iv erepycn 
Tpidl r)/jbep7jac eyevovro ev ^aXypw. ftj9 jxev ejjLol 
H. VIII. 3 


BoKeetv, ovK eXacraove^ iovre^ dptO/juov iae^aXov e? 
Ta9 'AOr)va<;, /card re rJTreipov kol rfjac vrjual clttlko- 
/juevoL, rj iirl re XTjTTidBa aTrUovro /cat e? %€pixo- 
TrvXa^. dpTcOijcrco yap rolai re viro rov ')(^eLfx(i)VQ<^ 

5 avTccv dTToXofievoLO-L fcal rolai iv SepfioTrvXrjaL koX 
rfjai iir ^Apre/jLLalq) vav/jLa'^irjai rovaSe rot)? rore 
ovKQ) eTTOjJbevovi ^aaikel, MijXLia^ re kol A(opcea<; 
Kol AoKpov^ KOL ^oicoTOix; iTavaTpaTi^ 67rofievov<i 
irXrjv SeaTToecov re Koi JWaraiediyv kol fiaka K.apv- 

lo (TTLOVf; re kol AvSpLov<^ Kal TTjvLovi re koI tov<; 
XotTTOu? v7]<7LCtiTa<i TrdvTa^ TrXrjv tmv irevre TroXlcoVy 
TOiv iTrefjbPijaOrjv irporepov rd ovvopLara. ocrw ydp 
Brj irpoe^aive iarcoripco rrf^ '^Wd8o<; 6 Tl€par)<^, ro- 
aovTco TrXeco eOvea ol eXireTO. 

Xerxes holds a council of war with the naval commandeis. 
Shall he fight or no 1 

15 LXVI I. 'EttsI (hv diTLKaTO e? ra? ^AOr)va<i 
iravre^ ovroi nfkrjv Tiapicav (YldpiOi Se viroXeL^Oevre'^ 
iv K.v6u(p eKapaSoKeov rov rroXepiov kt} diroprjaeTat), 
ol he XoLTTol 0)9 drriKovTo e? ro ^dXrjpov, ivdavra 
Kari^rj avr6<i aepf?;? eVl ra? z^ea?, iOiXcov cr<pi, 

20 avfjufu^al re kol irvOiadac rcov errnrXwovrwv ra? 
jvoo/jia^. eirel Be dmK6[ievo<^ irpot'^ero, rraprjaav fjuerd- 
irep^rrroL ol r(Ov eOveoiv roov o-(j)eTepcov rvpavvov kol 
ra^lap')(0L dirb rwv veoov, kol Il^ovto 0)9 cr<f t fiacriXevfi 
eKdarM rLpbtjv iBeSoo/cee, Trpcoro^; fxev 6 "^LScovcof; /3a- 

25 (JiXei)9, fierd Be 6 TvpL0<;, iirl Be dXXoc. co<; Be Koa/Jbo) 
67refi79 L^ovro, 7re/ii'\jra<; aep^7j<; MapBovcov elpcora, 
dTTOTreipcofiei 09 eKacrrov, el vavfia'^^lrjv rroieoiro. 


All answer yea except Aiieinisia. 

LXVIII. 'ETrel Se TrepLLwv elpcora 6 y[apS6vio<; 
■ ap^afxevo^ diro rov ^tScovlou, ol fiev hr) aXKot Kara 
TcovTO yv(o/jL7]v i^€(bepovTo, Ke\6V0VTe<i vavfjLa'^LTjv 
7roL€6crdaL, ApTejjLiairj Se rdBe e(f)7). 

Speech of Artemisia. She counsels delay., a?id an advance 
rather of the land forces. 

I. " EfcTrat puoi TTpo^; ^aaiXia, M.ap86vc€, co^ eV^ifJ 5 
" rdBe \iyco ovre /ca/CLo-rr) yevofievr} iv rfjcn vavfia- 
" %t'/7crt rycro 7rp6<; ^vjBoirj ovre iXd'^iara diroSe^a- dj^kJi^M^A 
" fievT]. SeaTTora, rrjv Se eovcrav yvcofir^v /jl6 SuKaiov 
" iariv dTToheiKwadaL, rd Tvyycuvui i^poveovGa dpiara 

\Xt^ " ^9 'irpTjyfiara rd ad. Kal rot rdSe Xeyco, ipeiSeo roov lo 
" V€Q)V fjLTjSe vav/iia'^i7]v Troieeo. ol yap dvSpe^ rwv 
" (jwv avhpwv Kpeaaov€^ roaovro eluL Kara OdXaaaajj, 
" ocrov dvhpe<^ yvvaiKwv. rl Se Trdvro)^ Siet ae vavixa- 
" X^V^^ dvaKivhwevetv] ovk €')(eL<i fiev Td<^ ^K6r]va<^, 
" Twv irep eiveKev oopfiTjOrji; arpareveaOaL, e^et? herrjv 15 
" dXkrjv 'EXXaSa ; efiTroScov Se tol lararaL ov8€l<;' ol 
" Be rot dvrearijaaVy dTnjWa^av ovrco, cw? i/cetvov^i 
" eTrperre. 2. Trj Se iy(jc> SoKeco a7ro/37]o-ecr6aL rd rcov 
" avrtrroXefxayv iTpr}yixaray rovro (ppdaco' rjv fiev jjurj 

j^^ " eiTeL')(dfj<^ vav/jLa')(^L7]v 7roLev[jLevo<iydWd rd<; v€a<; avrov 20 
" ^XV^ 7rpo9 yy /jiivcov, rj Kal Trpo/Salvcov e? rrjv UeXo- 

ijL, " TTovvTjcrov, euVeTeo)? roOy hearrora, ')(^copr](Tei, rd voicov 
" iXijXvOa^;. ov ydp oloi re iroWov ')(^p6vov eiai rov 
" duri'^etv o/^'EXXTyi^e?, dXkd acjiea^ Bcao-KeSa^, Kard 
" 7roXt9 Be eKaaroc (pev^ovrai. ovre ydp alro<; irdpa 2-^ 
" G^lai iv rfj V7)cr(a ravrrj, 0)9 eyco TrvvOdvo/jLat, ovre 
" avrov 'i oiKO^, rjv av errl rrjv YleXoirovvrjaov i\avir]<i 








Tov ire^ov arparov, drpe/jLceecv tov(; cKeWev avrwv 
7]K0VTaSy ovhe crcpc fieXrjaeL irpb rwv KOrivaicov vau- 
ixa'yeeiv. 3- ' Hz^ oe avriKa e7rei')(6fj<^ vaviuLa')(^rjcrat, 
Seifjiaivco, /jbTJ 6 vavTLKO<; arparb^^ /caKcodeh tov ire^ov f^^^^,^^,^ 
TTpoaSrjXrjorrjraL 7rpo<i Se, (v ^aaCkev, koX rohe e? 
OvfJbbv ^oXev, (i)'; TOicrc fiev y^prjarolaL rcov dv6p(07rcov 
KaKOi hovKoi ^i\eovai fylveorOai, roiai Se KaicoXcri 
'^prjcTJoi. (Tol Be eovTi dplcTTW dvSpoop ttolvtcov kukoI 
BovXoi elcri, ol ev (rvp,/uba-)^(Ov Xoyo) Xiyovrai elvav^ 
iovre^ AlyvTrrcol re koI K^vTrpcoL kol K/Xt/ce? koI 
TldiJi(f)vXoi, Twv o<p6X6<; icrrc ovhevT 

Xerxes, though agreeing with Artemisia^ orders that the 
opinion of the 77iajority should be followed. 

LXIX. TaOra Xeyovar)^ irpo^ MapBovcov, oaoi 
fxev Tjaav evvooL rfj AprefMLoriy, crvfx(f)oprjv iiroievvro 
Tov<i Xoyov^ 0)9 KaKov ti ireLdopjkvr)'^ 7rpd<; l3a(rtXeo<if 

15 on, ovK ia vav/ia')(i7]v iroteecrOai, ol he dyaiofievol re 
Kal i^Ooveovre^ cLvrrj, are ev TrpcoTOtai TeTifjL7)fjL6V7j<; 
Bed 7rdvT0)v rdov avfifjid^cov, erepirovTo rfj Kplao w<; 
diroXeop^evT)'; avT7]<;. ewel Be dvTjvelx^rjaav at yvco- 
fjiUi €9 Sip^v, Kapra re rjaOr) rfj yvodjJbri rrj^ 'A/are- 

20 fiiCTLT)^, Kal vofjLL^ayv ert irporepov a-irovBalrjv elvat, 
t6t€ 7roXXc3 jjbdXXov alvee. o/j,q)<; Be roZat irXeoai 
TrelOeaOao eKeXeve, rdBe KaraBo^a^;, 7rpd<; fxev FiV^oirj 
(r^ea<^ eOeXoKaKeeuv ct)9 ov irapeovro^; avrov, rore Be 
avTO'i irapeorKevao-ro OrjrjcraaOaL vavfMa-)(eovTaf;. 

The day before the battle. The Persian ships are brought 
tip gradually into position opposite Salamis. 

25 LXX. 'ETretS?} Be iraprjyyeXXov dvairXcoeiv, dvrj- 
yov Ta9 vea<i eVi rrju XaXafxlva, fcal iTapetcpidr)aav 


Btara'^OivTe^; Kar rjav')(^iiii\ rore fiev vvv ovk e^e- 
"^prjai a<f)L tj rjixeprj vavfia^irjv iroirjaaadai, vu^ jdp 
iTreyivETo, ol Be irapeaKevd^ovro e? rrjv vaTepairjv. 
TOi)? he "^Wrjva^; et^e Seo? re Kal dppcjBiTj, ovk, 
TjKLo-Ta Be Toi)? CLTTO TleXoTTOVVfjaov. dppwBeov Be, 5 
ore avTol fiev iv '^^aka/JLivc KaT7]/jL€vot virep yrj'^ ttJ? 
^ XOrjvaicov vavpLa'^eeiv fieWoiev, vLKijOevre'; re iv 
VYjorw d7ro\afjb(j:>0evT€<; iroKLopKr^crovrai^ dnrevref; rrjv 
ewvTCov d(f)vXa/CTOv. 

The Persian land forces advance in the night towards 
the Isthmus. The Skironian pass had been already 
occupied by a large force under the Spartan Cleom- 
brotuSj and a ivall was being hastily built across the 

LXXI. TcSz^ Be l^ap^dpcov 6 Tre^o? vvo rrjv lo 
irapeovcrav vvKra eTTopevero iirl ttjv TieXoirovvrjaov 
Kairoi rd Bvvard irdvra eixefjbrj')(dvriTO, '6kco<; Kar 
rjireipov /jLT) iaffdXotev ol ^dp/Sapoc. w? yap iirv- 
OovTO rd'^cara UeXoTrovvrjo-tot tov<; d/jL(j)L KecoviBrjv 
iv Sep/ji07rv\r)<TL rereXevTTjKevat, avvBpafiovre's eK 15 
T(Sv TToXicOV 69 TOV lo'O/JLOV L^OVTO, Kal cr(f)C 67rrjv 
(Trparrj'yo'^ KXeOyuySporo? 6 ^ Ava^avBplBeco, AecovlBeo) 
Be dBeX(f)e6^. l^ofievoc Be iv rS 1(T(9/xo3 fcal avy^o)- >^ - 
cravTe<; rrjv %KLpwvlBa oBov, jjberd rovro (y9 o'<f>t eBo^e 
^ovXevofievoco'L, OiKoBopieov Bid rov ^IcrOfiov Te2^o<;. 20 
are Btj ioucrecov /jLvptdBcov TroXXecov /cat iravTO^ dvBp6<; 
ipya^ofjLevov rjvero to epyov Kal ydp Xidoi Kal ttXlv- 
Oot Kal ^vXa Kal (f)op/jLOi' ylra/jLfiov 7rXr)pee(; iae(f)o- 
peovTo, Kal eXiyvov ovBeva '^povov ol l3or]6r)aavTe<^ 
epya^o/JLevoL, ovre vvkto^ ovre r)/j.epr}<;. LXXII. Ol 25 
^e ^o'qBrjo-avTe^ e? rov ^laOfiov iravBrjp.el olBe rjcrav 


'l^WtjvcoVj AaKeBat/jiovtoL re /cal 'A/a/caSe? 7rdvT€<; koi 
*HXefcot Koi K.opivOcoi, Koi ^ikvwvlol koI ^^irihavpioi 
/cat ^Xidcnot koX Tpot^rjvtoi koX '^pfiiovee^. ovtol 
fjL€V '^aav ol ^O7j0r)aavT€(; koI V7r6papp(oBeovT€<; tt) 
5 'E\Xa8t fCCvBvvevovarj, toIgi Se dWotcri HeXoTTovvr]- 
aloiat 'ifxeke ovhev. 'OXv/Jbiria Be /cal J^apveia nra- 

^ lyw ?tatio7is i7ihabiting the Pelop07inese. 

LXXIII. OVc'ei Se Triv UeXoirowTjaov eOvea • 
eirrd. tovtwv Be rd fjuev Bvo avToyOova eovra Kara 

lo x^pV^ iBpvrat vvv rfj koX to iraXai oiKeov, ^ApKaBe^; 
T6 Kal K.vvovpiOL €u Be eSvo^ to 'A'^alKOv eK fjuev 
TleXoirovvrjaov ovk i^e^doprjae, e/c fjuevroL rrjf; ecovrayv, 
olKeei Be rrjv dWoTpirjv. rd Be Xoiird eOvea rwv 
kirrd reaaepa eirrjXvBd earc, AcopLee<> re kol AItcoXoI 

15 .'cal Apvo7re<; Kal ArjiJbvLoi. Awpcecov fiev iroKXai re 
/cal BoKipLOL TToXte^, AlrcoXwv Be 'HA,t9 puovvrj, Apvo- 
TTCov Be 'Rpfiiovrj re Kal ^Aaivr) rj 7rp6<; K.apBafjUvX'p 
rfj AaKcovcKTJ, Arjpbviwv Be JJapcoperjrai nrdyre^, ol 
Be YivvovpLOL auTOX^ovef; eovre^ BoKeovcrt ixovvol elvat 

2o"\(ove^, eKBeBcopievvrai Be viro re ^Apyeicov dp^op^evoi 

Kal rod ^jodz^ou, eovre^; ^Opverjrai Kal irepioiKOL 

HovTCdv Sp toov eirrd edvewv at Xoiiral TrdX^e?, nrdpe^ 

. ^^y Twv Kareke^a, eK rod pueaov Karearo' el Be €\evOep(i><i 

e^ean elirelv, eK rov pbeaov KaT7]pbevoi, e/ju't] Bi^op. -.u^/Au^u 'Ji-c* 

The movement of the Persian land forces renewed the de- 
tertnination of the Greek captai7is to retreat towai'ds 
the Peloponnesus. 

25 LXXIV. Ot p^ev Brj ev tw 'laOpuw tolovtm irovoi 
avpearaaav, are irepl rov iravTO^ yBrj Bpopuov deovre^ 

LXXV OYPANIA . ,. , . i*- , 39 

Kal ryat vrjuo"! ov/c i\.7rL^ovT6<; iXKdfi'\^ea6aL' oi he 
iv ^dXafiLVt o/xco<i ravra irvvOavo^evot dppcoBeoVy ovk 
oi>T(t) irepX (T^ia-L avrolac heifxalvovre^, 009 irepX rfj 
YieKoirovvr^aw. reo)? fiev hrj avrwv dvrjp dvSpl irapa- 
GTCi^i (Ttyfj \6<yov iiroikero, Owvfxa 7roL6v/jL6Voc ttjv 5 
^vpv/ScdBect) d^ovXlrjv, T€ko<; Be i^eppdyrj e? to jieaov. .^V***^ 
avWo<y6<; re 8rj iylvero, /cal TroWd iXeyero irepl roov 
avTwv, ol fjuev, to? e? ^'ijv TieKoirovvrjo-ov Xpeov elr} 
diroTfkweiV Koi irepX iK6iV7)<; KLvhvveveiv, /jLrjBe irpo 
X^PV^ hopiokcoTOv fjL6V0VTa<; fjbd'^^ecrOaL, ^AdrjvaioL Be 10 
/cal AlycvTJTaL kol M.€yap6e<i avrov fJbevovTa<; d/xv- 

The stratagem of Themistokles. 
LXXV. 'Ei/^aOra %e^ii<7T0KKe7)'^ w? eccrovro rrj 
yvoofirj vTTo rwv UeXoTrovvrjatcov, XaOwv i^ep-y^erai eic 
Tov avueBpLov, e^eXdoov Be irefiTret e? to (TTpaToireBov 15 
TO yir)Bcov dvBpa TrXoucp, evTeiXd/juevo'; ra Xeyeiv ^peoi^, 
tS ovvojxa fjuev rfv %Lfcivvo<;, olKeT7]<^ Be Kal TratBa- 
70)709 yv Tcov (Be/jLi(TTOK\eo<; TralBcov, tov B^ vcTTepov 
T0VT(t)v Twv TTprjy/judTcov Sefj,iaT0fc\e7j(; ^eairiea re 
iTTOiTjae, ft)9 eireBeKovTO ol 0ecr7rfce69 TroXc^Taf;, Kal 20 
'Xprj/xacn oX^tov. 09 Tore irXolcd dTriKoixevo^; eXeye 
irpo^ T0i)9 aTpaTr)yov<; t6)v /SapjSdpcov TaBe' ""Rire/j,' 
" ^jre fxe aTpaT7]y6^ 6 'A67]vaicov XdOprj tcov dXXcov 
"'FjXXtjvcov {rvyyavei ydp (pporicov Ta ^aaiXio<^ Kal 
" l3ovXofjLevo<; /judXXov Ta v/jueTepa KaTvirepOe yiveaOat 25 
"17 Ta Twv 'FjXXtjvcov irp-qyixaTo) (j)pdaovTa, otl ol 
""EXX7)ve<; BpTja/jLov ^ovXevovTai KaTappcoBrjKOTe^;, 
" Kac vvv iTope'^ei koXXlo'tov vfjuea^ epyov aTrdvTcov 
" i^epydaacrOaL, rjv fMrj TrepuBrjTe BuaBpavra^i avT0V<;. 
" ovTe yap aXXrjXoiaL oixo^poveova out eTi dvTiaTrj- 30 


" crovrai, v/uv, vrpo^ e(0VT0V<; re a^ea<^ o-^ea-Oe vavfia- 
" 'x^eovra^ toik; tol vfjierepa (j)poveovTa(; koX tov<; yjr)!* 

The Pei'siaiis^ believing that the Greeks intend to escape^ 

first occupy the island Fsyttaleia, and at midnight move 

their right wing forward close to Salamis so as to 

enclose the Greek fleets and their left wing so as to 

block up the Strait between Salamis and Munychia. 

LXXVI. 'O pilv ravrd crcjyL crr^jxrjva^ ifcirohoov 

cLTTaWaaaeTO, rolac Se w? TrccTTa eytvero rd dyyeX- 

5 devra, tovto fiev e? rrjv v7)crlSa Tr\v '^VTrdXecav, 

fiera^v ^aXa[uv6<; re Kei/uievrjv fcal T179 rjirelpov, ttoX- 

\ov^ Tcou Uepcricov dTTe^l^aaav, tovto 8e, eTrecBrj 

ejlvovTO jxecraL vvkt6<;, dvPjyov fxev to air ecrireprj^ 

Kepa^ Kv/cXovfjuevoL 7rpo9 tJ^v XaXafilva, dvfjyov Se ol 

10 d/ji^l TTjv Yieov T6 Kol TTjv Yivvoaovpav TeTayfievoL, 

Karelj^pv re fte^pt Moui^f^/?;? nrdvTa tov wopdjubov 

TTJac v7]vaL TCtivSe Be eiveKev dprjyov ra? vea<;, Xva Srj 

Tol(7i"^X\.r]cn fJLTjSe ^vyelv e^jj, dX)C airoXafJu^OevTe'; 

cv Trj ^akafjblvi holev TiaLV tSv eV ApTefMLcrlq) ayay- 

15 vccrpbdTCJV. 69 Se ttjv vrjatSa ttjv "^UTTaXecav KoKeo- 

fjuevrjv dire^l/Sa^ov tcov Tlepcreaiv TcovSe eiVSKev^ w<; 

iiredv yeprjTac vavfjia')(^L7], evOavTa pudXtaTa i^oicropLe- 

VQ)P Tcov Te dvSpa)v koI twv vavrjyicov {iv yap 3?; 

TTopcp Trjf; pavpLa-^Lij^; Trj<; pLeXXovarj^ eaeaOai itcesTO 

20^} vrjao^), tW Toi'9 piev TrepiiTon7ai, tov<; Se BtacpOei- 

pcoat. ejroUvv he (TLyf/ TavTa, co<; purj TrvvOavotaTo ol 

ivavTiOL. Ol piev 3?; Tama Trj<; vvkto^ ovSev airuKOi- 

M^ vt pL7]6epTe<; TvapapTeovTo. 'ifUx.|i.^A,^otLVw. 

'^ A 71 oracle fulfilled. 

LXXVI I. l^prjo-pbolav he ovk e%ft) dvTiXeyeiv 0)9 
25 OVK. elal dX7]6ee<;, ov /3ovX6p,evo(i evapyew'^ Xeyovra^ 


iretpdadai KarafBdWeLV, e? TOiahe Trp-ijj/jbara ia/3Xi~ 

'AXV orav ^ApT€/jLiBo<; '^pvaaopov lepov aKTrjv 
V7}val yecfivpcoo'coat koI elva\ir}v }Lvv6aovpav, 
eXTTihi fMaLvo/JLevT} \L7rapa<; irepcravTe^ 'AOijva^;, 5 
hla Al/CT} o-^iaaei Kparepbv J^opov, "Tfipio^ vlbv, 
hetvov fjbaificoovra, hoKevvr dva irdvra inOeadaL. 
^aXKOf; yap '^aXKw av/x/jLi^eraL, ai[MaTi 8' "Aprj'; 
irovTOv (f)oivl^et. tot^ iXevOepov 'EWaSo? rffxap 
evpTJOira }^poviS7]<; €7rd<yec Kal Trorvca Nlkt]. 10 

€9 Tocavra fxev koI ovrco ivapyeco'^ Xeyovrc Ba/ctSt 
dvTiXoyir)<; ')(p7]a/JLoov iripi ovre avTO^; Xiyccv toX/jloo 
0VT6 Trap dXXcov ivSeKO/xac, 

During the night the Greek captains^ not kno7ving what 
had happened^ were still angrily debati7ig, when 
Aristeides arrived from Aegina, bringing woi'd of the 
Persian movement which he had actually seen. 

LXXVIII. Twz/ Se eV ^aXafxlvi (7TpaT7)ySv 
iyivero codiafiof; Xoywv ttoXXo?. ijSecrav 8e ovko), ore 15 
a(f)ea<; Tre pieKv/cXeovTO rfjao vrjval ol ^dp/Sapoi, dXX^ 
wairep t^9 '^p,€pr)<; copeov avrov^ T€Tayfiepov<;, iEoKeou 
Kara '^coprjv elvau. LXXIX. ^vpearijKorcov Se tcop 
o-rpaTTjywv ef AlyiV7]<; hiejBr) ^ApiaTeiBr]^ 6 Kvaijid- 
X^V) dvrjp ^ Kdr)valo<i fiev, e^Q)(rrpaKL(T/jLevo<; Be vttu 20 
Tov hrjijLOV, Tov iyco vevofjuiKa, irvvOavoiievo^ avrov top 
TpoTTOV, dpiarov avhpa yeveaOai ev ^AOrjvTjcTi, Kal 
BtKaioTaTov. ovTo<; covrjp ard^; irrl to avvehptov e'fe- 
KoXeero SepLLaTOKXea, iovTa /jl€P kawTM ov ^IXov, 
i^Ppov he Ta juLdXtcTTa' vtto 8e fieyddeo^ twv Trapeov- 25 
Twv KaKwv Xr}67]v eKeivwv 7roL€v/j,ei>o<; i^eKaXeeTo, 


iOeXcov avTG) (rv/jbfil^ai. TrpoaKT^Koee he, ore aTreu- 

hoiev ol diro TleXoTrovvijcrov dudyecv Ta9 i^ea? tt/oo? 

Tov ^laO/jiSv. oe)9 Be i^rjXOe ol Se/jLcaTo/cXiq^;, eXeye 

'uiffHiKvt^ 'ApicrretS?;? rdBe' "'H/xea? araaid^eiv %/oeoz/ eaju ev 

loiU, 2 « ^g ^^ dXXcp KatpQ) Kal Brj Kal ev raySe irepl tov 

'' OKorepo^ rjiJbecdv irXeco dyaOd rrjv TrarplSa epydcreraL. 

" Xeyco Be too, otl laov ecTTt, iroXXd re Kal oXiya Xeyetv 

" Trepl aTTOirXoov tov ivOevTev UeXoTTOvvrjaLoco-L eyco 

" ydp avTOTTTTj^i TOL Xiyco yev6[ievo<^, otl vvv ovB rjv 

lo " eOeXcoai K.opLvOooL re Kal avTO^; ^vpv^idhrjq oloi re 

" eaovTac eKirXwcrai' Trepie^oixeOa yap viro toov iroXe- 

" fjbicov kvkXo). aXV iaeXdoov a<f>o TavTa a'^/jb7]vov" 

LXXX. 'O 8' dfiei^eTO TotalBe' " K.dpTa t€ '^^prjaTa 

" ScaKeXeveac Kal ev rjyyeiXa^. Ta ydp iyo) iBeofiijv 

15 " yeveadai, avTO^; avTOTTTTj^; yep6/jLevo<; rjKei<;. IdOu ydp 

*' ef ejjueo tol irocev/jLeva vtto M.7]B(ov. eBee ydp, ^6Te ovk 

" eK6v7e<; rjdeXov e? fid'^rjv KaTiaTaaOai ol"^XXr)ve<;, 

vU^l^v. " deKovTa^ irapacrTrjo-aadai. ori) Be eVet irep ^KeL<; 

it^i "XP'^yo'Ta dirayyeXXcov, avT6<; a^i, dyyeCXov. rjv ydp 

• ^^4 20 " iyo) avTa Xeyco, Bo^co TrXdaa^; Xeyeiv Kal ov Trelaco 

" oj? ov iToievvTcov TOOV jSap^dpcov TavTa. dXXd a<^L 

" arjfjLrjvov avTo^ irapeXOwv, ax; e^ei. eiredv Bk crrjfi')]- 

" vr)^, rjv fxev ireiOcDVTai,, TavTa Brj Ta KaXXcaTa, rjv Be 

" avToiac firj irtaTa yevrjTat, 6/jloiov i^/jllv eaTav. ov 

25 " ydp en BiaBprjo-ovTat, ec irep '7rept€')(^6fieda iravTa- 

" yoQev, ctf? Gv Xeyei'^r 

Aj'isteides fails to convince the captains ; 

LXXXI. TavTa eXeye irapeXOcbv 6 ^ApcaTelBrji;, 
(jydfjbevo^ ef Alylvrj^; re rjKeiv Kal [xoyis eKirXwaai 
Xadcov Toi)? e7rop/Ji€ovTa<;' irepieyeaOai ydp ttov to 


(TTpaToirehov to 'KXXtjvlkov virb roov vecov rwv 'B^ep- 
f eo)* irapapreeo-Oai re avve^ovXeve co9 dX€^r}ao/j,ivov<;. 
Kal o fiev ravra €L7ra<; /jLeTearrjKee, rooi^ Se avTL<; 
eyivero Xoycov d/JLcj^La^aalr)' ol yap 7r\evv€<; twv 
o-rparrjycov ovk iireiOovro rd i^ayyeXOevra. 5 

but his news is confirmed by the arrival of a Tetiian 
trireme which had deserted fro7?i the Persian fleet. 

LXXXIL ^ A-iriaTeovTCDV he tovtcdv r)Ke rptrjpijf; 
dvhpwv Ti^vicov avTOfioXeouaa, Trj<; ^p%e dvrjp Yiavai- 
no^ 6 ^(i)crLfjL€V60'=;, t) irep Br/ 6(f)6p€ Tr]v dXrjdeiijv 
irdaav. hid he rovro ro epyov iveypdcpijaav Ilt^vlol 
ev AeX(l)o2ai e? tov rpLiroha ev Tolau rov ^dpjSapov lo 
KareXovcTL. aw he wv Tavrrj rfj vrji rfj avrofjuoXTjcra- 
ar] e? XaXafjLLva koI rfj irporepov eir^ 'Apre/iLO-iov rfj 
At) fjbvlrj e^eTrXrjpovro to vavTLKOv Tolcri "EXXrjat e<? 
Ta9 oyhcoKovTa koI TpLT)KoaLa<; pea<;' hvo yap 3?} vecov 
t6t€ KaTehee e? tov dpiO^ov. '5 

The Greeks therefore prepare to fight. Just as they are 
putting off to sea the Aeacid Heroes arrive. 

LXXXIII. Totcrt he "EW?7crt «<? it kit d hr) Td 
Xeyofieva rjv tcov Ttjvlcov prifiaTa, nrapeaKevd^ovTO (6<; 
vavfia')(^)'iaovTe<^. 7]oo<; re hr] hie<f)aLve, /cat o't avXXo- 
yov Toov eiTL^aTewv iroiTjadixevoi, irporjyopeve ev e-^ov- 
Ta fiev €K irnvTwv Se/jLLcrTOKXerj^;, Td he eirea rjv irdvTa 20 
Kpecraco Totcrc eaaoat dpTLTcdefieva. oaa he ev dvOpco- •^<i*«^ 

^ov <f>vaL KOI KaTacTTdai eyyiveTai, Trapaiveaa'^ hi) []yt^f^ ^ 
TovTcor Td Kpeaaco alpeeadai, koX KaTa7rXe^a<; tj^j/ ^M^^--.^ **^ 
prjocv, ecr^aiveLv cKeXeve e? Td<; vea^. Kat ovtov fiev 
hrj eaeldaivov, Kal rjKe r) dn AtytVr/v TpC7JpT)<;, rj /caTd 25 


Tov(; AlaKiSaf; dTreSrj/jLTjae. ivdavra dvrjyov rd^i veas 
a/KCLGa^ ol "EiXX7jve<;. 

The fight. It is begun by the Athenian Ameinias charging 
and grappling a ship of the enemy. Both sides come 
to the rescue and the battle becomes general. 

LXXXIV. ^AvafyofjuevoiaL Se a<j)i avriKa eVe/ce- 
aro ol ^ap^apoL. ol puev 8rj dWoL 'EXXT^z^e? [eVt] 

5 7rpVfJLi/7)v dveKpovovro koi w/ceXXov ra? vea<;, ' Kfjueivlrj^^ 
8e IlaX\.7]vev(; dvrjp ^A.6r}valo^ i^ava')(^dels vrjc €fjL^dX- 
Xec. o-vfjL7r\a/c6Lo-7]<^ Be ttj^ veb^ koi ov Bwa/jbevoov 
dTraWajTJvai, ovrco Brj ol dWoc ^A/jbeivcr} /3o7)0eovT6<i 
(Tvvefiicryov. ^Adyvaloi [xev ovt(£> Xeyovat rrj^i vav- 

lo /jLa')^L7}(; <yevecr6ai rrjv dp')(r)v, Alyii/riTaL Se rrjv Kara 
T0U9 AlaKiSa^ diroBrjfJurjaaaav €9 Atyuvav, ravryv 
elvat rrjv dp^aaav. Xeyerat Se koX raSe, ft)9 (fydafia 
a(f)i, <yvvatK6<; icf)dpr), (pavelaav he SiaKeXevaaaOdt 
ware koI dirav dfcovaac to tcou '^XXtjvcov arparoire- 

15 hov ovetSlaaaav irporepov rdBe' "^^Q Satfiovtoc, p^^XP'' 
" Koaov en 7rpvp^v7]v dvaKpoveade'/' LXXXV. Kara 
/jb€v Srj ^A67]ualov<; irerdxaTO ^oii>iK€<; (ovtol yap 
elxpv TO 7rp6<; ^^Xevatvof; re Kal eaireprj's Kepas;) fcaTa 
Be AaKeSat/jLovLov^ "Icov6<;' ovtol 8' el^ov to 7rpo9 ttjv 

20 rjco re /cal top TLetpacea. rjOeXojcdKeov p^evroL avTwv 
KaTa Ta9 Sep^taTOKXeo^ ivToXd^; oXiyot, ol Be 7rXevve<^ 
ov. e^ft) puev vvv o-v^i'mu ovvop^aTa TpiTjpdpxfOv 
fcaTaXe^ac tmv viwi 'EXX?/i^/Sa? eXovTcov, xP^^op^ai 
Be avTOLcrt ovBev ttXtjv @eop,ijcrTop6^ T6 tov 'AvBpo- 

25 BapbavTO<s /cal ^^vXdicov tov ^IcrTiatov, Sap^lcov d/ii<f)o- 
Tepeov. TOvBe Be eXveKev p,ep.vr]/jLat tovtcov fMOVVcov, 
OTL Seop^rjaTcop fxev Bid tovto to epyov ^dfiov eTV- 


pdvvevcre KaTacrrrjcrdvTcov rwv Tlepaecov, ^v\aKO^ Se 
evepy6T7)<; ^(icnX6o<i dveypdcf)?} kul X^PV o/ iBcoprjOrj 
ttoWt]. ol 8' evepyeraL ^aaiXeo<^ opoadyyau Ka\e- 
ovrai. YlepaiarL LXXXVI. Tlepl fxev vvv rovrov<; 
ovTco el')(€, TO Se ttXt/^o? toov vecov iv rfj ^dkajjuvt 5 
eK€pac^6T0, at fiev vtt ^ Adijvalcov hiac^Oeipofxevai, at 
8fc viro AlyLV7)T6(ov. are yap rcov fiev ^^WrjvtDv avv 
Koafifp vav/nax^ovTCOP Kara rd^tv, rcov Be Pap^dpcov 
ov T€r ay fxiv CO i> en ovre (tvv vocp Troteovrcov ovBev, 
efieWe rotovro acpi (rvvolaeaOac, olov irep dire^T). lo 
icaLTOL 'ijadv ye koI eyevovro ravTTjv rrjv rjfiiprjv 
fxaKpiv dfJLelvove^ avrol ecovTojp rj tt/jo? ^v^oiy, Tra? 
Tt9 7rpo6v/JLe6fM6vo(; Kal Betfialpcov 'Bep^rjP, iBoKee t€ 
€KaaTo<; ewyrbv Orjr^aecrdac ^aatXia. 

A gallant feat of Queen Artemisia. 

LXXXVII. Kara fxev Br) rov^; dXX,ov<; ov/c e^co 15 
fjuere^erepovs elirelv drpeKew^ cw? e/cacrrot toov ffap- 
^dpcov rj TOOV 'EXX?Ji/ft)i^ rjyoovl^ovTO, KaTa Be 'Apre- 
/jLLaiTjv TaBe eyeveTO, dir oov evBofclfMrja-e fiaWov eTt 
wapd ^a(TL\ei' iTreiBr) yap e? Oopv^ov iroXkov aTri- 
Kero Ta ^aaCKeof; Trprjy/jiaTa, iv tovtw tu> KacpS r) 20 
V7]V<i r) ^ApTefjbt<rL7]<: eBiooKeTo viro ve6<; 'ArTt/c^?' /cat 
rj ov/c e'^ovaa Btacf^vyelv, efjUTrpocrOe yap avTrj^; ^aav 
dWac vee^i ^CKiai, rj Be avTrj<^ 7rpo9 twv Troke/mioov 
fidXiOTa eTvyx^ave eovaa, eBo^e ol ToBe TTOLrjaai, to 
Kal crvvqvetKe nTOtrjadarj' BcooKOfievrj yap viro Trj<; 25 
*ATTtKr)<; ^epova-a ive/SaXe vrjl (ptXly dvBpwv re 
l^aXvvBe(ov Kal avTov eTTLirXooovTO^ toO l^aXvvBewv 
^aaiXeo'^ Aafia<JL6v/Jiov. el /jlcv Kal tl velKO<i 7rp6<i 
auTov eyeyivee €tl irepl ^KXX^aTrovTov eovToov, ov 


jjbkvTOi eycoye e')((o eiirelv^ ovt6 el etc irpovoir]^ avra 
iirolrjcre, ovre el (TuveKvprjae r) roov J^aXvvBecov Kara 
TV')(7)v IT a paired ova a vtjv^. (W9 8e eve^aXe re icaX 
KareSvae, evTV')(^ir] '^pr)aa/j,ev7j ScrrXoa ecovrrjv a/yadd 
5 ipydcraro' o re yap Tr?9 'Attckt}'!; z^eo? rpi,r)pap')(o<; 069 
elSe [MLV e/jb/BaXXovaav vrjo dvSpojv ^apfidpcov, vo/jLLaa(; 
TTjv vea Trjv ^Apre/jbLaiTj^ 7} 'l^WTjvlBa elvat rj avro- 
fjLoXeetv eK roov ^apjSdpcov Kal avrocat dfjuvvetv, diro- 
(TTpk'^a'^ TTpof; dXXa<; eTpdnrero. LXXXVII I. Tovro 
10 fj^ev TocovTo avrfj avvrjveiKe yeveaOac Scacpuyelv re Kal 
fjirj dTToXeadaiy tovto Be crvve^rj ooare KaKov epyacra- 
jjbevrjv dird rovrcov avrrjv jMaXtcna evSoKCfjurjaat irapd 
aep^rj. Xeyerat yap ^aortXea drjeviMevov jjuaOecv rrjv 
vea e/ju^aXovcrav Kal Stj riva ecTrac rcov irapeovrayv 
15 " AecTTTora, opa^ ^Apre/uLKTiTjVy co^i ev dycovL^eraL Kal vea 
" Toov TToXe/Julcov KareSva-e'," Kal rov enrelpeaOai, el 
dX7]dea)^ earl 'Apre/jicalrj^; to epyov, Kal tol'9 ^dvau 
(ja^ect)? TO iirlarj/jLov T7J<i V6d<i eTnarayLevov^' ttjv Se 
Bca(l)6ape'laav Tjiriarearo elvac TroXe/juiTjv. rd re yap 
20 dXXa, (W9 etpr)Tac, avrrj avvrjveiKev €9 evTV')(^ir}v yevo- 
jxeva Kal to twv eK T179 l^aXvvBtK7]<; ve6<i fjLrjBeva 
diroacjOevTa KaTrjyopov yeveadau. 'Btep^r)v Be elirai 
Xeyerai 7rpd<; Ta (ppa^o/jueva' " Ol fxev dvBpe^ yeyo- 
" vaat fioc yvvalKe^, al Be yvvacKe'; dvBpe'i" Tavra 
25 fjLev ^ep^7]v (f^aal elirau. 

The losses of either side. 

LXXXIX. 'Ej^ Be TO) iTovio TovTid diTO i^ev eOave 
6 a-TpaT7]y6<i *ApLa^Lyvr)<; 6 AapeCov, Sep^eco ewv 
dBeX(j)ed<;y dirb Be dXXot ttoXXoL re Kal ovvofiaarol 
Hepaecov Kal MrjBcov Kal tcov dXXcov avfifici^eov. 


6\iyoi Se riv6<; koI '^Wtjvmv. are yap veeuv eVt- 
crrd/jLevoc, rolai al vee^ hie^Oeipovro, Kal fjnj iv 
')^6ipcov v6/jL(p diroWviievoL e? ttjv XaXa/jucva Sieveov. 
Twv Se l3ap/3dp(ov ol ttoWoI iv ttj daXdcrcry ^i6(f)6d- 
prjaav, veeiv ovk iTnard/jLevoi. eVel Be al Trpcorat e9 5 
(j)vyr]v erpdirovTo, evOavra al 7r\elarai Sce(f>6eLpovTo. 
ol yap oTTLaBe rerayixevoi, e? to irpoade rfjao vrjual 
irapievat Trecpoo/jLevoL co? anrohe^op^evob re fcal avrol 
epyov ^acriXel, rfjac ac^eTepyai vrjval ^evyovariai 
irepieTTLirTOv. lo 

Certain Phoenicians accuse the lonians of treason^ but are 
themselves executed. Xerxes watches the fight. 

XC. ^^yevero 8e icciX ToBe iv to3 6opv^(p rovrw' 
Toov TLve<; ^olvlkcov, twv al vee^ BLe<t)ddpaTO, eXOovre^; 
irapd /SaaiXea Bce^aWov tov<; "I(ova<^, co? Be iKelvov^ 
diroXoiaTo al i/ee?, o)? TrpoBovrcov. crvvrjveLKe (iov ovtco 
So-re ^loovcov re roi)? crrpaTT^yoix; fjurj diroXeadac, <l>ot- 15 
VLKCOV re roix* Bia^dXXovra^i Xa^elv roiovBe /jLcaOov 
6TL rovrcov ravra Xeyovrcov ive/SaXe vr)t ^AmKr} 
^afjLoOprjiKiT) vr}v<;. rj re Brj ^ArrcKTj KareBvero, Kal 
iTTL^epo/jLevT} KiytvaiT) vrjv'; KareBvae rcov ^ajuoOprjc- 
Kcov rrjv vea. are Brj i6vre<; dfcovrcaral ol ^ajxo- 20 
OpytKe<i rov<; i7n^dra<; dird r^? KaraBvadcrr)'^ i/eo? 
^dXXovref; dirypa^av Kal iTre^Tjadv re Kal ea^ov 
avrrjv. ravra yevojieva roi)? "Iw^a? ippvcraro' a)<; 
yap eTBe (T(f)ea<; aep^Tj^ epyov jjueya ipyaaa/j,evov<;, 
irpdirero irpo^ rov<i ^olvcKUf; ola V7repXv7re6fjLev6<i 25 
re Kal irdvra^ alrcoofjievo^, Kal crcpecov eKeXevcre ra? 
Ke(f)aXd^ aTTora/ielVy Xva p^r) avrol KaKol yevojievoc 
701)9 dfjLelvova^ Bia^dXXoycn. okw'^ yap rtva iBoc 


Siip^rjfi t6)v ecjdVTov epyov rt airoheiKvvjievov iv rjj 
vavfjuaxi'l), KaTr)ixevo<^ vtto tm ovpel tm avriov ^aXa- 
fjblvo^, TO KoKeerai Al<yaX6(i)<:, dveTrvvOavero rov iroLrj- 
aavra, /cat ol <ypafijUiaTicrTal aveypacf^ov irarpoOev rov 
5 Tpir}pap')(^ov Koi rrjv ttoXlv. nrpo^ ^e rt fcal irpocre- 
^aXero (j>i\o<^ icov Apcapd/iiv7]<; durjp Jl6pa7)<i irapewv 


The Persian fleet retires to Fhaieriim, harassed by the 
Aeginetan and Athenian ships. 

XCI. Ol p^ev hrj 7rpo<{ tov^ ^olviKa<; irpaTTOvro, 
Tcov Be /Sap/Sdpcov 69 (f>vyr}V TpaiTopbevcDV fcat e/c7r\e- 

lo ovTcov 7rp6<; to ^dXrjpov Alytvrjrac viroaTdvTe^ ev tqj 
7rop6p,S epya drrehe^avro \6yov ci^ia. ol puev yap 
^AOrjvaloi ev too Oopv^o) ifcepdl^ov rd^; re dvTLara- 
pueva^ Koi Ta9 cj^evyovaa'^ toov veoov, ol he Alytprjrat 
TCI? eKifkcdovaa^' OKCo^i Be Tcve<i tov<; ^AOrjvaiovi 

15 Bia^vyoiev, (f)ep6p,evoL eaeTmrrov e? Tov<i Aiyivrjra^;. 
XCI I. 'Eiv6avTa crvveKvpeov vee<; y re ®epuL<TTOK\eo<^ 
Bcw/covo-a via, teal rj HoXvKpLTOv rod Kplov dvBp6<; 
AlyLvr)Te(d vtj'I epbjBaKovaa ^cBcovlj), 7) irep elXe rrjv 
7rpo(j)v\daaov(Tav eVl %Ktdd(p rrjv AlytvauTjv, eir ijq 

30 evrXee Ilv^er/? 6 'Icr^ei^ooy, rov ol Uepaat KaraKo- 
irevTa dperrj^ eiveKev elyov ev rfj vrjv etcirayXeopbevot. 
TOV Br] Tre pidyov(Ta apua Jleparjai, rjXo) vrjv<^ r) 
'^lBcovlt] w(TTe Uvderjv ovtco arcoOfjvai e? Alyivav. <W9 
Be ecrelBe Trjv via rrjv ^ATTiKrjv 6 TloXvKpiTo^, eyvco 

25 TO (rrjpLTj'iov IBcov Trj(; aTpaTrjylBo^, /cal l3coaa<; tov 
©ep^tcrrofcXia eTre/cepTopbrja-e e? tSv Alyovrjricov tov 
pbrfBicrpjOV oveiBl^ayv. Tavra piiv vvv vift epu^aXoov 6 


IJoXvKpLTO^ aTreppL'yjre €9 SefJULcrTOKXed, ol Se ^ap- 
^apot, Twv al V6e<; Trepceyevovro, (f)6vyovT€'i airLKovTo 
i<; ^aXrjpov viro rov ire^ov cnparov. 

The Aeginetans gained the firsts the Athenians the second 
reputation for bravery in the battle, Artemisia 

XCIII. El/ he rfj lavua^ir) ravrrj rJKovcrav 
^Wrjvcov cipLara AtjLvrjraL, eVl Be ^A6i]valoL, 5 
dvSpcou Be IToXi/A'ptTO? re o Al<yiV7JTr)<; koI ^ AOrjvaloi, 
Eu/xez/?;? re 6 ^Avayvpd(rLo<; Koi ^Afietvtr)<; TlaWrjpeix;, 
09 fcal ^ApTe/jLiat7]if iireBico^e. el fiev vvv e/juaOe, on 
iv TavTT) TrXeoL 'Apre/jLLalr], ov/c dv eiravaaro irpo- 
repov rj elXe [iiv rj koI avTo<; rjXco. Tolai, yap 10 
^ A6r}vaicov rpcrjpdp^OLai, irapeKeKeXevaro, 7rp6<i Be 
Koi (ledXov eKeero fjuvpiat Bpa'^fial, 09 dv (jllv ^(orjv 
eXy' BeivrjV yap ri iiroLevvro yvvalKa errl Ta9 
^ Adrjva^ arpareveaOaL avrrj puev Brj, 009 irporepov 
ecpTjrai, Bcecf^vye, rjcrav Be Kal ol dXXoi, rcav al vee^ 15 
Trepceyeyovecrav, iv to3 ^aXTjpw. 

The reported cowardice of the Corinthians, 

XCIV. ^ABeLfxavTov Be tov }Lopiv6tov arparriyov 
Xeyovac ^ AOrjvatot, avTLKa Kar dp-^d(;, ax; avvefjuLcryov 
al 1/669, eKirXayevra re Kal vTrepBelaavra, rd laria 
deLpafxevov olyecOai <\>evyovTa^ IBovra^ Be tov<; 20 
K.opivdlov<: rrjv o-TparTjycBa (pevyovaav a)aavT(D<; 
0L')(^ea6ac. 009 ^e dpa ^evyovra's ytveaOat rrjf; "^aXa- 
/jlivItj<; Kara to Ipov ^A67jvaLr)<; XKipdBo<;, TrepLTriirTeLv 
G(f)L KeXr)Ta Oelr) irofXTrfj, tov ovTe we/JLylravTa (pavrjvac 
qvBeva, ovtc tl tcov otto t^9 aTpaTtrj'i elBoac irpoa- 25 
H. VIII. 4 


(pepeaOat Tolai l^opivdloiai. rfjSe Se en fju^aXXovrat 

elvai delov to Trpf/y/jba' a)<; jap dj-^ov jeveaOai twv 

vewv, Tov(; airo tov K€\r]TO<; Xeyetv rdBe' "^ABelfjuavre, 

" cri-" fiev aTrocrrpeylra^ ra? vea^ 69 (pvyrjv Spfirjaai 

5 " /caTa7rpoSov<; roi)^ '^X\,7]va(;' ol he koI Srj viKwaUydixjL^J^ 

" oaov avTOL rjpoovro eiriKparrjaaL twv e')(6po^v!^ ravra 

\e<yovT(i3V, aTTcarieiv <ydp tov ' ASelp^avTov, avTL<; Tahe 

Xiyeiv, 0J9 avTol oloi re elev dyo/jLevot o/nTjpoL aTroOvrj- 

afcecv, rjv f^rj vL/cwpTe'^ (paivwvTai ol ' EXX,7;j^6?. ovtw 

10 hrj dTToaTpeyjravTa ttjv via avTOV re koX tov<; dWov^ 

*^»Jl iir i^epyaa/jievoKTL iXdelv i<; to (TTpaTOTTeSov. tovtov<^ 

•*^^ fiev TOiavTT] (j^aTC^ e^et viro ^AOrjvatcov, ov fiivToc 

avTOi ye Y^opivOioi ofJioXoyeovcL, dXX' iv TrpooTotcrL 

(T(f)ea<; avT0v<; tt]^ vavfia')(^i7]<^ vofMi^ovac yeveadai,, 

15 ^apTvpeec 8e a(pL kol rj dXXr) 'EXA,a?. 

Aristides in Psyttaleia. 

X.CY. ^Apt(TTeL8r]<; Be 6 AvaLfjbd')(^ov dvrjp ^AOrj- 
valo<^, TOV Koi 6Xiy(p tl irpoTepov tovtcov eTre/jLVJjcrOTjv 
ftJ9 dvBp6<; dpiaTOV, ovto<; iv roS 6opv/3(p tovtm tm 
irepX XaXa/jLLva yevo/uuevcp rdBe eiroiee' irapaXa^wv 
20 7roXXov<; twv oirXiTecov, ot irapaTeTw^aTo irapa ttjv 
dfCTTJv Trj^ %aXafJLivi7)(i %<w/o?79, yevo^ eovTe'i A6r]valoc, 
€9 Trjv ^vTToXecav vrjaov dire^rjcre dycov, ot tov<; 
ITe/)o-<Z9 Tov<; iv ttj vyalBc TavTrj /caTecpoveua-av 

The Greeks collect the zvrecks at Salamis ; but some drift 
upon the Attic coast. 

2$ XCVI. 'II9 Be 7] vav/ma^LT) BieXeXvTO, KaTetpv- 
(7avTe<; 69 Trjv XaXafMCva ol ''¥iXXr]ve<; twv vavrjylcov 
vaa TavTT] €Tvy)(^av6 6ti iovTa, eToljJiOL rjaav 69 


ciWrjv i>av/jba)(^Lr]v, eXTrt^oz^re? rfjac TrepLeoiayat vrjvab 
eVt ')(^pr](jecrdaL /Sao-cXea. tcov Be vavr]yLcov TroWd viro- 
Xa^wv ap6/jL0(; ^icf>vpo<; ec^epe Tr)<^ 'ArTiKfj'^ iirl r-V 
Tjlova TTJv KaXeo/j,evr]v K^coXidBa, ware airoirXriaOr)} ai 
Tov '^prjCTfJiov Tov 76 dXXov irdvra top irepl T//9 5 
vavfjLa-)(^iTj'i ravrrj^; elprjfiepov J^dKL8L koI IS/iovaalw, 
Kol Brj Kol Kara rd vav^yia rd ravTrj e^eveL')(devTa 
TO elprjfJLevov ttoXXolctl erecrt TTporepov tovtwv iv 
')(^prja/jLa) Avaiarpdra) ^Adijvauo dvBpl -^pija/jLoXoyy, 
TO iXeXtjOee irdvra^ TOf?*^ EXXT/za?, 10 

Kft)Xta8e9 Be <yvvalKe<^ eper/j-otac (f)pv^ovai,' 
TovTo Se eueXXe direXdaap-ig^ BacnXeffGfiae^J^v. /^ 

The terror of Xerxesr He orders a bridge of boats to be 
made to Salaniis. 

XCVII. p^€p^ri<; 8e ft)? e/naOe to yeyovo^ irdOo^;, 
Selaa*;, /jlj] ti? twv 'Icovcop VTrodrjrai rolai ''RXX7](Tt 
rj avTol porjacoac irXeecp e? top 'KXXTjaTroPTOP Xi- 15 
aoPTe<; rd*; ye^ipa^ kol aTroXafji^OeU iv rfj Fjupomy 
awoXeaOac KCpSvpevar], Sprjcr/iop e/SovXeve' ideXcop 
Se fXTJ eTTLSrjXo^; ecpat fx-qre toIgl "FjXXrjGt /jbrjTe 
rolac icovTou e? rrjp XaXafjulva %(w/i,a eireipdro 
Scw^ovp, javXov^ T€ ^OLPiKijiov^ avvehee, Xpa dpTU re 20 
a')(ehLrj<; ewcri koI T6L'^eo<;, dpreero re 69 iroXefiop oo<; 
pavfiw^LTju dXXqp Trocrjao/jbepo'^. opeopre^ Be pip 
TTapre^ 01 dXXoi ravra iTpi]aGOPTa ev ijiriarearo, ftj? 
i/c 7raPTo<i loov TrapeaKevaarac fiepcop TroXe/jurjaeip' 
MapSupLop S' ovSep tovtcop eXdpQape ft;? fidXcara 25 
k/jLTreipop ioPTa Trj<^ eKetPov SiapoLr)(;. ravrd re afxa 
B,ep^r}<; eiroiee, Kal eirefiire e? Yiepaa^ dyyeXiopia 
7i)p Trapeovcrap a^i av/jL(f)op7]P. 



The Persian Courier post. Dismay at Snsa. 

XCVIII. ^ovTOiv 5e T^dv oLfyyekwy eari ovhev 
o TO Oaaaov Trapayiverai 6v7]t6v iov' ovto) roiac 
Tlep(Tr]cn i^evpTjrat rouro. \ey overt yap, co? oacov av 
i^fjuepecov y rj Traaa oSo^;, tocfovtol Xiriroi re /cal avhpe^ 

5 BteaTaaL, /card rjfjbeprjaiTjv oSbv eKacTTTjv tTTTro? re Kal 
dvTjp rerayiJievo'^^ tov<^ ovre vL(^eTO<^, ovk ojji^po^, ov 
Kav/jia, ov vij^ epyet /jurj ov Karavvaau tov TrpoKeifJievov 
ecovTQ) Spofiov TTJv Ta')(^L(TT7]v, 6 JUL6V 8t) irpwTo^; Spa/JLCOV 
irapahihol rd ivreraX/jLeva tw Sevrepw, 6 8e S6VT6po<=; 

10 Tc3 rpircp' TO Se ivOevrev rjSr] /car dWov 8ie^ep')(eTaL 
irapahihop^eva, Kara irep '''EWi/crt rj XafjiTraSTjcj^opirj, 
TTJv T(p 'H^atcTTft) eiTiTeXiovaL. rovro to Spa/jLTj/iia tccv 
Xttttcov KoXiovcri Uepaac dyyaprjlov. XCIX. H fxev 
hr) TrpcoTT] €9 Xovaa dyyekir) aTrcKOfiivr], co? e^ot 

15 ^Pi.Or]va<; Sepf^?, eTep^jre ovtco Srj to Hepo-ecov tov<; 
V'7roX€i(f)devTa<;, (W? ra? re 6801)9 jjuvpaivnai iraaa'i 
iaTopeaav Kal iOvfxiwv OvpLir^fxaTa Kal avToi rjcav ev 
OvoriijcTi T€ Kal eviraOeiycn, ' 1^ 8e SevTepr] a<^L ayyeXirj 
iire^eXOovaa avve'^ee ovtw, a>aTe tov<; KL6wva<^ KUTep- 

20 prj^avTo TrdvTe'^, (Bofj t6 Kal ol/jucoyy 6)(^p6ovTo aTrXero), 
M.apS6viop ev alTirj TiOevTe^. ovk ovto) Se irepL tcov 
V600V dyOofjuevoi TavTa ol Ylepaau eiroievv, ct)9 irepi 
avTM 'Bep^y SeL/jLacvovT6<;. 

Mardonius consoles Xerxes, and advises him to return 


C. Kal Trepl Uipaaf; fxev tjv TavTa tov irdvTa 

25 peTa^ij 'X^povov yevop^evov, P'^XP^ ^^ a^p^r)^ avTO<; 

a(j)€a<; ciTriKopbevo^ eiravae. MapSovco^ Be opecov p,ev 


'B^ep^rjV (TVfJb^oprjv /JbeydXrjv i/c rrj^; vav/xa'y^iTj^ ttol- 

evfjuevov, vwoTrrevcov Se avrov Spijo-fiov j^ovXeveiv i/c 

Tcov ^Adrjvecov, (^povTiaa<^ 7rp6<; icovrov (w? Swaei SIkijv 

dvayv(jocra<; (SaatXea crrpaTeveaOac irrrl rrjv 'E\X,a8a, 

Kai ol Kpeaaov elrj dvaKLvhwevaau rj KaTepydaacrOat 5 

Tr)v 'EXXaSa rj avrop KaXct)<^ reXevTrjaac rov ^lov 

virep ^eydXcov alwprjOevTa' irXeov jievTOi €(f)6p6 ol tJ 

iyvoofi7j Karepydaaadai rrjv 'EXXaSa* Xoycadfievo^ 

(ov ravra 7rpoae<^epe rov Xoyov rovSe' " Aecr'Trora, 

fiTjTe XvTreeo /jLijre crvfjL<popr]v firjSefjLLap /JbeydXrjv 10 

TTOcev TovSe tov yeyovoro^; etvefcev 7rprjy/jLaT0<;. ov 

yap ^vXcov aycou 6 ro irdv (pepcov earl rjfJilv, aXX* 

dvhpwv re koI lttttcov. aol Be ovre rt? jovtcov twv 

TO irdv cr<pL rjSrj SoKeovTCOP KarepydaOat airo^df; 

diTO Tcov ve6)v Trecprjcrerac dprlcoOrjvai,, ovr e/c t^9 15 

TjireLpov rrjahe' oi re rifjulv rjVTLOjOrjaaVj ehoaav 

SiKa^i. el fxev vvv BoKeet, avrUa it eipcajjieO a rrj^i 

YieXoTTOVvrjaov' el he Kal SoKeei eVto-^etz/, Trapi'^ec 

TTOieeiv Tavra. /x?) he hvaOvpee' ov yap eaTt 

"EiXXrjcn ovhefila eKhvaL<i firj ov, h6vTa<^ Xoyov tcov 20 

eTTolrjaav vvv re koI irporepov, elvat aov<; hovXov<i. 

fidXiaTa fiev vvv TavTa iroiee' el B dpa tol /Be^ov- 

Xevrai avrov direXavvovra drrdyeiv rrjv drpartrjv, 

dXXrjv e'^co Kal eic rwvSe ^ovXijv. av TIepaa<;, 

^acTiXev, pLT) 7roi7]ar]<i KarayeXdarov^; yevecrOac 25 

"EXXrjcri. ovhev yap ev rolcrt Tlepayat SehrjXrjrai, 

rcov 7rp7]y/jidr(Dv, ovSe epee(,<; ofcov eyevofieda av8pe<i 

Ka/coL el Be ^oivtKe<; re Kal AlyvTrrtoc Kal Kvirptol 

re Kal KtXt/ce<? KaKol eyevovro, ovBev 7rpo9 Ilepcra? 

rovro TrpoarjKei ro 7rd6o<;. yjBr) aiv e7re(,Brj ov Uepaai 30 

roL alnol elcri, ep^ol rreiOeo' et rot BeBoKrat jjurj 


" TrapajJieveiv, av fiev €9 ijOea ra aeeovTov nireXavve, 
" T//9 arpartrjf; aird'ywv to ttoWov, i/iie Se aoi ')(^prj 
" rrjv KWdSa 7rapa(T)(^e2v SeSovXcofjLevTjv, rpaJKovra 
" IJivpiaha<^ rod arparov aTToXe^dfievov." 

A council of war. Arteinisia gives the same advice as 


5 CI. Tavra aKOvaa^ aep^rj^ W9 ifc KaKcov ix^PV 
T€ Kal r)a6ri, 7i'p6<=^ MapSovLOV re ^ov\6uadfi6VO<^ e^r) 
VTTOKpiveeaOat oKorepov iroirjaet tovtcop. (o<; Be 
e(3ov\ev6TO a/ia Uepaecov rolat eTrLKXrjTocai, eho^e 01 
Kal *ApTe/iit(T[7)v €9 avfi^ovXirjv /xeraTrefMylraadai,, otl 

10 irporepov i^alvero /jlovvt] voeovcra rd iroirjrea r)v. (o<; 
Be diriiceTO r) ^ KpTepbiair), iJLeTa<JTr]adixevo<^ tov<; aXXoL'9, 
rev's re av ijl^ov\ov<^ Uepaecov Koi tov<; Bopv(j)6pov^, 
eXefe S6pf7;9 rdSe' " KeXevet jxe MapS6pco<; fievovra 
" avTov ireipdaOaL t^9 TieXoirovvrjcFov, Xeycov w<^ fioL 

15 " [lepaac re koI 6 7refo9 <TTpaTO<; ovBev6<; fieralrioi 
' irdOeo'^ elai, dWd ^ovXo/nevoLorl a^i yevocr dv diro- 
'' Be^i<;. ifie wv rj ravra KeXevei iroieeLV, rj avro^ eOeXei 
" rpiyKovra fjivpidBa^ d7roXe^d/jLevo<i rod arpaiov 
^^ irapaax^lv poc ttjv 'EXXaSa BeBovXcop^evqv, avTov 

20 " S' ifxe KeXevei aTreXavveiv crvv tu> Xoltto) arparaj 69 
" ijOea rd ifid. av wv ifiol, Kal ydp irepl T7/<; 
" vavfiaxi'V'^ €v avvepovXevaai T779 yevofievrj^ ovk 
^^ iwaa TJoteeaOai, vvv re au/ii^ovXevaov oKorepa 
" TTocecov eTTtru^ct) ev ^ovXevadfiei^o^." CII. 'O fiev 

2^ ravra crvve^ovXevero, r] Be Xejec rdBe' "l^acrtXev, 
" XaXeiTov fiev ean o-v/x/SovXevoplva) rv^^lv ra 
" dptara eLiraaav, eVt pievroL rolcro KarrjKovat irprjy- 
'* fiaai, BoKeei p^oc avrov p^ev ae aireXavveip oiricrcd^ 


" MapBoviov Be, el eOeXei re koI vTroSe/cerat ravra 
" iroir^creiv, ainov KarakiTrelv avv rolcri eOeXet. tovto 
*' fiev jcip, Tjv Karaarpey^rT^Tai rd c^rjat iOekeiv zeal ol 
" irpoyaipr]ar) ra voecov Xeyet, aov to epyov, w hecnroja, 
" yiveraL, ol yap aol SovXoi /carepyaaavro, tovio he, 5 
" rjv TO, ivauTLa rrj<; ^lapSoviou yvco/jCTjf; yevrjTat, 
" ovSefila avp,(f)opr) fxeydXrj ecrrac aeo re Trepieovro'i 
" KoX eKelvcdV tcov 7rpr)y/jLaT0)v irepl oIkov tov (tov. rjv 
" yap av re irepLrj'^ kol ol/co<; cro9, ttoWou? 7roXXd/cL<; 
" dya)va<i Spa/ieovTaL irepl a^ewv avrwv ol "^XXrjve^^. 10 
^'^aphovlov he, rjv re irdOr], \0709 ovhe\<^ yiveiai' 
" ovhe Tt viKQ)VTe<; ol ''EXXr]ve<; viKcSac, hovXov aov 
** diroXeo-avre^i' aii he, roov elveKev tov aToXov eiroi- 
" rjaao, 7rvpcoaa<; Ta^; ' KOrjva^ direXa^;" 

Xerxes commissions Artemisia to conduct his children to 
Ephesos under the charge of Hermotijnos. 

cm. "Ho-^t; re hi) TJ} (TV/jL^ovXir) ^fp^r}<;' 15 
Xkyovaa yap eireTvyx^ave Td irep avTo<^ evoee. ovhe 
yap el iravre^ Kal irdaai avve/SovXevov avTM fxeveiv, 
efxeve av hoKeetv €/jlol' o'vtco KaTappcohrjKee. eTraive- 
aa<^ he Tr)v ^ApTe/jLLalrjv TavTr}v fxev aTToaTeXXec 
dyovaav avTOV TOV<i 'jralha<^ e? "E(^ecro^'' voOot ydp 20 
TLve'^ Trachea ol avveiirovTO. CIV. ^vveireixire he 
Tolat Traio-l (f)vXaKOV ^EpfioTCfiov, yevo^ fiev eovTa 
Tirjhaaea, (^epofxevov he ov to. hevTepa tcov evvov-^^oiv 
irapd paaiXei. ol he Yirjhaaee<^ oiKeovac virep 'AXl- 
Kapvr)Gov. iv he Tolat TlrjhdaoLat TOVTOtac Tocovhe 25 
<f>€peTai 7rprjy/j,a yiveaOat' e^redv Tolau dficfyLKTuocTL Tolat d/i(f)l TavTr)(; oiKeovcrt Trj<; 7r6Xto<i fieXXrj 
Ti eWo? ')(^p6vov eaeaOai ^aXeTroz^, TOTe rj Ipeir] avToOi 


T^9 ^A$r)vai7}^ (pveo irooycova /juiyav. tovto Se <t^l Sis 
7] 07] eyevero. 

The terrible revenge of Hermotimos. 

CV. 'Eac tovtcov St) tcGz^ n7;8<xcrea)i^ 6 'Fip/jbOTL/iio^; 
TjVy T(p [leyicrrri tl(tc<; rjSr} a^ifCTjOivri iyevero iravTcctv 

5 Twv i^fjieU Xhjjiev. aXovra yap avrov viro iroXefJuiccv 
KoX TTCoXeo/J^evop ooveerac TlavccovLo<; dvrjp Xto?, o? Trjv 
^orjV KareaTrjaaro air epycov dvocrLcoTdrcov. okco<; 
yap KTrjaaiTO TralSaf} el'Seo? iira/jU/jievovf;, ifcrd/jLvcou 
aycvecDV eVcoXee e? S^pSt? re Kal "E^ecroz/ y^prnxdrcdv 

lo fjieydXwv. irapa yap rolcrc ffap^dpoicrc rtfjuicorepoi 
elcTi ol evvov')(^OL irlcmo^ e'lveKev rr}^ 7rda7)<i twv 
ivop)(^(ov. dWov<; re ^rj 6 TiaviwvLOf; e^erafie irok- 
Xov<i, are 7roiev/jLevo<i 6k tovtov rrjv ^orjv, Kal hrj Kal 
Tovrov. Kal, ov yap ra irdvTa iSvarv'y^ee 6 '^p/xo- 

15 TL/jbO<;, dircKvierai 6k twv ^apSlwv irapd ^acrtXea fier 
dXXcov Ecopcov, '^povov he irpolovTO'^ Trdvrcov twv 
evvov')(cov ircfirfdrj /jLoXiara irapd 'B<ep^rj. CVI. 'II9 
he TO (TTpdrevfjia to TiepacKov (opjjba /JacrtXei)? eirl 
ra? ^A6^va<; icov ev ^dphiav, ivOavTa KOTa^d^ KaTa 

20 hr] Ti Trprjy/jia 6 '^p/jLOTCfMOf^ e9 yfjv ttjv IS/Lvctltjv, ttjv 
Xtot /jLev vefJLOVTau, ^ A.Tapvev^ Se KaXee.Tai, evpiaKeo 
Tov UavLcovLOV evOavTa. eirLyvoix; he eXeye 7rp6<; 
avTov iroXXov^ Kal (f)tXlou<; Xoyov^, Trpwra /xev ol 
KaTaXeycov oaa avTOf; he eKelvov e^oi dyaOd, hevTepa 

25 he ol v'JTi,a'^vev fxevo<; dvTl tovtcov oaa puiv dyaOd 
TroLTJaeL, tjv K0/j,laa<; tov<; oiKera^ OLKer) eKeivrj, coo-Te 
VTTohe^dfievov dafievov tov<; Xoyov^ tov UavLoovcov 
Kofiiaat Ta TeKva Kal ttjv yvvalKa. <W9 he dpa 
iravoLKiy fiiv irepieXa^e, eXeye 6 'Kp/jLOTtfio^; Tahe* 

evil OYPANIA 57 

O TrdvTcov dvSpcov tJBt} fxaXiara air epycov avoaKO- 
rarcdv top /Slop KT7]adfu,6ve, tl ae iyw KaKOV rj avTO<; 
rj rcuv ifiwv ra epydaaro, rj ae rj roov acov TLvd, ore 
fie dvT dvSpo^ e7roL7](7a<i to firj^ev elvai ; iS6/c6e<; t6 
66ov<; XrjcreLV ola efjurj^avco Tore, ol ae TroLtjcravTa 5 
(ivoaia, v6/jL(p SifcaLa) '^(^peo/jLevoi, VTr^jyayov e? ')(elpa<; 
Ta<s t/xa9, coaTe ere fjurj /xe/xyp^acrOai Trjv air ifieo tol 
eo'o/jLei'Tjv Bl/crjuJ' 0)9 Be ol TavTa wveihicre, a'-^OevTcav 
Twv iraihcov 6? o'^iv rjvayKa^eTO 6 YlavLwviO^ tcov 
ecDVTOV TralBcov Tecraepcov iovTcov rd alhola airoTa- 10 
fivecv, avay/ca^6fjLevo<; Be eirolee tuvtu. avTov re, C09 
TavTa epydaaTO, ol TralBe^dvayKal^ofievoL aireTafJivov. 
Yiavi(jiviov fxev vvv ovtco TreptrfkOe y re TLai<; /cat 6 


The Persian fleet leaves Phalerum at night for the Helles- 

CVII. p:,ep^7](; Be (W9 T01/9 TracBa^ ^ApTe/Jbio-iy 15 
eTreTpeyjre airdyetv e9 "Et^ecroz^, KuXeaa^; ^lapB6vcoi> 
eKeXevae /jllv Ty<i aTpaTi/fj<; BtaXeyeiv tov<^ ^ovXeTac, 
Kai TTOLeeiv Tolai Xoyotac Ta epya TrecpwfMevov ofiota. 
TavTrjv fjLev ttjv rj/jueprju €9 ToaovTO iylveTo, Trj<; Be 
vvKTo^ K€XevaavTo<^ l3aaLXeo<^ Ta9 vea<; ol aTpaTrjyol 20 
e/c Tov ^aXypou uTrrjyov oitlctco €9 tov '^XXrjcnrovTov, 
0)9 Ta^eof; €t)(^e €/caaTO<;, Btacf>vXa^ovo-a<; T(29 a-y^eBla'^ 
TTopevdfjvat ^aaiXei. eireX Be dyyov rjaav Z(oaTP]po^ 
TrXooovTe^ ol fidp^apoc, dvaTelvovaL yap aKpat XeiTTal 
T^9 rjireipov, TavTa<i eBo^dv re vea<^ elvat koI e^evyov 25 
eTTt iroXXov. ')(^p6v(p Be ixaOuvT€<^ otl ov vee<; elev, 
aXX uKpat, avXXe^6evTe(; eKO/JLi^ovTO. 


The Greek fleet pursues as far as Andros. Eurybiades^ 
against the opinion of The??iistokks, refuses to go farther. 

CVII I. '12? he 'i]fJ'€p7] ijivero, 6p€ovr€<; oi ''EX,- 
Xr]V€<; Kara x^PV^ fiivovra rbv arparov tov iret^ov 
rjXirL^ov Kol ra? vea<; elvau nrepl ^oKrjpov, iBoKeov re 
vavfjuax^a-eiv (T^ea?, TrapapreovTo re co? aXe^r)- 

5 (TOfxevoL iirel Be eTrvOovro ra? i^ea? olx^oKvla^;, 
avTLfca fiera ravra eSoKee eTTLSLcofcecv. tov fiev vvv 
vavTLKov TOV aep^ect) aTpaTov ovk eirelhov Btdy^avTe^ 
fiexpi' *'AvSpov, €9 Be TTjv "AvBpov aTTLKOfjuevoi i^ov- 
XeuovTO. SefjLLaro/cXerjf; fiev vvv yvoofjuTjv direBeiKvvTO 

lo Blcl v7]ao)V TpaiToixevovs kol eTriBioo^avTa^ to.^ vea<s 
TrXwetv Weco<; eTrl tov 'F^WyaTrovTOv XvaovTa<; ra? 
ye(j)Vpa<;. Fvpv^uiBr]^ Be Trjv ivavTtrjv TavTr) r^vd^jxriv 
iTiOeTO, Xeycov, co? el Xvaovai Ta^; ax^Bla^;, tovt av 
pi,eyi(TTOv iravTcov crc^et? /caKov ttjv 'RXXdBa epyd- 

15 craLVTO. el <ydp dvayfcaadeiT] d7ro\afjL(f)0el<; 6 Tlepo-r)^; 
fievecv ev ttj l^vpcoirr), 7reLpa)To dv rjavxlijv firj dyeiv, 
g5? dyovTL fiev ol tjo-vx^tjv ovt€ tl irpoxcopeetv olov T€ 
e(TTai TO)u 7rpT]y/jidTcov ovTe Tt9 KOfxiBrj to oiriao} 
^avTjaeTaL, Xifxco re ol r) aTpaTLrj BiacpOapeeTat, iin- 

20 x^LpeovTL Be avTO) kol epyov e^o/ieyw irdvTa ra KaTa 
Trjv Fvpco7rr}v old re eaTat Trpoax^^p^o'CLt, KaTa 7r6Xid<; 
re Kal KaTa edvea, 7]T01 dXco-KO/jievcov ye rj irpo tovtov 
ofxoXoyeovTCDv. Tpoc^rjv re k^eiv cr^ea<\ tov eireTeiov 
alel Toyv *^XXr)vcov Kapirov. aXXd BoKeeiv yap vikj}- 

25 OevTa TTJ vav/jLaxly ov fieveetv ev Ty EiVpooTrr) tov 
lilep(T7]v, eaTeov wv elvai, ^evyeiv, e? eXdy cfyeuycov 
69 TTjv eoiVTOv. TO ivOevTev Be Trepl t^9 eKeivov 
iroteeaOat rjBr) tov dywva eKeXeve. TavTT}^ Be el^pvTo 


T379 ypco/jLTj^ Kal UeXoTTOvvrjo-Lcov to^v aX\(ov ol 

The crafty speech of Themtstokles. 
CIX. 'n? 3e ejiade on ou ireLaei tov<; ye 
TToWoi)? irXcoeiv e? rbv '^WrjcrirovTov 6 Se/xL- 
cTTOKXeT]^, fiera/SaXwv irpb^i tov<; ^ KOrjvalov^ {ovroi 5 
yi)p jjuaXiCTTa €K7r€(f)€vyoTcov irepirj/ubeKTeov, copfjuearo 
re e? tov 'FjXXrfairovTov irXweiv kol eVl cr(j>e(ov avrcov 
ftaXXofievoi, el wXXol fjurj j^ovXoiaTo) eXeye (r<f)i rdBe' 
" Kal avTOf; rjSi] iroXkolai Trapeyevo/uLijv, koI ttoXXw 
" TrXeco aKrjKoa roidSe yevecrOai, dvBpa<; e? avayKairjv 10 
" CLTreiXTjOevTa^ vevLfcrj/jbevov^; dvaiid')(^ea6a[ re Kal 
" dvaXa/jL^dvetv rrjv Trporeprjv KaKOTrjra. r)fjbel<; he 
" (evprjixa yap evprjKapiev yfiea'^ re avrov; Kal ttjv 
"'EXXaSa, ve(f>o<; roaovro dvOpcoTrcou dvcuadfievoi) jir) 
" ht(t)KOL)fJLev dvBpa<s <pevyovra<;. raSe yap ovk rifiel<; 15 
" KarepyaadixeOa, dXXd Oeoi re Kal rjpcoef;, ot e(f)66- 
" VT]aav dvhpa eva Trj<; re 'Aair)<; Kal rrj^; l^vpcoTrr]^ 
" ^acnXevcrat eovra dvocriov re Kal didadaXov, 09 rd 
" ipd Kal rd Ihia ev ofiolo) eTroieero eiximrpd^i re Kal 
" Kara^dXXcov tcjv Oewv rd dyaXfxaTa, 09 Kal Trjv 20 
" OdXaacrav dTTefiaarlycoo-e 7reSa<; re Karrjue. dXX! 
" ev yap e;^et e'9 to irapeov rjfili' vvv fxev ev rfj 'EiXXdBi 
" KaTa/jLeLvavTa<: T^/juecDv re avrcov eTrcfieXrjOfjvac Kal 
'' roov OLKeredJv' Kal Tfc9 olkltjv re dvairXaordaOcd Kal 
" (TTTopov dvaKCCx; 6^6X0), 7^a^'TeXeft)9 drreXaaa^i rov 25 
" ^dp^apov' afJLa Se roj eapc KaraTrXecofjuev eTrV EXXija- 
" TTOvrov Kal ^Icovtrjf}.*' ravra eXeye drro6r)KT]V fieXXcop 
rroLiqaeadai e<? rbv Tleparjv, Xva rjv dpa ri [itv Kara- 
XafiBcivr) 7rpb<; ^AOrjvaicov 7rdOo<;, e)(r) diroarpocp^v' 
rd irep oov Kal eyevero. 3° 


Themistokles sends a message to Xerxes^ asserting that .:e 
had restrained the Greeks from pursuit, 

CX. %eiXLO-T0Kker)<^ fiev ravra Xeycov ^te^aWe, 
^ A07]vaiOL he eireiOovro' iireihr] yap koI Tvporepov 
SeBoy/nevo^; elpat croc^o? 6cf)dv7] icov a\r}6eco<; ao^o<^ re 
/cat €v^ov\o<;, nrdvTCt)^ eTot/jboc rjcrav Xeyovri TrelOecrOai, 
5 0)9 he ovTOi ol dveyvcoafjbevoi rjaav, avriKa fiera ravra 
6 @e/jiL(TroKXer}<; dvhpa<^ aTreTrejiire e\ovra<; irXolov, 
rolai eiTiareve aiyav e? irdaav jSdaavov diTLKveo- 
jLievoiCTL, rd avr6<^ evereCKaro /SacnXei ^pdcraC rcop 
/cat Sl/ccvvo^ 6 olfcer7]<i avri<; iyevero. oc evre/ re 

lo (lirifcovro TTpo<i rrfv ArrLKr)p, ol /juev Karefievov errl 
rS TrXoLw, %[klvvo<; he dva^d'^ irapd ^ip^ea eXeye 
rdhe' *'"E7reyLti|re fie ^efiicrroKXerjf; 6 Neo/cXeo?, crrpa- 
" rriyo^ fiev ^A6r)vaiO)v, dvrjp he rwv av/x/jbd^cov 
" irdvrcov dpLaro<; Kal ao(^wraro<;, (^pdcrovrd rot on 

15 *' @6fiL<TroKXe7)<; 6 ^AOrjva'co^, crol /3ovX6/bievo<; virovp- 
" yeeiv, ecr^e rov<; ''^XX7)va<; rd<^ vea<; ^oyXo/xevov^; 
" hocofceiP Kal ra? iv ^XXrjcrTrovrq) yecf)vpa<; Xvetv. 
" Kal vvv Kar rjcrv'yj.riv TroXXrjv /co/^t^eo." 

Exaction of co7itributions from Andros^ Karystos, Paros, 
and other islands. 

CXI. 01 fJLev ravra crrjfjbrivavre^; dTrerrXcoov 
20 OTTiCT CO' OL he ' EXA-T^j/e?, eTrel re acf^L drreho^e fjurjr 
eTTihtcoKeiv ere rrpoarorepco rwv ^ap/3dpa)v rd<i vea^;, 
fjLrjre TrXcoecv e? rov l^XXTJairovrov Xvaovra<; rbv 
TTopov, rrjv "Avhpov irepiKarearo, e^eXelv e6eXovre<;. 
TTpcoroL yap ' Avhpioc vrjaLoorecov alr7]6evre<i 7rpd<i 
25 ^e/JiL(TroKXeo<; '^p'^/iara ovk ehoaav, dXXd rrpol- 
a^^ofievov (^e/jLLaroKXeo^; Xoyov roi'he, (W? rjKoiev 


^ KOrjvaloi irepl icovrovf; €')^ovt€<; ^vo Oeov^ fi6yd\ou<i, 
HeiOoo T6 Kal 'ApaiyKaLTjv, ovrco re <T<^fc Kapra Sorea 
elvat ')(^pr)fjLaTa, VTreKpivavro irpo'^ ravra \eyovT6<;, w? 
Kara Xoyov ycrav apa at WOijvaL fieydXat re Kal 
evSai/jLOve^ Kal Oecov ^pr;o-Tc3z/ ijKOiev ev, eirel 'Az^Sptou? 5 
ye eivai yew7r6iva<; e? ra fjueytara dvr]KOvra<^, Kal 
deov<; 8vo d'^^prjarov^ ovk eKXeiTreiv crc^ecoz^ rrjv vrjcrov, 
aXk alel (jaXo^copeetv, TievLrjv re Kal ^A/jLr]-)^avir]v, 
Kal rovTcov twv Oeciov iirT^^oXov^ iovra^; ^AvSpuov^ ov 
Sooaeiv -^prj/jLara' ovSeKore yap T)7? icovroov d^vvajjiir)^ lo 
TTJv AOrjvalcov Svvafjutv elvau Kpecraco. ovroi jjuev Srj 
ravra v7roKpLvdfj,€VOL Kal ov S6vre<^ '^prjfjuara iTToXi- 
opKeovro. CXII. f^e/jbiaroKXirjf; Se, ov yap erravero 
irXeoveKrewv, iaTre/xircov 69 Ta? dWa<^ vr]<Jov<^ direc- 
Xrjrrjplov^; Xoyovs alree y^prjiiara hid rcov avrcou 15 
dyyiXfov, '^peofievo'; Xoyotat roLcn Kal 7rpo9 ^AvSplov^; 
i^pyjaaro, Xeywu 009 el firj Bojaovac ro alreofMevov, 
irrd^ei rrjv arparLTjv rcop '^XXtjvcov Kal TroXcopKecov 
e^aiprjaet. Xeycov (op ravra avveXeye ')(^pr]/jLara 
fieydXa rrapd K^apvarlcoi/ re Kal Ylaplcov, o'c irvvOavo- 20 
fievoL riju re" Avhpov (W9 TroXcopKeocro Scort 6/jLr)SLae,Kal 
©e/jLLcrroKXea C09 el'77 ev alvr) fxeyia-rr) roov arparijycov, 
8ei(Tavr6<^ ravra eirefJLTTOv ')(^p7]/j,ara. el Se Sn rive<; 
Kal dXXoc ehoaav vr)aL(orecov, ovk e)(^co elTrac SoKeco 
Se rLva<; Kal dXXov^; Sovvac Kal ov rovrov^ /novvov^;. 25 
KairoL YLapvarloiCTL ye ovSev rovrov e'lveKev rod 
KaKov virep^oXrj eyevero' TldpLOL Be SefitaroKXea 
'^prjpbacn iXaadfievoi hiec^vyov rb arparevfjua. 0e- 
fjbLo-roKXer)<; fjuev vvv e^ "AvSpov op/jLe6fievo<; XP^' 
fjuara irapd vrjaKorecov eKrrjro Xddprj rcov dXX'>w 30 


Retreat of Xerxes. Mardonius selects the troops who are 
to remain with him. 

CXIII. 01 8' ayLt(^l Bep^ea e7rtcr%WTe9 6XLya<i 
Tjfiepa^ fJLera Tr)v vavfiax^V^ i^rfXavvov e? Botwroi)? 
T-qv avTTjV oSov. eSofe yap MapSovLcp afia fiev 
TrpoirefM^lrat ^aaikea, ajxa he dvcoplrjv elvai rod €T€o<i 

5 7roX6/jL6€Lv, ^ei/xe/^tVat 3e afjueivov elvai, iv SeacraXtrj, 
Koi eireiTa dfjua rS eapc ireipaaOai rrj? IleXoTroz^- 
vrjaov. w? he airiKaro 69 rrjv (deaaa\i7]V, evOavra 
MapSoi/to? i^eXejero tt/dcotou? fjuev Ilepaa<; iravTa^ 
Tov^ aOavdrov^ KaXeofjievov<;, irXrjv 'TSdpveo<; rov 

lo a-Tpartjyov (ovro^ yap ovk e<^r) Xei^eaOai l3a(nXeo<^), 
jjuerd he t(Zv dXXo)v Uepaewv tov<; 6o}p7]KO<j)6pov^ Kal 
TTjv XiTTTOv rriv x^^^V^y '^^'' Mt^Sou? t€ Kal tdKa<; Kal 
BaKTptov^ re kuI 'Ivhov^, Kal rov ire^bv Kal ttjv dXXrjv 
iTTTrop. ravra fiev eOvea oXa elXero, e/c he rwv dXXwv 

15 (Tv^/Jidxcov i^eXeyero Kar oXlyou^, rolai elhed re 
virTjpxe hcaXeycov, Kal el reoiai ri xPV^'^ov avvrjhee 
TreTTOLrjfjLevoV h he irXelarov edvo^ Ilepaa<; alpeero, 
dvhpa<; aTpeirroc^opov^; re Kal ylreXio(j)6pov<;, eirl he 
Mr^hovr ovTOi he irXyOo^ /juev ovk eXdaaove^ yaav 

20 TMv Uepaecov, poojur) he eaaove^;' axTTe aviMiravra^ 
Tpt7]K0VTa ixvpidha^ yeveaOau avv iTnTevci. 

The Spartans demand satisfaction for the death of Leonidas. 

Mardonius shall give it them. 

CXIV. 'Ez^ he TOVTM TU) %/3oi^w, ev Tc3 MaphovLO^ 

T€ TYjV <TT par irjv hieKpive Kal Hep^7]<i rjv irepl Sea- 

aaXiTjv, xpV^^'^VP^o^ eXrjXvdee eV ^eX(j)Q)V KaKehai- 

25 fjLovloiat, Bep^ea alreeiv hUa^ rov Aecovlheco (i>ovov 

Kal TO hihofjuevov ef cKelvov hUeaOaL. Trif^Trovac hi) 


KrjpVKa Trjv Ta'^i(7T7]v STrapTcf/Tat, 09 eVez-Sr) Kare- 
\a/3€ eovaav en iraa-av rrjv arpaTirjv iv ^ecraaXtrj, 
iXOwu 69 o-yjriv rrjv B,ep^€co eXeye rdSe' "'H /Sao-iXeu 
" ^7]8cov, AaKeBai/jLOVioi re ere koI 'Hpa/cXetSat ol 
" dirb ^irdpTT]^ alreovai cf)6i>ov 8iKa<;, ore a(f)6(ov tov 5 
" ^aaiXea d7reKT€iva<i pvofxevov rrjv 'EXXa8a." o 8e 
yeXdaa^i re koI Karacr^ciov ttoXXov ')(^povov, w? 01 
eTvy)(ave Trapeareoo^ M.apS6vco<^, 86Lfciw<^ e? tovtov 
elire' ^'Toiydp (r(f)t Map86pio^ oSe 8iKa<; Scoaet 
" TOLavTa<;, o'La<i eKeivoLai TrpeireL' 10 

Xerxes continues his retreat. His sacred chariot and 
horses are missing. 

CXV. 'O pkv hr\ Sefayaez/o? to prjOev diraX- 
Xdcraero, B>6p^7]<; 8e M.apB6j/L0u iv ^eaaaXcrj Kara- 
Xlttcov avT6<; eiropeveTO Kara Td^o<; e? tov EjXXrja- 
TTovTov, KoX aTTLKueeTai e? tov iropov Tfj<; Bia^daco'^ 
iv irevTe koI TeaaepuKOVTa rjixeprjao, dirdycov rr;? 15 
aTpaTiPjfi ovBev fxipo'^ w? eliruv. ofcov Se iropevofxevoL 
yivoiaTO Koi KaT ovaTiva<; dvOpwirov^ij tov tovtcov 
Kapirov dp7rd^ovT€<; icriTeovro, el 8e Kapirov firjSeva 
evpocev, ol he ttjv Trolyv ttjp e/c tt]<; 7379 dvacpvo/jievrjv y^*****^ 
KoX Twv BevSpecov tov (pXocdv 7repiXe7rovT€<; kol tu 20 iil^**VV**-i 
d^ (f)vXXa KajaBpeirovTe^i KaTrjaOiov, o/jLOLcof; tcov re 
rjjMepodv KOL Twv dypicov, koi eXetirov ovSev' TavTa 5' 
iiTOLeov VTTO XijjLOV. iiriXa^ddv he Xol/jlo^ re tov 
GTpaTov KOL hvaevTepLTj KaT ohov hcec^Oeipe. tov<; 
Be Kol voaeovTa<; avTwv KaTeXeiire, iTTLTdaacov Trjat 25 
TToXcai, Lva eKaa-TOTe ylvocTO iXavvcov, /xeXehaiveLV re 
Kal Tpec^eLV, iv ^eacraXlr) re Tiva<i koX iv '^ipi Trj<; 
YiaioviT)^ Kal iv MaKehovlrj. eiOa Kal to Iphv dpfxa 


KaraXoTTcov rod Ato?, ore iirl rrjv 'EWdSa 7J\av]/6y 
aiTLWv ovK (ZTTeKajBe, dWa S6vTe<; ol Tiaiove<^ rolat 
Sp^'i^t aTracreovTO^ aep^eco e(j)acrav vefJbOfieva^ dp- 
iraaOrjvaL viro rwv dvco @pr]'l'K(i)v tcov Trepl rd^ Trrjyds: 

5 TOV %TpV/jb6vO<^ olKTJjubivCOV. 

Cruelty of the Thracian king, 

CXVI. ^'YivQa KOL 6 Tcov ^iaaXreayv PacrCkev<^ 
yrj<i T6 T^9 K.p7]aTa)VL/crj<; Spyjl^, epyov V7rep(j>vh 
ip'yaaaro. 09 ovre avTo<^ 6(p7} to) im^ep^r) ckcov elvau 
hovXevaetv, aX)C ot^ero dvco 69 to ovpo^i ttjv 'VoBotttji/, 

10 TolcTi re nraicrl diT7]<y6peve fxr) arpareveaOai eirl rrjv 
'J^WdSa. ol Be aXo^rjcravre^;, rj dXXco^ cr^L Ovjjlo^; 
eyepero OrjrjaaaOai, rov iroXefiov, iarparevovro ajxa 
Tco Tleparj. iirel Se dve')(^u)pr)(Tav daivee^ irdvTe^ e^ 
eovTe9, i^copv^e avrwv 6 irarrjp tov<; 6^6aX/jiov<; Bed 

15 rrjv alrirjv ravTrjv. 

Xerxes ajiives at the Hellespont, and, finding the bridge 
destroyed, crosses to Abydos by ship. 

CXVI I. Kal ovTOL fjuev tovtov tov jjuictSov 
eXa^ov, ol Be Uepcrac ct)9 efc rrji; %prjtfC7)^ "TTopevofievov 
aTTLKovTO eTTi TOP iTopov, iireiyo/juevoc rov ^EXXijcr- 
irovTOv TTJci v7)vorl Bie^TjCTav 69 "A^vBov' Ta9 ydp 

20 (T')(^eBia^ OVK evpov ere evTerapbeva'^, dXlC viro 
^e</xc3z/09 BiaXeXvjieva^. ivOavra Be Kareyop^evoL 
a IT la re irXeco rj Kar oBov iXdyy^avov, ovBeva re 
Kocrpov epbiTL'TTXdp.evoL fcaX vBara p,€Ta/3dXXovTe<; 
aTredvrjaKov rov arparov rod 'jrepLe6vTo<i ttoXXoL ol 

25 Be XocTTol dpa Sepfr? dirLKveovraL i<; XdpBt<;. 


According to another story he crossed from Eion, and was 
preserved by an act of wonderful devotion on the part 
of the Persians. 

CXVIII. "E<7Ti Se KoX oKKo'^ oSe X,0709 Xe7o- 
/xez^09, ctf9 €7r6tBr} Ptip^rjf; aireXavvcdv i^ ^Adrjvicov 
aTTLKeTO eir 'Hioi/a rrjv iirl %TpVfi6vtf ivOevrev 
ovKerc oSoLTTopLrjac SL€')(^pdTO, aXka ttjv /jlev arpanrjv 
"Thapvel enTLrpdireL aTrdyecv €9 tov ^^XktjaTroPTOv, 5 
ai)T09 3' eVt ve6<; ^olvl(J<T7]<^ i7rc^d<; eKOfii^ero €9 rrjv 
^Aa-LTjv. irXwovra Be fitv dvefxov ^TpvfxovLrjv viroka- 
fSelv jjiifyav koI KVjJLarirjv. Koi hrj, p^aXkov yap tl 
'^etp.alvecrOac yepovar)^ 7779 1^609 wcrre eVl tov Kara- 
aTp(vp,aTO<} eTTeovTCOv av^vcov Uepcrecou roov avv 'B^ep^rj 10 
/€op,L^opevo)v, ivOavra €9 Setp^a ireaovra tov ^acrtXea 
elpeaOai ^waavTa tov KvjSepvrJTrjv, et Tt<; iaTL (T(f)t, 
(Ta)T7)pL7}. KOI TOV elirai' *' AeajroTa, ovk eaTi ovhepbla, 
" i]v p,7J TOVTCOv aTraXkayr) Tt9 yevrjTai tcov ttoWoSv 
" e7ri^aT6(i)v" koI 'B^ep^ea XiyeTUC dKovaavTa TavTa 15 
eiTraC ^'"AvSpe<; Uipaac, vvv tl<; BiaSe^dTco vpuicov 
" ^a(TiXeo<; Kr)B6/jLevo<;' iv vpZv yap 61k6 ip.ol elvac 77 
" <r(0TT]pL7}." TOV pev TavTa Xeyetv, tov<; Se TTpoa- 
KvveovTa^ iKirrjhdv €<; ttjv ddXaaaav, kol ttjv via 
iiTLKovi^iaOelaav ovtco Brj dTroacodrjvat e9 ttjv ^Aaurjv. 20 
(U9 5e iK^rjvai, Td^LaTa €9 yrjp tov Bep^ea, iroirjaai 
TOLOvSe' OTL p,ev eacoae ^ao-ikko^ ttjv '^v')(^))v, Bcopy- 
aaadat, ')(^pva6r) aT€(f>dvr) tov Kv^epvrJTijv, otl he 
Hepaecov 7roXXov<; dTrooXeae, diroTap^elv ttjv KecjyaXrjv 
avTOv. CXIX. Ol'to9 3e dXXo<; XeyeTai X0709 irepl 25 
tov fftCp^eo) v6(TTOv,ov8ap,(ji)<; epuotye 7r^o'T09,oi/T6 aWa)9 
ovTe TO Tlepaecov tovto Trddo^i. el yap B^ TavTa 
H. VIII. 2 


ovTco elpeOr] etc rod fcv^epv^Teco Trpo? Hepfea, iv 
fivpiycTL rypcofjuyai /jbuav ovK e^ft) dvTL^oov, ixrj qvk av 
iTOLrjaai /Sao-tXia roiovhe, tov<; juuev 6K tov Karaa-Tpoo- 
(jbaTO^ KaTa/St^daat e? kolXtjv vea i6vTa<; Ilepcra? Kal 

5 Jl€p(Tecov Tov<; tt/ocotou?, toov 8' iperecov iovrcov 
^oiVLK(ov oKco's OVK dv Xdov 'ifKrj6o<; tolctl Hepayai, 
i^e^aXe e? rrjv OdXaaaav. dXX* 6 fiev, co<^ koI 
irporepov fiot elprjTai, o8a) '^pecofievo^; dfia rw dXX(p 
o-Tpard) d7r€v6aT7](Te 69 t'^v ^Aalrjv. CXX. M.eya 

lo Se Kal ToSe fxapTvpLov' ^alverai yap Oe/of?;? iv ttj 
oirlaco KOfjLcSfj d7rcK6fjL€vo<i €9 "AfiSrjpa, Kal ^eivirjv re 
ac^L (Tvv6efjievo(; Kal Ba)p7](rd/jLevo<; avTOv<i dKivdKrj re 
'^pvaecp Kal Ttrjprj '^pvaoirdarq), Kal co9 avrol 
Xeyovat 'A/SBrjpLrai, Xeyovres e/jLOtye ovSa/jLd)<; m-co-rd, 

15 irpd>Tov eXvaaro rrjv ^oovrjv (j)6vya)v ef ^Adrjvecov 
oTTLaco, CW9 iv dheiT) eoov. rd Be "AjSSrjpa IhpVTai 
7rpo9 TOV ' EiXXTjo-irovTov /JbdXXov rj rod '2,TpvfjL6i'o<; 
Kal Trj<; 'Htoi'09, odev Srj (mlv ^aai eTTC^rjvai iwl 
Trjv vea. 

The Greek fleet return to Salamis and proceed to divide the 


20 CXXI. Ot he '^EXX7?^'e9 iirei re ovk olol re 
iyevovTO e^eXelv rrjv "Avhpov, rpaTro/juevoc 69 J^apv- 
GTov Kal Br]L(6(TavTe<; avTwv ttjv %ft)/)^i' dTraXXacr- 
aovTO 69 ^aXafiiva, nrpoiTa fiev vvv rolai 6eol(TL 
e^elXov aKpoOivia dXXa re Kal rpcrjpea^ TpeL<; 

25 ^0LVL(Taa<;, ryv fiev 69 ^larO/jubv dvaOelvaiy rj irep €tl 
Kal 69 e'/xe ^v, rrjv Be iwl Sovvlov, rrjv Be tS AcavTO 
avTov 69 SaXa/jblva. fierd Be tovto BceBdaavTO rrjv 
Xrj'l'rjp Kal rd dKpo6lvia dTreireii-y^av 69 AeX^0f9, eK 


Toov iyevero dv^pia<; e)(^cov ev rfj %etpt aKpcoTrjpLov 
i/eo9, €(ov fjLeyadof; SvcoBeKa 7rrj')(^ecov' earrjKe 8e outo? rfj 
Trep 6 M-aKeSciov ^AXe^avSpo^; 6 '^(^pvaeo^. CXXII. Ile//,- 
yjravTe^ Be aKpodlvia ol"EWr)V€f; e? AeX^oi)? eirecpco- 
reov Tov Oeov /cotvfj, el \e\d/3r]/ce irXrjpea Kai apeara 5 
rd aKpoSivia. 6 he irap ^EWijvcov fxev toov oKXcov 
ecprjae e'X^ecv, Trap* Alycvrjrecov Be ov, dWd airaiTee 
auTOVf; rd dpiarrjla T7J<; ev XaXafxlvL vav/jLa^Lr)(;. 
AlyLvrjraL Be irvOoiievoL dveOeaav darepa^ ^^pucreof?, 
di eirl IcTTOV '^dkKeov eaTaai Tpe2<; eVl TJ79 jcovl7]<;, 10 
dr/'^OTarco tov J^poLcrov KprjTrjpo^, 

The chief prize of valour ; all give their second votes to 


CXXIII. Mera Be Trjv Bcaipeaiv t^? Xr)i7)<; 
eirXwov ol ''EXX7jve<^ e? tov 'Jad/jLov dpLorTr^la Bw- 
aovT€<; To3 a^ccoTaTW <yevo/jLevq) 'EWrjvcov dvd tov 
TToXe/JLOV TOVTOV. (W9 Be dTTC/co/jLevoL ol (TTpaTTjyol 15 
Bieve/JLOVTO ra? '\^?;0ou9 eVt tov llo(recBecovo<; tm 
^(OfMQ), TOV irpwTOv Koi TOV BevTepov KpLvovTe<; ix 
TrdvTOiv, evOavTu ird<; tl<; avTwv ccovtS eTideTO Trjv 
'\lrfj(j)ov, avTOf; €KaaTO^ BoKecov dptaTO^; yeveadai, 
BevTepa Be ol ttoXXoI avve^eirLirTOV ©e/jutcrTOfcXea 20 
KpLvovTe^;. ol fiev S?} e/novvovvTo, Se/JLto-T0KXe7]<; Bf^ 
BevTepeioLdb vTrepejSdXXeTo ttoXXov. 

His visit to Sparta ; the honours given hini there provoke 
jealousy at Athens. 

CXXIV. Qv ^ovXoyievwv Be TavTa Kpiveiv toov i 
EXXrjvwv <f)6ova), dXX* diroTrXtoovTCov eKd(TTCov 69 
T-qv ecovTwv aKpLTcov, o/xco<i Q^e/jLiaT0KXe7]<; e^coo-dr] re 25 


Kal iBo^coOr} elvai dvrjp iroWov ^^Wr)vwv ao(f>(aTaTOf; 
ava iraaav rrjv 'EXA-aSa. on he vlkwv ovk eTLix7)9rj 
irpb^ T(ov ev ^aXa/ntvt vav/jia')(^7}o-dvTcov, avrcKa fierd 
ravra €9 AaKeBatfjiova aTTifcero ideXcov Tifjbrjdrjvai,. 

5 Kal fjLLV AafceSac/jLoviot koKoo^ fjuev vireBe^avTO, /jueyd- 
Xq)9 8e 6TLfxrjcrav. apcarrjia fxev vvv ehoaav ^vpv^idhr) 
iXalr)^ arecpavov, ao(f)L7](; Be Kal he^iorrjTO^ Sefjicaro- 
K\el, Kal TOVTG) aTe<pavov eKair}^. iScoprjaavTO re 
/jlcv o^fp T(p ev ^irdprrj KaWtaTevovTi. alveaavre'i 

10 Se iroWd, TrpoeTre/jb-ylrav dinovTa rpirjKoaiot ^irap- 
Ttr)Teo)V XoiyaSe?, ovtol oX irep liTiree'^ KaXeovrat^ 
fie'^po ovpcov Tcov TeyeijTiKcop, julovvov Srj tovtov 
TrdvTCdv dvOpooTTcov Toov r)/jLeL<; cS/uiev X'TrapTtrJTao 
TrpoeTre/jiylrav. CXXV. 'O? 8e eK rrjf; AaKehaL/jLOvo<; 

15 aTTLKero e? Td<; ^AOrjva^, evOavra TcfioBrj/jLOf; 'A^tS- 
valo^;^ TCOV e-^Opcov fiev toov %efxt(TTOK\eo<i ecov, dWco<; 
Se ov TCOV iincpavecov dvBpcov, (f)66v(p KaTa^iap^ewv 
eveiKee tov Se/uiicrTOKXea, ttjv eV AaKeSaifMOva din^tv 
TTpocpepcov, 0J9 Bid Ta^i ^AOr/va^; e')(^0L Ta yepea Ta 

20 irapd AaKeBai/ubovlov, aXX ov Be ecovTov, 6 Be, eirei 
Te OVK eiraveTO TavTa Xeycov 6 Tc/jb6B7)fjio<;, elire' 
OuTO) e')(et Toc ovt dv eyco ecov ^eX^tviTT]^ eTC/iiijOTjv 
,aW<-^^- "ovtoo TTpo^ %7rapTC7]Teoov, OVT dv aif, covOpcoTre, ecov 

Artabazus on his return from escorting Xerxes takes 
Olynthos and lays siege to Fotidaea. 

25 CXXVI. TaOra p^ev vvv 69 toctovto eyeveTO, 

^ ^ApTa^a^o^ Be 6 ^apvdKeo<^ dvrjp ev Yiepar)(TL X6- 

7^/^09 Kal irpoaOe ecov, eK Be tcov TlXaTatiKcov Kal 

/xaXXov eTt, yev6/jLevo<i, e^cov ef /JLvpidBaf; arpaTov tov 


Map8oz/to9 i^eXi^aro, TTpoeirefjiire ^acnXea /J'ixP^ "^^^ 
TTopov. C09 Se 6 /jL€V Tjv iv Tjj A.alr}, 6 8e OTrlcroi) 
TTopevofievo^ Kara ttjv HaWrjvrjv iylvero, are Map- 
ZovLov T€ '^eLfJuepi^ovTO^ irepl SeaaaXlrjv re koI 
MaKeBovirjv koI ovhev Kca KareTrelyovTo^; yKeiv i<; to 5 
aXXo (TTpaTOTreSov, ovk iSiKalov ivrv^cov aTreare- 
(£)cn TloTtSaL^TDaL jjutj ovk e^av^paTTo^icraaOai crc^ea^. 
ol yap UoTiSatrJTaLf co? fiaaiXevf; Trape^eXrfXaKce 
Kol 6 vavTLKO^; Tolat UepcrrjcrL ol'^ooKee (fievycov gk 
^aXafjilvof;, eV tov (^avepov airearaaav cltto t^v 10 
^ap/3ap(ov' ft)9 Se Kal wXXot ol rrjv TiaXX'qvrjv 
€')(pvT6'i. CXXVII. ^FivOavra 8?} 6 ^AprdjSa^o^i O 
eiroXiopKee rrjv lioTlSatav. V7ro7rTevaa<; Be Kal tov<; 
^OXvvOiOV^ airiaTacrOaL diro ^acrtXeo?, Kal ravrrjv 
iiroXiopKee. el^ov Be avrrjv Borriatot ol eK tov 15 
%ep[jLaiov KoXirov i^avaaTavTe^ vtto ^laKehovcov. 
iirel Be a(j>ea^ etXe TroXcopKecov, KaTea^a^e i^ayayoov 
69 Xl/JiVTjVj TYjv Be ttoXlv irapaBiBol K.pLTo/3ovXfp 
Topcovalo) eTTLTpoTTeveiv Kal tco ^aXfciBcKw yevel, Kal 
ovTOi) ^OXvvOov X.aX/ccBee^ ea^ov. 20 

TAe treason of Ttmoxenos discovered. 

CXXVIII. 'EfeXwi' Be TavTTjv 6 ^ Xpra^al^o^ ttj 
YioTiBair] evTerafievco'i Trpocret^e, 7rpoae')(ovTt Be ol 
7rpo6vfi(o<; avvTiOeTac TrpoBoaiTjv Ttfi6^€tvo<; 6 twv 
^KLwvaiwv (TTpaTTjybs, ovTLva fiev Tpoirov dp-^r^v, 
€7Ct)7e OVK e')((jd elirelv (ov yap <Sv XeyeTai), TeXo<; 25 
fievToi TotdBe eylveTO ' okco<; /Bl^Xlov ypdyjreie rj 
Ti/JLo^eivo^ i6eXcDV irapd ^ ApTapa^ov Tre/xi/rat rj 
'ApraySafo? nrapd TcfMo^eivop, T0^evfJbaT0<; Trapd Td<i 


7Xu0tSa9 ireptecXi^avref; koI rrrrepwaavre^i to ^o^Xlov 
iro^evov 69 avy/ceifjievov '^(^copLov. inrdlcTTO'^ he ijevero 
o Ti,/uLo^eLVo<; TrpoSiSou? rrjv TlorlSaLav. ro^evcov yap 

ApTd/3a^o<^ 69 TO (rvyK6Lfjb6Vov, d/jLapTcov tov ')(^[opiov 
5 TovTov ^dWeu dvBp6<; TloTchaoriTeco tov (^/jlov, tov Be 

^XrjOevTa TrepiiSpafie o/jll\o(;, oca (j^iXiei yiveaOai ev 
TToXejJbcp, ot avTLKa to TO^evfia Xa/SovTe^;, C09 e/naOov 
TO ^t(3Xiov, e(j)epov eVl toik; aTpaT7]yov<;' Traprjv Se 
Kol Tcov dXXwv IlaXXrjvaLcov avfi/uia'X^iT). Tolcrt he 

10 aTpaTTjyoicTL eTTiXe^ajxevoLaL to /Sl/SXIov /cal fjuaOovat 
TOV aiTiov Tr}<; 7rpohoaL7]<; eSo^e fir) /caTaTrXrj^ac 
Tc/jLo^eivov irpoSoo-ir) t^9 ^Kcwvaioav iroXio^ eiveKev, 
pjY) voiii^olaTO etvai '^KicovaloL 69 tov /jbeTeTrecTev 
')(^p6vov alel TrpohoTat. 6 /buev Brj tolovtm Tpcirw 

15 eirdlaTO^i iyeyovee, 

Artabazus loses two-fifths of his army in the sea while 
trying to get round the mole. 

CXXIX. ^ApTa^d^o) he eTretSr} iroXiopKeovn 
iyeyoveaav Tpel<^ /Jbr]ve<;, yiveTau d/x7rcoTL<; t^9 Oa- 
Xd(T(T7}<; fieydXr) /cal ')(^p6vov eirl iroXXov. 186vt€<; he 

01 pdp^apoL Tevayo'^ yevofxevov waprjlaav €9 Tr)v 
20 YiaXXr]vr]v. (y9 he Ta9 hvo /juev fjLolpa<; hiohoLTTopy- 

KeaaVy €tl he TpeL<; vttoXolttoi, r/aav, Ta9 hLeXd6vTa<} 
Xpr^v eao) elvat ev Trj UaXXijvr}, e7rfjX6e TrXrj/uijiiv- 
pl<i TTJf; 6aXd(Tar]<; fieydXr], oarj ovha/uud kco, co<; ol 
i'irL')(^copLOL XeyovaLy iroXXdKi^ yevofievrj. ol fiev hrj 
25 veeLv avToov ovk eiriCTTajJuevov hLe<^6eipovTO, tov<; he 
i7riaTafjLevov<; TloTLhairjrat e7rL7rX(£)cravTe<; irXoloiat, 
aTrcoXeaav. aiTuov h^ Xeyovcn TLoTLhavrjTai Tfj<; re 


pr)^Lr)<; koi Trj<; TrXrjfi/jLvptSo^; fcal rod TIepcriKov irdOeo'^ 
r^eveadai rohe, ore tov IIo<recBe(ovo<; e? rbu vt]ov koI 
TO dyaXfia to iv Ttp irpoaaTeLco rjai/STjaav ovtol twv 
Tiepaewv, oi irep koX ScecpOdprjaav viro T379 OaXdaar]^. 
aiTLOv he TOVTo \eyovTe<i ev Xeyetv efjLOiye So/ceovat. 5 
TOv<; Be irepiyevojjbevov^ dirriye ^ApTd^a^o<i e? Sea- 
crd\.ir)v irapd ^apoovLov. 

B.C. 479. In the following spring the Persian fleet 0/7,00 
sail reassembles at Samos. 

CXXX. OvToi fiev 01 7rp07r€fji'^avTe<; ^acriXia 
ovTO) eTTpTj^aV 6 Be vavTCKd<; 6 'Sep^eco irepLyevopbevo^;. 
(W? Trpoaifjbc^e Tr} ^Aalr} (pevycov eK ^dXajjilvo^ koi 10 
^aaiXea re koI ttjv (TTparLrjv eK ^epcrovrjaov Bce- 
TTopO/juevae €9 ^AjSvBov, i^eifiepi^e iv K.vfjby. 6apo<; 
Be i7riXd/jL'\lravTo<; Trpco'io'; crvveXeyero e? ^dfiov at Be 
T(t)v vewv Kol e')(^eiixepi(Tav avTov ' Uepaecov Be kol 
^TjBcov ol 7rXevve<; eire^dTevov, aTpaTrjyol Be a(f)L 15 
eTTrjXOov lAapBovTr)^ re Bayatou Koi ^ApTavvTrj<^ 
6 ^ ApTa')(aLov ' (Tvvrjp')(e Be TovTOtai koi dBeX^LBeo<; 
avTov ^ApTaiipTeco TrpoaeXofjuevov ^ldafji[Tprj<;. aTe Be 
fieydXco<; TrXrjyevTe^;, ov irporjiaav dvcoTepco to 7rpo9 
k<7irep7)<;, ovB^ iTrrjvdy/ca^e ovBel<;, dXX^ iv Trj ^dfiw 20 
KaTTjfievot e^vXaaaov ttjv ^Icovirjv fjurj aTroaTrj, vea<; 
e^ozvT69 o-vv Tjjo-L ^ld(Ti> Tpnf)Koaia<^. ov /nev ovSe 
irpoaeBeKovTO Tov<i "EiXXrjva^ iXevaeadat €9 ti^v 
looulrjv, dXX diro^prjaetv a(j)C ttjv ecovToJv ^vXda- 
aetv, (TTaOiJievfJbevou otc G(t)ea<; ovk eireBtco^av (pev- 25 
yovTa's eK ^aXapblvo^, dXX^ dafievot aTraXXdaaovTO. 
KUTci flip vvv TTjv OdXaaaav eaa'WjJLevoi ^aav Tfo 


6vfiM, irei^fj he iBoKCOv ttoWov KpaTrjcreiv tov Map- 
hovLov. i6vT€<i Be iv ZidfJUM a/ma fiev e/SovXevovTO, el' 
Ti Bwalaro Kaicbv rovf; 7ro\e/jLiov<; iroteeLv, a/ia Be koI 
(OTaKOvaTeoVj okjj ireaeeTaL to. M.apBovLov irprjyiiaTa. 

The Greek fleet assembles to the number of no at Aegina. 

5 CXXXI. Tou9 Be '^EWTyra? to re eap ^ivofjbevov 
rjryeipe kol lAapBovio^ ev ©eaaaXtrj ioov. 6 [xev Br) 
7re^6<; ovkco crvveXeyero, 6 Be vavnico^ d'jTiKeTO e? 
Klf^Lvav, vee<; dptOfibv Bifca koX etcarov. oTpaTr]'yb<; 
Be KOL vavap')(o<^ rju Aei/ry^^tS?;? 6 M.evdpeo(; tov 

lo 'YLyrjaiXeco tov 'IirTroKpaTiBeco tov AevTV')(iBe(o tov 
^Ava^lXeco tov ^ Kp')(^iBr] fxov tov ^Ava^avBplBeo) tov 


vofiov TOV JJo\vBeKTeo<; tov YlpVTavLo^ tov Eu- 
pv<j)covTo<; TOV npo/cXeo? tov ^ApLdToByfiov tov 
15 ^KpLaTopbd')(pv TOV KXeoBalov tov ^'TWov tov 'Jipa- 
fcXeo^, eoov Trj<; eTeprj<; oIkl7]<; toov jSacriXecov. ovtol 
irdvTe^, ifkrjv tcov Bvcov twv fieTa KevTV')(^iB7]v TrpcoTcov 
KaTcCke^OevTCdv, ol akXoi ^aaCkee'^ eyevovTO ^irdpTT]^. 
^A6rjvaLcop Be earpaTijyee "BidvB LTriro^^ 6 ^ApL(j)povo^, 

Envoys from the lonians asking for help arrive at Sparta 
and Aegina. The Greek ships go as far as Delos. 

20 CXXXI I. '12? Be irapeyevovTO e? Trjv AXytvav 
irdaai at vee<;, diriKovTO ^Icopcov dyyeXoc 69 to 
(TTpaTOireBov toov ^KXXrjvayv, ot koI e? ^TrdpTijv 
oklycp irpoTepov tovtcop diriKOfxevoi eBeovTO Aa/ce- 
BaifJLOViCDV eXevOepovv Trjv ^Icoviijv' tq)v /cat 'HpoSoro? 

25 o ^aaikrj'l'Beo) rjv. ol aTaaccoTac a(f)Lat yevojmevoi 


iire/SovXevov Odvarov I^TpaTTU rw X/ou rvpdvvq), 
iovre^ dp')(r}v eTrra* iTTiffovXevovref; Be 009 (fyavepol 
iyevovTO e^evelKav70<^ Trjv iTrc^^eiprjcnv ivof; twv 
fJL€T€')(^6vT0JV, OVTO) By 01 XotTTol €^ i6vT6<^ V7re^ea')(ov 
eK T7J<; X.LOV, fcal i<; XTrdprrjv re aTTLKovro koI Br) koX 5 
Tore 69 rriv Atyivav, rcov 'YjWtjvcov Beofievoi, Kara- 
irXcoaat e? Trjv ^Icovlijv' ot irpo^yayov avroix; fioyi^; 
fjLe^po ArjXov. TO yap Trpoacorepco irdv Betvov rjv 
TolcFL ' EA,X7;crt ovre tcov '^^copwv iovcn efjUTrelpoiaty 
arpaTcrjf; re irdvTa ifKea eBoKee elvai' Trjv Be Xd/jLov lo 
rjirtareaTO Bo^rj koI 'Hpa/cXea? (TrrjXa^ taov aTre^eii^. 
(TVvein'jrTe Be tolovto coare tov(; fiev ^ap/Sdpov^ to 
Trpo? e(T7Tepr)<; dpcorepo) Xd/iov fjurj roXfjudv tcarairXwaai 
KarappcoBTQKOTa^;, tov<; Be "^XXr]va<^ ')(^p7]C^6vTcov ^Icov 
TO 7rpo9 Trjv r;ft) KaTcorepco AijXov. ovtw Beo<; to 15 
jxeaov icpvXaaae a-<pecov. 

MardoniuSy before breaking up his winter quarters in 
Thessaly, consults the oracles by means of a Juan named 

CXXXIII. Ot p,ev Br] "EXX,77z^69 errXcoov e? Trjv 
ArjXov, M.apB6vLo<; Be irepl ttjv ^eacraXirjv ey^elfjba^e. 
evOevTev Be 6p/j,e6fjLevo<; eirefiTre KaTa Ta ')(^pj)GTripia 
dvBpa ^vpcoTrea yevo<;, tw ovvojia tjv MO?, evTetXd- 20 
fievo^; 'rravTa')(ri pnv y^prjcrofxevov eXOelv, tcov old re 
TJV <7(j)L a7ro7reipT]aaa6aL o tl fiev ^ovX6/xevo<; i/c/jia- 
6elv irpof; t(£>v ')(p7)aTr]pLa)v TavTa eveTeXXeTO, ov/c 
€^0) (ppaaat ' ov yap wv XeyeTac ' BoKeco B' eycoye 
irepl TCOV TrapeovTcov TrprjyfidTcov koI ovk dXXcov irepL 25 
Tre/jLyfrat. CXXXIV. Outo? o MO9 69 re Ae/SdBecav 
(f>aiveTaL airiKop.evo'; Kal /j,La6(p irecaaf; tcov iTrcycopLcov 


dvBpa Kara^rjvat irapa TpocfxiovLov, koX e? "A/3a? to? 
^(o/cecov d7nK6fi€VO<; iirl to ')(pr]aTTJpLov. koX 8r} koX 
69 Sr}l3a<; irpwra o)? diriKeTO, tovto fiev tc3 ^la/jirjvlq) 
^AiroWcovL e^pijcraTO {ecrrt Be Kara irep ev ^OXvjjLirlrj 

5 IpOLcrc avToOi '^priGTrjpidt^eaOai), tovto he ^elvov TLva 
Koi ov ©rj^alov '^p^fiaa-o Trelcra^s KaTeKotfirjae e? 
*A/ji(f)idpe(o. %r)l3ai(idv Be ovBevl e^ecTTi fiavTeveadaL 
avTodi Bid ToBe' eKeXevae acpea^ 6 ^ Kfi^idpew^ Bid 
')(^pr)(TTr)pL(ov TroLevjJievo'^ oKOTepa ^ovXovTai ekeaOai 

lo TOVTCov, ecovTcp 7] aTe puavTi ')(^peecr6aL rj aTe cv/x/^a^o), 
Tou eTepov d7re')(oixevov<^' ol Be Gvpipiayov fxiv eiXovTO 
elvai. Bid TOVTO jjuev ovk e^ecTTi (drj/Saicov ovBevl 
avToOi iyKaTaKOLfi7]67]vai. CXXXV. Tore Be dajfid 
fiot fjueyiCTTOV 'yeveaOai Xeyerai virb Srj/Saicov, iXOetv 

15 dpa TOP EvpcoTrea "Mdv, irepicrTpw^cDjjbevov irdvTa Ta 
')(^pr]aT7]pLa, Kol €9 Tov YItwov ^ AttoWcovo^; to Te/jievo<;. 
TOVTO Be TO Ipbv KokeeTai p^ev Htccov, eaTi Be ^y^atcov, 
KeeTai Be virep Tr]<; K.co7ratBo<; \ipjvr)<^ 7rp6<; ovpel dyyp- 
TaTco ^AKpaL(j)i7]<; iroXto^. €9 tovto to Ipbv eireL re 

20 irapeXOelv Tbv /caXeopevov tovtov M.vv, eirecrOai at 
Twv dcTTwv alpeTov<; dvBpa^; TpeL<i airo tov kolvov ft)9 
aTToypaylrop^evov^; Ta OecnTieeiv epeXXe. Kai irpoKaTe 
TOV irpbpavTLV ^ap/Bdpcp yXwaar) XP^^' '^^'' '^^^^ 1^^^ 
e7rop.evov<; twv Srj^aicov ev OwpbaTt ex^o-Oai aKovovTa^ 

25 ^appdpov yXa)(7ar)(} dvTt 'EXXdBo^;, ovBe e^etv o tl 
yprjaovTaL tc3 irapeovTC 7rp7]yp,aTL' Tbv Be Evpcoirea 
M.VV e^apirdaavTa irap avTCOv Trjv e(f>epovTO BeXTOv, 
rd Xeyop^eva virb tov irpo^r^Teo) ypd<^etv 69 avTrjv, 
^dvat Be KapLT) p^iv yXwaarj XP^^> avyypa'^lrdpevov 

30 Be ofc%e(7^at dTriovTa e'9 %eaaraXiriv. 


Reassured by the answers he receives Mardonius sends 
Alexander of Makedon to Athens with a proposal of 

CXXXVI. Map8oz/i09 3e eTriXe^d/ievof: o re Srj 
XiyovTa tjv ra y^prjaTijpia, fiera ravra eTre/jiyfre 
dy<ye\ov i<i ^A6r}va<; ^AXe^avSpov rov ^A/jLVVTeo) avBpa 
^UKeSova, afia fxev on ol 7rpoaK7]Bee<; ol Tlepaai, 
rjcrav (AXe^dvSpov yap dSeXcfyerjv Tvyalijv, ^ A/jlvvt€co 5 
Be 6vyaT€pa, l^ov^dpr]^; dvrjp Hepar}'; €a')(e, e'/c Trj<; ol 
eyeyovee ^A/jLvvt7j<; o iv rfj Aalr}, e;^ft)^' to ovvo[xa rov 
firjTpoTrdropo'i, ru) Srj ifc ^acriKeo^ ryq ^pvylr]^ ehoOrj 
^AXd^avSa 7roXc<; fxeyaXr) vifieaOac), afxa he 6 M.ap- 
BovLOf; 7rv66jjLevo<; on 7rp6^eivo<; re elrj koX evepyerij^; 10 
6 'AXe^avSpo<; eirefj^ire. rov^; yap ^ A6rjvaiov<; ovtw 
ehoKee /judXcara Trpoa/cr'^aeadai, Xeoov re ttoXXov apa 
aKOVcov elvat Kal dXKi/moVj rd re Kara rrjv OdXaaaav 
avvTVXOvra acpi, iraOrjp.ara Karepyaaafievov^ fJbdXiaTa 
*A67)vaL0V(; iirccrraTO. rovrcov 8e irpoayevoiievwv Ka- 15 
TrjXiTL^e evTrerew^ t^9 daXdaoT)^ KparTjaetv, rd irep 
av Kol rjv, ire^fi re eSoKee ttoXXov elvat Kpecraeov. 
ovTO) re eXoyi^eTO KarvirepOe ol rd Trprjyfiara 
ecreadai twv '1^XXt)vlkoov. '^d'ya S' dv Kal rd 
y^prjcrrTjpLa ravrd ol irpoXeyoi, crvfi^ovXevovra av/ju- 20 
ixa')(pv Tov ^ AOrjvalov iroteeaOau' rolcro 8rj TretOo/jbevo^; 

How Perdiccas, the ancestor of Alexander, obtained the 
ki7igdo77i of Makedonia. 

CXXXVII. ToO Be 'AXe^dvBpov tovtov e/3So- 
yito? yeveroyp TiepBlKKr]^ earl KTrfcrafievo'i rcov 
^UKeBopcov rrjv ivpavviha rpcTro) roiojSe' e^ ^ Apyeo(; 25 


e(f)V<yov 69 'iWvptov^; tcov T7]fi€vov aTroyovcov rpet? 
dS€\(j)eol, Tavdv7]<i re koI 'Ae/ooTro? /cal UephiKicr)^, e/c 
Se ^IWvpiwv VTrep/Sakovre^; e? rrjv dvco lAaicehoviT^v 
clitIkovto 69 Ae/SauTjv ttoXlv. ivOavra he iOrjTevov 

5 eVl ixiaOcp irapd roS /SaacXeiy 6 fiev lttitov^; ve/Jicov, 6 
Be fiov<;, 6 Se vecoraro'^ avrcou TlepSiKfC7j<; to, XeTrrd • 
ft, Tcov TTpo^drcov. l^aav Be to irdXac /cal at TvpavviBe<^ 
^ T(j5z^ dvOpccTTCov d(r6ev6e<; ')(^pr][jia(TL, ov jjuovvov 6 Srj/jLo<;»] 
rj he jvvrj tov ^aaiXeo^ avrrj rd crLTia crcfyL eirecrcre. 

10 0A:ft)9 Be OTTTMTO 6 dpTO<^ TOV iratBo^ tov Ot^to'^ tov 
UepBiKKeco, Bc7r\ijcrco<i iylveTO avTo^ ecovTOV. eTrel 
Be alel tcovto tovto eylveTo, elire Trpo^; tov dvBpa tov 
e(DVTrj<;. tov Be aKOvaavTa iarjXOe avTiKa c6<^ ecrj 
Tepa<; /cal (f^epoi 69 fieya tl KaXeaa^ Be tov<; 6rJTa<^ 

15 Trporjyopeve a(f)C airdXXaaaeaOai e/c 7^9 T179 euiVTOv. 
OL Be TOV fiidOov ecfyaaav BlicaLOL elvai dTroXajSovTe^; 
ouTO) i^ievai. evOavTa 6 ^acnXev^; tov fJuiaOov nrepi 
d/covaa^i, rjv yap /caTa Trjv /ca7rvoBo/cr}v e<; tov olfcov 
eae^wv o rfXio'^y elire Oeo^XajSy'i yevofjuevo^' " Mtcr- 

20 (jov be v/itv eyoo v/juecov a^iov Tovoe aTrooiocofiL, oe^a^ 
TOV rfkiov. 6 fjuev Brj Tavdv7j<i re /cal 6 'Aepo7ro9 01 
TTpea^VTepoL eaTacrav eKTreTrXrjy/jLevoL, 609 rjKovaav 
TavTa, 6 Be iral^i, eTvy^ave yap e')(03v jjid'^atpav, 
elira^ TdBe, " Ae/co/JbeOa, w jSacriXev, Td St8ot9," 

25 7r€pLypd<f)eo tj} /jba^^^aiprj e'9 to eSa^09 tov oIl/cov tov 
j]Xlov, irepiypd-y\ra<; Be, 69 tov koXttov Tph dpvo-d/juevof; 
tov tjXlov, dTraXXdacreTO avTO^; re /cal ol fieT i/ceivov, 
CXXXVII I. 0/ [xev Brj diTTjlaav^ tq) Be ^aatXel 
(TTjjjLalveL Ti9 Ta)V TrapeBpcov, olov to '^prj/ia Trourjaeie 

30 6 iral<; /cal ftJ9 (Jvv vow i/ceiV(ov 6 veooTaTo<; Xd/3oL Ta 
BcB6p.eva. 6 Be Tavra dKov(Ta<^ /cal o^vvdel^ Tre/Mirei, 


lir avrov<; tTTTrea? dirdXeovra^. Trorafio^; Si iart iv 
rfj X^PV TctyTr), Tco dvovai ol tovtcov t&v avhpwv air 
"AjOfyeo? oLTToyovoc (Tcorrjpi. ovto<;, iireLre hueprjaav 
ol Tij/jueviSat, fi6ya<; ovrco ippvr] ware tov<; lirirea'^ 
firj 0L0V<; T6 r^eveaOai Bta^rjvat. ol 8e diriKopbevoL 5 
e? dWrjv yrjv t^9 M.aK€SovL7]^ oiKTicrav 7re\a<; toov 
KTjTTcov Tcov \€<yofjL6vcov elvat MtSeoj tov TopSUco, iv 
roLCTi (j>u€TaL avTO/jLara poSa, ev eKacrrov e^ov e^rjKovTa 
^vXXa, ohfMy re virep^epovra rwv dWcov. iv tovtolctl 
KoX 6 ^Lk7)v6<; Tolai KYjiroiaL yXco, w? XeyeTai, vtto 10 
^laKeSovcov. virep 3e t<mv kijttcov ovpo^ Keerai, 
l^ep/jLtov ovvo/jLa, d^arov viro x^l/jlmvo^;. ivOevrev he 
op/xeofievot, w? Tavr7}v ea^ov, fcaT€crTpe<f)0VT0 koL ttjv 
dWrjv M.aKeSovLr]v. C XXX IX. 'Atto tovtov 6rj 
rod UepSlKKeay 'AXefaz^Spo? w8e iyejovee' ^Afivvreco 15 
TTCtt? ^v 'AXefa^'Opo9, ^Kfivvrr]'^ he 'AX/cereo), 'AX/cereo) 
he TraTTjp rjv 'AepOTro^, rod he ^IXltttto^, ^iXlttttov 
he 'Ap7at09, TOV he IlepStV/c?;? 6 KTr]ad/jLevo<; rrjv 

The Speech of Alexander at Athens. 

CXL. 'E^e^wee \xkv hrj cohe ^AXe^avSpo^ 6 20 
^AfjLvvTeco, (W9 he diriKero €9 Ta9 ^A6r]va<; aTroTrefMCJi- 
delf; VTTO M.aphovLOV, eXeye rdhe' ""Avhpe<; ^ AOr^valoi, 
" ^iaphovLOf; rdhe \eyet, ' * ^^fiol dyyeXlrj rjKef, irapd 
" ' IBaaCkeo^ Xeyovaa ovtco' ^ AOrjvaioLab Ta9 dfiapTaha^ 
" ' Ta9 ef iKelvcov €9 e'/xe yevofieva<; 7rdaa<; pberirj/jn. vvv 25 
" * re (lihe, MapSoi^te, irolee. tovto fiev rrjv yrjv o'cj^i, 
"*a7rdSo9, rovro he dWyv 7rpo9 ravrrj eXiadcov avrol, 
"^ rjvrcva av iOeXcocri, i6vre<i avrovofioL Ipd re rrdvra 
"' <7(j)c, i)v hrj ^ovXcovral ye ifiol 6/JLoXoyeeiv, dvopdco- 


" ' aoVy ocra eyco eveirprjaa. Tovrcov Be air L'y jxevoiv 
*' ' ava'yKaico^ e^et fiot TTOLeeiv ravra, rjv fir) to 
" ' vfiirepou dvrlov yevyrac. Xeyo) Se v/jllv rdBe vvv* 
" * Tl (jbalveaOe TroXe/iou (BaaLXel dvTaetpofievoi ; ovre 
5 " ' yap av virep^akoiaQe^ ovre olol re iare dvre^etv 
^'^Tov irdvTa '^povov. elBere fjLev yap T7J<; Hepfeo) 
" ' aTpaT7}\acrLr]<; to irXrjOo^ Kal Ta epya, irvvOdveaOe 
" ' Be Kal TYjv vvv irap epioX eovaav Bwapav, waTe Kal 
" ' 7]V r}[jbea<i virepjBdXrjaOe Kal vcKyarjTe, tov irep vjjlIv 

10 " ' ovBefJLLa eXirlf; el irep ev (j)poveeTe, dXkrj irapiaTai 
" ^iroXkaTrXrjair]. firj aiv ^ovXeade Trapiaov/juepoi, 
"'fiaaiXeC aTepeaOao fxev T7J(; %w/37;9, Oeeiv Be alel 
" ' irepl v/jiecov avTcov, dXXa KaTaXvaaaOe. irape'^eu 
** ' Be vpZv KaXXLCFTa KaTaXvaacrOai /SaaiXeo^; TavTrj 

i^ " ' oop/jL7]/jievov. ecTTe eXevOepoL, rjfjiiv ofjLac^/JLLrjv avvOe- 
" ' fjuevoi dvev re BoXov Kal dirdTTjf;.' M.apB6vL0<; fiev 
" TavTa, (6 ^A6r]va'toL, eveTeiXaTO /xot elirelv 7rp6<; 
" v[xea<;. eyco Be irepl fxev evvoi7]<i Trj<^ irpo^ v/juea^ 
" €oua7]<; ef efiev ovBev Xe^co (ov yap dv vvv irpcoTov 

20 " iKfjbdOoLTe), 7rpo(T'^pr]t^a) Be vfiewv ireideaOai Map- 
" Bovi(p. ivopeco yap v/jlIv ovk oXolgL Te eGOjJbevoiaL 
" TOV TTcivTa '^povov TToXefieetv Hep^y. el yap evcopcov 

-y ^' TOVTO ev V/JLLV, OVK dv KOTe 69 V/JLea<; TjXOoV €')(WV 

^ "X6yov<; TovaBe* Kal yap Bvvajju^i virep dvOpcdTTOv tj 
25 " PaaiXeo<; eVri Kal %elp vTrepjJbrjKr}^. tjv wv fxrj 
" avTLKa ofioXoyTjarjTe, fxeyaXa irpoTeivovToav eir 
" oldi ofJLoXoyeeiv eOeXovaij Bet/iaivo) virep vfjuecDV ev 
" rpl^M Te fjbdXtcTTa olKTjfievcov tmv av/ifid'^cov irdvTcov, 
" alel Te (j^Oetpo/jLevcov fiovvwVf e^alpeTov tl fieTal^Lov 
30 " TTjv yrjv €KTr)/jLeva)v. dXXd ireWecrOe ' iroXXov yap 
" v/jblv d^ca TavTa, el /3acrcXev<; ye 6 fxeya^ fxovvoLcn 



" vfuv '^Wr)V(jdv Ta<^ afxaprdha^ aTTtet? eOekeL (f)i\o<; 

The Spartajis send envoys to counteract Alexander's in- 
fluence at Athens. 

CXLI. AaKehaLixovLOL he, irvOofievoi rjKeiv 'AXe- 
^avSpov €9 ^Adrjva^ e? ofJLoXojLTjv a^ovra rS /Sap- 
Pdp(p *A6T)vaLOV<;, dva/JLvrjaOevref; twv Xoylcov w? 5 
a<f)€a(; '^pecov ecrrt a/xa Tolai dXXotcrc Acopievac 
iKTrLTTTetv eK TleXoTrovvTjaov viro IsJirjhcov re koI 
^AOrjvaicov, Kapra re eSetaav pirj o/ioXoyijacoat rS 
UepcTT} ^A6r]vaL0i, avTLKa re cr^t eSo^e ireinreiv 
dyyiXov^. Koi hi) avveirLTTTe coare 6/jlov a^ecov 10 
yiveaOaL Tr)v KardaraaLV. eiraveixeivav yap oi 'A- 
Orjvaloi ScarpllSovTei;, ev eTTiCTTdfjLevoL ore efieWov 
AaKeSatfjLOVLoi, TrevaeaOai rjKOvra irapd rod ^ap- 
^dpov dyyekov eV ojjioXoyLrj, irvOofjievoi re ireir^eiv 
Kara rd'^^^o^; dyyiXov^;, eTrtTT^Se? cuv iiroievv, evhet- 15 
KPVfievoi, Tolat AaKeBaLfiovLotaL rrjv ecovrwv yvojp^rjv. 

Speech of the Spartan envoys. 

CXLII. 'n? he eTravaaro Xeycov ^AXe^avhpo^y 
hiahe^d/jLevoi eXeyov 01 diro %7rdpTrj<; dyyeXoi' 
"'H/xea? he eirefju-y^av AaKehat/xoviot her)aofjLepov<i 
" vfiecov /jLT^re veoorepov iroieeLv /jLjjheu Kara rrjv 20 
"'EWaSa fJL'^Te X670U9 evheKecrOai irapd rov /Sap- 
" ^dpov. ovre yap hiKauov ovha/ico^;, ovre Koafiov 
" ^epov ov tL ye dXXotai 'FjXXtjvcov ovhafiolcri, vfiLv 
" he hrj KoX hca Trdvrcov rjKiCTTa ttoXXwu eiveKev' 
'* TJyeipare yap rovhe top TroXefJLOV uyLtet? ovhev rjfiewv 25 
^' ^ovXofievcoVy Kal irepl Trj<; vp^eTepr]^ ^P%^? o dyoctv 


" iyevero' vvv te ^epei koI e? Traaav Trjv 'EXXaSa. 
" aXkco^ re rovrcov airdvrwv alrtov^ yeveaOac SovXo- 
" a-uvrj^ Totcn''K\X7]cn ' AOrjvaiov^; ovSa/jLco<i dvaar^erov, 
" OLTLve^ alei koI to iraXai (^alveaOe iroWoi)^ iXev- 
5 " OepMaavre^ dvOpwirwv. irte^o/jievoLa-L fxevroL vfjulv 
t^t " (TVva')(jd6iJie6a, koI on Kapirciov iareprjOrjTe Sl^cov 
" V^Vy f^^f" ^'^^ olKO(j)66p7]a6€ 'X^povov 7]8r] iroWov. 
" dvrl TOVTcov he vplv AaKehaiixovtoi t6 koI ol 
*' avfi/jba^oc eTrayyeXXovTao yvi>a2fcd<; re Koi Ta 69 

10 " TToXe/xov d^prjara olKerecov e')(^6iJbeva iravra iiri- 
" Ope^jreLV, ear dv 7r6\€/jio<; oSe avvecrrTjfcrj. firjSe 
'' vfiia^ ^AXe^avSpo<^ 6 yLa/ceSciov dvayvooar), \er}va<^ 
" TOP l^IapSovLov \6yov. tovtm fiev yap ravra 
" TTOLTjrea earl, Tvpavvo<i yap ia>v rvpavvco avyKa- 

15 '' Tepyd^erat, vjjbiv he ye ov Trotrjrea, eo irep ev 
" Tvy^dvere ^poveovTe<^, iiricrra/jiepoLo-c w? jBapjBd- 
poiaL eGTL ovre ttlcttop ovre aX7)U6<i ovoev. 

Answer of the Athenians: they will never make terms with 


CXLII I. Tavra eXe^av ol dyyeXot. ^AOrjvaloi, 

he TT/DO? fJLev ^AXe^avhpov vireKpivavro rdhe ' " Kal 

« 20 " avTol TOVTO ye eTTLardiubeda, ort TToXXaTrXTjirir) earl 

TO) mrjoo) cvvafjui^ rjirep rj/xiv, coare ovoev oeet, tovto 

"ye oveLhl^ecv. dXX^ ofioD<; iXevOeplrj^; yXi')(^oiJievoi 

" dfivpev/jieOa ovrco, okco<^ dv Kal hvvcv/xeOa. o/jloXo- 

" yriaau he tqj ^apffdpo) firjTe av tjfieaf; ireipoo 

25 " dvaTreldeLv ovre y/xeL^; Trecao/jieOa. vvv he dirdy- 

" yeKXe IS/LaphovLq), cJ? ^ AOrjvaloi Xeyovai, ecfT dv o 

" ^Xlo<; rrjv avrrjv ohov cj) rfj Kal vvv ep'x^erac, firjKore 

" o/jLoXoyrjaecv r)fiea^ Sep^j}' dXXd Oeolcrl re avfx- 


" fia')(oiat, TTiavvoi /jllv eVef tyitez^ d/j,vv6fi€voL fcal TOtai 
" Tjpcoat, Toou iK6ivo<; ovSe/jblav ottlv e^ft)^' eveirprjae 
" Tou? re OLKov^ koI rd dydXfiara. crv re rov Xoiirov 
" Xofyov^ €')((iiv TOiovcrSe fxr) iiTL^aiveo ^AOrjvaioto't, 
" fjUTjBe SoKecov ')(^pT)aTd VTrovpyeeLV dOefJULo-ra epSetv 5 
" irapalvee. ov <ydp ere ^ovXo/neda ovSev d'^apu irpo^ 
"^KOrjvalcov iraOelv, iovra Trpo^eLvov re koI (f)ikov!^ 

Athenian address to the Spartan envoys urging instmii 
activity on the part of Sparta. 

CXLIV. ITpo9 ii^v ^AXe^avSpov ravra vire- 
KpLvaPTO, 7rpo9 Be tov<; dirb Z7rdpT7}<; dyyeKov^ raSe' 
"To fiev Belcrai AaKeSaLfioviov^ firj ofjLoXoy^crco/iiev rw 10 
" /Sapffdp^ Kapra dvOpcoTrycov '^v. drdp atV^po;? 
"ye ocKare e^eTTLO'TdfievoL to ^Adrjvalcov (f>p6v7]fici 
" appcoSrjaai, ore ovre ')(^pva6<^ icm <yr;? ovSa/jbodi 
" ro(7ovTO<i ovre x^PV f<:dWet koI dperfj y^eya virep- 
" (^epovaa, rd yfiel^; Se^d/xevoi eOeXoifJuev dv fMrjSlaavTef; 15 
" fcaTaBovXwaai rrjv 'EiXkaBa. TroXkd re yap koI 
" jieydXa icrrl rd Sia/ccoXvovra ravra firj Troceetv, 
" firjB rjv eOeXwfJLeV rrpcora /j,ev Ka\ fjueyiara rwv 
" Oe^v ra ayaXfJuara kol rd olKi'^iMara e/jLTreTrprja/jieva 
'' re Kau GvyKeywaybkva, rolai rj/jbea^i dvayKalcos ^yei 20 
" rifjLcopeeLv e? rd fieytara fidXXov rjirep ofioXoyeecv 
'■' TftJ ravra ipyaaafievw, avri<; Be ro 'FiXXijviKov eov 
" b/jLatfiov re Kat, ofi6yXa)craoi>, Kal deoov lBpv[iard re 
" KOtva Kal Ovaiai rjOed re ofiorporra, roHv irpoBora'^ 
" yevecrOac ^A6r]vaiov<; ovk dv ev €')(^oi. iiria-raaOe re 25 
" ovru), el (irj irporepov ervy^dvere eTrccrrdfjievoL, ear 
" av Kal eh irepifj ^ AOrjvaiwv, /JLTjBa/xd 6fioXoyrjaovra<i 
"r7/tea9 "Bep^rj. vfi^wv ixevroi dyd/jueda rt)v irpouoiav 

H. VIII. 6 


" T^v 69 i^fjb€a<; €')(ovaaVy on irpoeihere rjfie(ov ol/co^6o- 
" p7j/jb€vo)v ouT(0 ware iTTLdpeyjrao edekeiv T^jiiecov Tov<i 
" OLKera^;. koI vfilv jxev tj %a/)t9 eKireTrX'ijpcoTai, 
*' ?7/iet9 fjbivroi, \i7rap7](TOfjLev ovrco ok(o<; av e^co/xev, 

5 " ovSev \v7reovTe<i vfi6a<;. vvv Se, w? ovt(o i'^ovrayv, 
" (7TpaTLr]v tw9 Td-^iara eKirepbireTe. w? fyap rjixel^i 
" elKa^ojJLev, ovk eKa<; ')(^p6vov Trapearai 6 fidp^apo<; 
" iajSaXoov €9 ttjv rj/jLereprjv, dXk' iireihdv Td^tdTa 
" TTvOrjTat rrjv dyyeXiijif on ovBev iroLrjcrofjuev toop 

lo " eKelvo^ yfjbioyv irpoaeheero. irplv wv irapelvac i/cel- 
" vov €9 TT]v ^ArnKTjVj rjjxea^ Kaip6<; ian Trpo^ayOrjaai 

*' 69 TTJV BoiCOTiTJV." ol flkv TUVTa VTrOKpLVajieVCDV 

AOrjvalcoi^ diraWdaaopTO e'9 XiTdp77]v. 


[For persons and names of places see Historical and Geographical 
Index. G. refers to Goodwin^ s Greek Grammar^ 1882. App. 
to the Appendix on the Ionic Dialect. Clyde to Clyde's Greek 
Syntax y 1870.] 


The last book (vii) had described the fate of the contingent ap- 
pointed to serve on land and guard Thermopylae ; Herodotus now 
turns to the fleet. 

1,2. ot %\. . .Tax0^VT€S * those whose assigned duty it was to serve 1 
afloat ', that is assigned by their several states : cp. 7, 21 ot 5^ es tov 
■Ki^hv €T€TdxciTo. The general movements both of land force and fleet 
were directed by the national congress assembled in the Isthmus 

(7, 175)- 

4. nXaraUcs. The Plataeans as an inland state without seaboard 
would have no ships ; but they constantly followed and supported the 
Athenians as at Marathon (6, 108, in). They were not however 
actually engaged at Salamis, see c. 44 ; though they afterwards 
pleaded their services at Artemisium as a proof of their Hellenic 
patriotism, see Thucyd. 3, 54, 3. 

5. Kop£v6ioi. That the Corinthians should only send 40 ships 
when the Athenians sent 127 is a striking sign of the rapid advance 
of the latter. In B.C. 491 the Athenians had had to borrow, or 
rather purchase at a nominal price, 20 ships of Corinth wherewith lo 
attack Aegina [6, 88, 89]. 

7. Xa\Ki8ecs. The Chalcidians manned Athenian ships probably 
because they were Athenians settled as cleruchs in the territory of 
Chalcisin Euboea [see 5, 77]. 


84 NOTES ON i 

II, 12, 8vo T€ vcas Kal ircvniKovTepovs 8vo ' two triremes and 
two penteconters '. By vke^ unqualified by any descriptive epithet 
understand triremes, or ships of war, raxerat : other triremes are 
called oTrXiTaytoyoi, iinraycayoi etc. Penteconters were smaller 
vessels rowed by 50 men, 25 on each side sitting on the same level. 
The latter were the vessels almost universal in Greece until the 
decennium B.C. 490 — 80, when they were superseded by the tri- 
remes [Her. I, 163, 4, Thucyd. 1, 14, 4]. The use of penteconters 
however still survived among more distant Greek states, as Rhodes 
[Thucyd. 6, 43, i], as also among the Etruscans [id. 6, 103, 2]. 
The triremes carried an average of 200 men, see c. 17. 

13. 'Ottovvtioi, see Hist. Ind. s. v. Locrians. 

CTTcPoifGeov, App. A. iil. 8. 



15. eLpT]Tat 86 

[i.01, that is 



preceding chapter. 

ibers are : 














Lacedaemonians 10 











16. Twv <rvX\€x^0€icr^wv vmv, that is 'of triremes', as above, 
1. II. 

20. 01 o-v|JL(jLaxoi, the members of the congress of the Isthmus, 
see above, 1. 2. 
2 I, 2. ovK ?<|)acrav...'^\|/€(r0ai 'refused to serve under Athenians 
but would only do so if the Spartan leader took the command'. 


Two clauses are compressed into one, ovk l<pa<Tav txpeadai, "'kdrjvaloi^ 
and ^(pacrav '(i\pe(T6ai /wvy ry Act/cwvt. Notice 'AdrjvaLoLs without article 
•Athenians '= *an Athenian commander', not the particular one. 

2. dXXd Xv(r«iV = dXXa ^(paaav Xijaeiv. 

TO jJLcWov 'da-io-Qai ' which was about to take place '. The verb 
fj.{\\€Lv is regularly followed by the future infinitive and sometimes 
by the present, but not by the aorist infinitive, G. § 202, 3. Yet 
exceptions to this rule occasionally occur [see Rutherford /^etv 
Phrynichus p. 420 sq.]. 


4. KttT apxols 'originally', *at first', cp. 9, i%. Xo-yos 'com- 
mon talk '. irplv TJ ire'iJ.ireiv 'before they (the Greeks) sent'. 

5. Iirl {ruixjiax^Tlv ' with a view of securing an alliance'. This 
refers to the embassy sent by the congress of the Isthmus to Gelo of 
Syracuse to induce him to join the alliance against the Persian 
invaders. In the discussion with Gelo the Spartans claimed the lead 
on land, the Athenians at sea, and Gelo refused help unless one or 
the other were conceded to him. Her. 7, 157—9. 

7. (i^va ireiroiTiixcvot ' because they regarded it as of first import- 
ance '. This use of iroie'iffdai, [of which Treiroirj/xivos is used as middle 
perf. part.] is common in Herod, see p. 6, 1. 7, and cp. 9, 4 deipov 
iroirjad/xevoi. ircpieivai 'survive', 'be saved'. Cp. p. 30, 1. 15. 

9 — II. 6p0d voevvTcs * and their sentiments were entirely right'. 

■jroXc'nov 6|xo<f>pov4ovTOS ' unanimous war ', i. e. ' thfijsKa]Lo£a_united 
country' , an expression only justifiable by considering war to be 
personified. TO(roviTa)...o(ra) ' precisely as much worse as '. 

12. OVK dvT€T€tvov 'they did not continue to make any counter- 
claim'. K^L^/G*) 

13. p.exP'- oo"ov 'as long as they (the Athenians) X vant-cd them', 
i.e. the other Greeks. Cp. /j.^xP'- xdaov p. 44, 1. 15. 

14, 15. TTcpl TTJs iKiivov...i'jroUvvro 'they were going to attack 
the Persian's own territory'. Cp. p. 14, 1. 14. 

15, 16. Tiiv Uava-avUai v^piv 'the outrageous conduct of 
Pausanias'. Thucydides says he was ^laios and that his mode 
of behaviour was a Tvijauvidoi /xifirjais rather tha.n a. (TrpaTriyia [r, 95]. 
And Plutarch [Aristid. 23] gives details of the roughness of his 
manners, the severity of his punishments, and the offensiveness 
of his manner of asserting the Spartan primacy. 

86 NOTES ON iii 

a'ir€CXovTO...AaK£8ai|JLOviovs 'deprived the Lacedaemonians of 
the command'; for the double ace. see G. § 164. 

The event referred to is the deposition of Pausanias in B.C. 
478 — 7, and the selection of Aristeides to take the command of 
the allied fleet in the Northern Aegean, which is recounted by 
Thucydides [i, 94 sq.], and which led to the formation of the 
Confederacy of Delos. 


18. t6t6 %\ 'but at this time', opp. to varepov fxh 1. 17. Kal 
* actually'. 

19. KaraxOeCo-as 'brought to land'. 

21. irapd 86|av...T| 'in an unexpectedly different manner than'. 
The phrase Trapa d6^av involves the idea of aXXws and is therefore 
followed by rj. Cp. i, 79 als ol Trapa do^au eV^e ra irprjyfxara 7} ws 
at'rJs KaredoKee. 

22. Notice the imperfect airePaive 'were turning out'. Karc- 
86k€ov, see p. 36, 1. 22. 

23. i<r<a, that is. South of the Euripus, towards the Pelopon- 
nesus, p. 10, 1. 6. 

3 2, 3. 'ia-r' dv . . .vTKKQwvrai 'until they should have removed 
out of danger'. The construction represents the words used Trpoa/xei- 
vov %(XT dv vireKdedfjLeda, and is retained in Orat. Obliq. G. § 239, 2. 

4. iriiQov<ri 'bribe'. , 

5. Iir <S T€ 'on condition that'. For re see on p. 10, 1. 9. 

6. irpo tt\s EvPoCt]s, that is, to the North of Euboea, in which 
direction the enemy were. Cp. p. 39, 1. 9 and 9, 61 irpo ttjs ttoXlos. 

Tronjo-ovTai, the infin. more commonly follows iir c5 re, but the 
future indie, is also used dramatically. G. § 236, note 2. tt]v 
vavixax^Tlv Uhe sea-fight', that is the fight which must inevitably 
come somewhere. 


9. «s irap' IwvTOv 8t]0€v 'as though out of his own pocket 
[de s7io) as he pretended'. For trap ecovrou cp. 2, 129 Trap ecovrov 
diSovra. Cp. 7, 29 Trap i/jLojvTov dovs ras eTrra xt^t^Sas. And for 
8^dev indicating the falseness of a pretext see 7, 211 (pevyeaKov 
brjdev 'they kept pretending to run away'; and combined with 


ws, 9, 66 ojs is fiaxv^ VJ^ drjOeu ' he made a feint of leading them to 
the field'. 

11. i^'inraipc 'struggled', properly 'panted', see i, in opio) 
Trai8lov TrpoKeifxevov dairalpov re koI Kpayyavofievov. 9, 120 TJairaipov 
oKus Tep Ix^ves veoaXuroi. Very rarely found in Attic. 

12. diroirXwo-co-Oai from diroirXifca, Ionic and poetic form of -ttX^w. 
[This form is used by the MSS. R and S, and I have retained it 
throughout, but in certain other mss. the form is irXemeadai,, irXieiv, 
TfXiofiev K.T.X. and Stein has adopted the latter.] 

13. irpos 81^ TovTov 'to him he said'; the reason for the 
speech has been previously given by the clause 'ASet^iai'Tos yap. 
The logical order would be irpbs ' ASei/xavrov elire, ovtos ydp 

15, 16. dv TT^ixxl/eic 'will be likely to send you'. The plan of 
sending bribes round to the leading men in each state by the king of 
Persia is alluded to again in 9, 1, and 41 ; and we know from later 
authorities (Demosth. Phil. 3, 42) that it was actually done. 

16. Tavrd Tc d|J.a TJYo'pcve Kal ircixirei. The verb Tr^/zTrei is an 
historical present : ' He accompanied this speech by sending three 
talents to the ship of Adeimantus'. [For this use of re — koL as ex- 
pressing simultaneous action see on p. 28, 1. 9.] 

Plutarch, on the authority of the Lesbian Phanias, tells a story 
of Themistocles bribing an Athenian captain with one talent to 
stay at Artemisium [Themist. 7], but there is no reason why both 
stories may not be true. 

18. irdvTCS 'both', cp. 5, 36; 6, 77 St. [Some few MSS. have 
irkriyivTei with which Abicht compares Plutarch Demosth. 15 ifKij- 
yeU inro rrjs dcjpoSoKias.^ 

19. €K€x.dpi<rTO is middle: 'And thus Themistocles had grati- 
fied the Euboeans while he secured a profit for himself at the same 
time '. 

20 — 23. eXdv0av€ 8^...xp7J|iaTa 'and at the same time he was 
not suspected of having the balance of the money (the 30 talents, 
see c. 4), but the men who got their share of it believed that the 
money had been sent from Athens for this express purpose'. 

21. TJTTio-WaTO [App. D. II. a] 'believed', 'were given to 
understand'. Cp. p. 13, 1. 22; p. 46, 1. 19; p. 51, 1. 20; p. 75, 
1. 15. We use the word to 'understand' in the same sense of 
• belief. 

88 NOTES ON vi 


24. ovTw %r\ *it was thus', *it was in these circumstances 

25. l'Y^v€TO 81 wSc ' and how it came about was as follows', i.e. 
how the battle began and how it was carried on, 

26. ir€pl ScCXtjv irpcDtT^v 'early in the afternoon', opposed to 
delXyjv oxI/Itjv p. 5, 1. 19. 

27. ^Ti Kal TTpoTcpov ' already before this', cp. p. 36, 1. 20. 

4 I. a-uTol ' with their own eyes', cirixeipe'civ sc. eXelj'. Cp. 9, 14 
6^\tov e'l Kcos T01JTOVS irpQrov ^\ot. 

2. €K ji^v 8t] T'jjs dvTCT]s 'straight down upon them', exadverso. 
Cf. e/c Tov ^avepov (9, i), iK ttjs Idirjs (9, 37). 

4, 5. 6pp,'>](r€tav...KaTa\ajx(3dvT|. The coming down of night 
before they could get engaged is perhaps the contingency most 
present to their minds, but as the subj. after a past tense in the 
governing clause is as correct as the opt., on the dramatic principle 
of introducing the exact words of the person, the variation does not 
perhaps admit of any other explanation than the taste of the writer. 
For KaTokaf-L^dueLv in this sense 9, 56 Toi>s 5^ eTret ■^tbs /careXa/x.jSai'e. 

5, 6. Kal ^jxeXXov 8i]0€V 6K4>6v|€(r0at 'and then, as they thought, 
they were certain to escape '. For fut. inf. after ifxeWov see above, 
p. 2, 1. 2. The meaning of ^/j.e\\ov here expressing certainty 
is found in common idiomatic phrases, such as, e/x^XXer' ap* 
diravres dvaaeieiv ^or]v *I M^as certain you would shout', Arist. Ach. 
347 ^jaeXXoj' (t' Spa Kiprja-eiv iyu) ' I was certain I should send you 
packing', id. Nub. 1301 ap' efjAWofikv irod^ v/xds diroao^i^aei.v to; 
Xpoy^ ' I was certain we should drive you off in time', id. Vesp. 464. 

8t]0€v indicates the thoughts of another, which the writer dis- 
credits, see above, p. 3, 1. 9. 

6, [t.y\^l Trvp(|>6pov 'not even a sacred-fire bearer', i.e. not any- 
one at all. The irvp(p6pos would be defended as long as anyone 
survived. Hence the phrase for total extinction. From Xenophon 
(Rep. Lac. xiii. 3) we learn that a lamp of sacred fire was carried 
with a Spartan host never to be extinguished. The person intrusted 
with this would be most carefully guarded. 

6, 7. T« cKcCvcov \6y(o ' according to their expressed purpose'. 



7. Trpos TttvTa 'with a view to these contuigencies'. 

9. ^^«0€V SKtdGou 'to the East of Skiathos'. So as to have 
Skiathos between them and the Greeks. 

10 — 12. ^va 8t^ 7r€pi\dpoiev *that, as they intended (drj), they 
might enclose them'. Here the main purpose is expressed by the 
optative, while a secondary or subordinate purpose is expressed by 
a subjunctive clause (ws av /x^ o^d^wai 'in such a way that they 
might not be seen'), but see on 1. 4 and cp. p. 40, 11. 13 — 15, Goodw. 
M. and T. § 44. 2. For Si] almost equivalent to S^^ev, shewing 
that the writer is representing the thoughts of others, see 9, 11 ^j* 
v6i^ di] ^xo''^^^- 9> 59 ■^76... /card arl^ov tuv "EiW-qvo^v ws brj aTroSt- 
dprjffKovTidv, infra p. 42, 1. 25. 

For the dramatic construction ws av fxr) ocpdeojo-L after the historical 
irepUTre/XTTOv cp. 9, 7 iK^Xevaav vfxias iKir^fXTretv ws ctv top ^ap^apov 
deKfJbfieda. G. § 216, 2. 

12 — 14. 01 |i^v...<r<j>eis 8^. The party despatched round Euboea, 
and the main body remaining at Aphetae. 

13. Ti]v oTTicra) ({>epovo-av 686v 'their homeward course'. 

14. 6^ €vavT{T]s ' from the opposite side', cp. i^ dvTitjs c. 6. 

16. TavTT]s TT]S ijjJi^pTjs 'that day', the gen. of time within 
which. G. § 179. 

17. TO <rvvQr]\ia 'the signal agreed upon', used of a 'watch- 
word' in 9, 98. ^|i€XX€ <j>avTJ(r6(r9ai 'could appear', referring to the 
time it must necessarily take to get round the island. For ^'//.eXXe 
see p. 2, 1. 2. 

20. eirotevvTo dpiOfi^v 'held a muster of, cp. 7, 59. This was 
rendered necessary, as Stein observes, by the losses sustained by bad 
weather and attacks of enemies; see 7, 190, where 400 ships are said 
to have been lost on the coast of Magnesia. 


24, 25. T'g vavaY^xi "Ha KarcL to IItjXiov yivo\iivy\ 'the ship- 
wreck which had befallen them off Pelion', that mentioned in the 
last note. 

26, 27. ircpicpdXcTO 'possessed himself of, cp. 6, 25 TriXtj/ koX- 
\L<TTT]u ZdyKXrjv irepLc^efiXeaTo, see 9, 39. dpa 'as it appears', i.e. 
from what he did afterwards, p. 61, 1. 4. 



28. auTojJioXTjcreiv : notice the fut. inf. after kv vbip eZ^e on the 
analogy of the construction of ixiWw. The futurity implied in iv 
vbcii etxe is expressed in the infinitive. 

aXX' ov 7dp 'but he [didn't do so then] for there was no oppor- 
tunity', so we often find koI ov yap 9, 61, 87 etc. The negative 
belongs to the prevented action, yap introduces the cause of the 

I. Trdp€(rx€, impers. p. 39, 1. 27. Cp. Thucyd. i, 120, 5; 5, 
14, 2. 

ws Tore * at that time '. The meaning of ws here is hard to give 
by any English equivalent ; it defines and limits the time indicated 
by t6t€. Cobet proposes ^ws t6t€ ' up to that time '. 

0T€a> 8i] Tpoiro) ' now in what manner it actually happened '. 
d^ here, like Lat. adeo, emphasizes and defines the word which it 
follows. ^Tt 'after all', that is after whatever attempts or ex- 

3, 4. X^"y€Tai Yap. The feat here mentioned is of course an 
impossible one, and is naturally disbelieved by Herodotus. The 
distance from Aphetae to Artemisium is about seven miles. It 
is possible perhaps that Skyllias made his way over this strait by 
swimming and diving at intervals. The natives of the Levant to 
this day are famous divers [Col. Leake quoted by Rawl.], and much 
greater distances have been swum in our own time. 

5. divi<r\i 'came up to the surface', ^x^ "wi'^h its compounds is 
as often neuter as transitive. Abicht notices that in Odyss. 5, 320 
dvaax^d^^Lv used in this sense is explained by the Scholiast by 

8. \i.iri^irepa = ^vLa. A word confined to the Ionic dialect, 
p. 45, 1. 16. 

9. diroS^Sexdco [8elKvv/xL], App. E. 


14, 15. XoYov (r6pi(ri avT0i<ri l8£8o(rav 'took counsel among 
themselves', cp. r, 97 crvXKix^V'^'^^ 0^ MtJSoi ^s Tiburd Kal ididoaav 
a<pL(7L \6yov. Xen. Hell, i, i, 27 e^ 5^ einKaXoir] ti avroh \6yov 
^(paarv xpw^'- 5t56j/at 'to discuss the matter'. Arist. Plut, 467 irepi 
TOJjTov a^fu i64\u} dovvai \6yov ' to argue the matter with you '. 


15. IvCku *the decision was come to', *the vote was passed'. 
For this impersonal use of vlkolv see Soph. Antig. 233 WXos 5^ fiiv 
TOt devp^ iviKr](X€v fioXeiui and again Her. 6, loi euiKa firj eKXiire'iv 
T7}v TToXif. A commoner usage is vikolv yvdjfxrjv 'to get one's view 
carried' [e.g. i, 61]. 

16. avXio-Sevras 'having encamped for the night'. Stein rightly 
explains that this refers to the camp on shore, where they were to 
pass the night; that the enemy might not be led to expect any un- 
usual movement by seeing them spend the night on board. 

17. irapevras 'letting pass'. 

18. 19. |i€Ta 8^ TovTo 'but subsequently', i.e. on the same 
day as the Council. 8€i\t]v o\J/£t]v 'evening', opposed to deiXrjv 
irpcjLTjv 'afternoon' in c. 6. 

20. avTol ullro 'without being attacked', 'on their own ac- 
count'. eiraveirXcoov, notice the imperf. 'began putting to sea to 

31, 22. diroTTcipav — SteKirXoov 'wishing to satisfy themselves 
as to the nature of their fighting and naval tactics '. avrcUp depends 
upon fJi.axv^- The force of aTroiretpa as opposed to ireipa, like 
that of aTroireipaadaL, is that of completion or satisfaction. See 
2> 73; 3» 128; 9, 91. The di^KirXoos was a manoeuvre in naval 
warfare by which a single line of ships broke through the enemies' 
line, turned swiftly, and charged as they pleased, opposed to the 
ruder method of grappling and fighting from the decks. See 

6, 12 where Dionysius is described as training the Ionian sailors, 
d 5^ cu^dyuiv e/cdcrrore iwl K^pas ('in line') rds via?, okojs roTai ip^Trjai. 
XPV'^o-i-TO bL^KirXoov TroLev/xevos ryai vrjval 8i^ dXXrjX^iov Kal rous 
^TTt/Saras oirXLaeie .... 

The manoeuvre required bolh swiftness and skill in working the 
vessel, so as to avoid charging prow to prow, and being charged on 
one's own broadside. See Thucyd. i, 49, 3 di^KirXoi. 5' ovk rjaav, 
dXXd 6vfJL(^ Kal pu>firi to ttX^qv ivav/xdxovv tj iTncrTrjfir]. The 
Athenians especially prided themselves on their skill in practising 
this manoeuvre, as well as another called the ireplirXovs, out-flanking 
the enemies' ship and charging it as one pleased, — see Thucyd. 

7, 36, 3 Tols 5^ 'AdrjvaioLS oi'vc ^aeadai acpuv iv arevoxf^p^g. ovre ire- 
piirXouv 0VT€ dUKirXoWy <}w€p TrjS t^x^V^ ptuXiara iirlaTevov, 

92 NOl^ES ON X 


25. ^avlr^v lireve^KavTcs [for the Ion. -evecKat see App. E] 
'thinking them mad'. Cp. i, 131 roio-i aya\/jiaTa TroLevat fxiopirju 
iiTL^ipovac. 6, 112 To1cn'A6r)vaioiac [xavlrjv iiricpefjov. 
6 2. otKora [Ion. for eiKora App. E. f] 'what was reasonable 
and likely '. 

3. iroXXaTrXiicrCas, App. A. II. (2). 

4. 5. KaTa<f)povi]«ravT€s ravra 'with these convictions': 
Karacppov^o) in the common meaning of ' to despise ' takes a genitive 
and is used by Herod, in 4, 134 [and there only, Abicht]. In the 
sense in which it is here employed it is only a strengthened form of 
(ppopi^craPTes, cp. I, 66, and KaTadoKetv in c. 4. 

5. €KVKXovvTo...p,€(rov [App. D. III. 3] 'began a movement to 
outflank them and get them within the circle of their ships', es fxicrov 
is proleptic, ' so as to get them in the middle '. 

7. <ru }J.(j)opi]v T€...jX6YdXr]v 'were exceedingly sorry for them', 
cp. p. 36, 1. 13. 

8. eirKTrdixevot 'feeling persuaded', cp. p. 3, 1. 21. 

11. dfxiXXav €Troi€vvTO 'raced with each other', cp. 7, 196. 

12. Siopa. For the practice of giving rewards by the Persian 
king to those successful in war see Xen. Oecon. 4, 16. 

For XaixxpeTai see App. E. ii. 2. For the tense after o/cws see 
G. § 217. 

13. Xo-yos 'reputation', see 9, 78. 


15. l<rT]ji7]V€ sc. d (7a\7nyKTr]s. For the use of the adXiriy^ see 
Aeschyl. Persae 397 craX7ri7^5' dUrrj Trd^r' eKeiv' eiricfAeyev, Thucyd. 
6, 32, I ttJ crdXTnyyt aiuTri] virecr7}ixdvdri. Cp. Polyb. 16, 4, 7* 

16. 6S t6 [i.€(rov rds irpvp.vas o-uvii'ya'YOv ' drew their sterns 
together at a central, point '. This manoeuvre, by which the ships 
were arranged so as to resemble an open fan, was for the purpose of 
preventing the enemy from practising the diekplus. Thus it was 
done by the Peloponnesians in the Gulf of Corinth when preparing 
to receive the attack of the Athenians [B.C. 429], see Thucyd. 2, 83, 5 
ot 5t XltXoTTOi'J'Tycriot erd^avro kvkKov tQiv veQ)v ws [x^yLcrTOV oloi r' riaav 
/XT) 5td6vT€$ dc^KirXow, rets Trpdipas fxeu ^^w el'cra; 5^ rets irpOfXPas, 


17. ^p-yov €t\ovTO 'they set to work ', p. 58, 1. ■20. €v bXlyia... 
d'iroXa|X(})0€VT€S ' though caught in a narrow part of the Strait ', cp. 
9, 51 iv T(^ Kc6ai.puiyL dird\e\a/xiJ.ivoi. 

18. Kal Kara (rrdjia, sc. ix^fJ-^^oi irep tpyov (or some equivalent 
participle) ' and though they were engaged prow to prow ', i. e. though 
they would have no opportunity in the narrow sea of practising the 
diekplus or periplus. Abicht however understands etxoj'ro after 
arbfJia ' and they began the attack front to front '. I think the run 
of the sentence is conclusive in favour of the former construction, 
which is supported by Stein. 

23. TO apt(rTi]tov *the prize of valour', the recipient of which 
was formally decided upon after a battle, the various achievements 
and circumstances being fully discussed. See for instance what was 
done after the battle of Plataea, 9, 71. 

27. iroW^v Trapd So'^av d70)vio-d|xcvoi 'after a battle the result 
of which much surprised them', for they had looked for an easy 
victory, see p. 5, 1. 25. For irapabb^av c^. p. 2, I. 22. 

3 1 . xcopov €V 2a\ajxivi ' a farm in Salamis '. 


I. ev<f>p6vT) ' the kindly one ', a poetical word for vv^, both of 7 
which Herodotus uses with no apparent distinction. t]v ttjs a)pT]s 
(j.l<rov Oepos ' it was midsummer ', the gen. ttJs Cop-qs is partitive, 
* of the season it was full midsummer ' ; which is meant to emphasize 
the unusual occurrence of such a storm. The time was probably 
about the beginning of July, for the Olympic festival was going on, 
see c. 26, cp. 7, 206. 

3. dir6 Tov IItiXCov * from the direction of Mt Pelion ', that is 
from the North. 

8. 4s <|)6pov KctTio-T^aTo 'began to be frightened'. App. D. 11. 
6. cXiritovTcs * expecting '. Is ota...'r]Kov 'considering the amount 
of misfortunes into which they had fallen'; explained by the sum- 
mary of their disasters in the next sentence. 

10, II. TOV x€'-F"Vos...KaTd IItjXiov, see 7, 188. A storm of 
East wind caught the Persian fleet when off the shore of Magnesia 
and drove a large number of ships ashore on the promontory called 
the Ovens CIttvoI) and other parts of the coast. virt'XaPe ' suc- 
ceeded '. €K ' after '. pcv)iaTa ' swollen streams ' or ' torrents '. 

94 NOTES ON xiii 


15. Totcri TaxOeiort, see c. 7. 

16. TToWov, App. C. I, ^nd Decl. (4). too-oijtw o<rw 'inso- 
much as '. 

1 7. €V TTcXd-yet ' in the open sea ', not under cover of headlands 
or bays. 

18 — 20. ws 7ap 8t]...EvJ3oiiis 'for as the storm overtook them 
vi^hen actually sailing, just as they were opposite the Hollows of 
Euboea'. For the place see Hist, and Geogr. Index s.v. Hollows. 
TTJs EvPoiT]S is a topographical genitive, cp. 9, 27 r^s rjfJLeT^prjs iv 

21. l^eirnrTOV 'were cast ashore'. ^Kirl-rrTeLv is used as a pas- 
sive of ^K^aXKeLv. Cp. its meaning of ' to be banished' 'to be driven 
out'. See 6, 121 o/cws TLet-aiarrpaTos eKiriaoi e/c twv'AOtjv^wv. 

22. oKws av €|iora)0£it] ' that they might so be reduced to an equal- 
ity ', cp. 9, 22 lbs dv dveXoiaTo. 9, 51 ws av fxy] ibolaro. When a final 
sentence expresses a conclusion in which another hypothesis is virtu- 
ally contained ws and Sttws take dV, and, after a past tense, an opta- 
tive. We find also the subjunctive used dramatically with ws dv 
after a past tense in 9, 7, see p. 4, 1. 10. The hypothesis involved in 
the present case may be thus expressed, 'That the Persian fleet might 
be reduced to an equality with the Greek fleet, as it would be if these 
ships were lost\ 


8 !• w's cr<|)i d(r(X€VOiort...€'7re\anxj/e, cp. p. 6, 1. ro oaoL<XL rjdofx^- 

VOLffL rjv. 

3. <r<|)t direx,pcLTO impers. 'it sufficed them', 'they were con- 
tent to'. 

6. Iireppwo-av {pdvuv/xi) 'encouraged them'. This verb is some- 
what rare. It is used as the opposite of i^iirXij^e 'dismayed' in 
Thucyd. 4, 36, 2. 

9. n^v avTi]v wpTjv *the same period of the day', that is the 
afternoon, as in their former attack, see p. 5, 1. 19. oipri is not used 
for a definite division of time like our 'hour', see above p. 7, I. i 
where it means * season of the year '. It is used here for the larger 
divisions of the day as morning, noon, afternoon. When Herodotus 
speaks of the hours he says rd dvibdeKa fiipea rrjs r]/x^pr)S 2, 109. 



13. Seivov Ti ironio-djicvoi 'ashamed', p. 2, 1. 7. This phrase ex- 
presses any violent emotion of shame or anger or surprise. See 9, 5 
and 7, the first of which refers to indignation, the second to shame. 

15. TO dir6 S^p^tw 'what Xerxes would do', thus 9, 7 to aTr' 
ijfi^uv = ' OUT conduct'. 

17. irapaKcXevo-dixcvot ' having passed round words of mutual 
exhortation'. So diaKeXevaafi^vr) ywr) yvvaiKi {g, ^). dvfj-yov ' they 
dg^'an to launch'. 

18. (Tvverrnm Sk bttm 'and by a coincidence it so happened 
that*. Cp. p. 73, 1. 12 (XwiirnrTe tolovto ojjre rovs fih jSapjSctpous... 
^7; KaTawXwaai KaTappcodrjKdra^, tovs 5^ "EW7]vas...KaTO}T^po} Ar)\ov 
(/i^ Acara7rXd}<rat) . Thucyd. 5, 15 crvvi^y} re evdds /xera tt]v fidxriv... 
(SffT€ iroXifxov firjS^v fn ayj/aadai fxrjderipovs. 

20. 4v ©epjioTTuXTio-i, see 7, 207 sq. The fighting at Thermopylae 
also extended over three days. On the ist some Medes and Cissians 
were beaten back from the pass; on the 2nd a similar attempt 
was made with no better success ; and on the 3rd the path over the 
mountain having been betrayed to Xerxes, Leonidas and his 300 
were surrounded and fell. 

2. oKws jXTi irapTio-ovo-i. G. § 217. 9 


6. (iT^vociSIs iroiT]<mvT€S * having formed a crescent with their 
ships'. /xrjvoeiSes is used substantively for fxrivoeides axnfJ^^- The 
crescent of ships must have presented its concave to the enemy, 
the object being that when the Greek fleet was tempted out to 
attack the centre, the two Persian wmgs might close round them. 

7. €kvkX^ovto 'endeavoured to encircle them', p. 6, 1. 5. 

8. 9. ciraveirXwov [see p. 3, 1. 11] 'began to sail out to sea 
to attack them'. The dvd has the same sense as in dvriyov p. 8, 
I. 17, and inl gives the idea of hostility. irapaTrXijo-ioi 'with no 
advantage on either side'. 

1 1 . avTos vtt' €wvtov 2irnrT€ 'was self- destroyed *. 

12. 'ir€pnrnrTOv(r€(«)v...dXXT]Xas 'fouling each other'. 

14. 8€tv6v XP'HJ^^' c'ToifcvvTo [App. D. in. d], cp. p. 8, 1. 14. 

96 NOTES ON xvi 

15. Tpdireo-Gai Ion. for rpiireaOaL, App. A. ii. 5. 

iroXXal \i€v Si^ 'now it is true that many, etc' 

18. d"ywvito|x.€voi. Stein remarks on the strangeness of the 
present participle instead of dyu)VLad/j,evoL 'after contending', and 
compares i, 76 reXos ovdirepot viKi^cravTes OLearrjaav vvKrbs iireXdoi^- 
(TTjs' Kai rd (xkv arpardireda d/xcporepa ovtoj 'qywvlcfaTO. The present 
participle here may be explained by the consideration of the un- 
finished and undecided nature of the conflict, 'So they separated still 
fighting as I have described', i.e. without the affair being settled 
by a victory on either side. 


-21. avToio-t ctvSpdo-i 'crews and all', i.e. not after being aban- 
doned by their crew. This dative of accompanying circumstance, or, 
as it is sometimes called, dative absolute, is very common in Greek 
writers, especially in this particular phrase. G. § 188, 5. See 
below 1. 25. 

24. 8airdvT]v olKTit-qv irap€x6|i6vos 'defraying the expense out 
of his own resources'. This Clinias was father of the great Alci- 
biades, and was head of one of the richest families at Athens. This 
patriotic act of liberality in supplying a ship and crew was perfectly 
voluntary and must not be connected with the later trierarchies 
which the rich men were obliged to support; though this and 
similar acts may have suggested the system. The habit of keeping a 
private trireme however was maintained by Alcibiades, see Thucyd. 
6, 61, 6. 

25. dv8pdo-t 8iT]KoorCotcri. This dative is similar to that com- 
mented upon on 1. 21. For the number of 200 men, see on p. r, 
1. II, 12 : and 7, 184 (l)s dvd 5t.r]Koaiovs dvdpas Xoyi^ofiaL if iKaari] vrjL 


10 !• do-jxevoi 'and glad to do so', 'to their great relief. Cp. 
Odyss. 9, 62 'ivOev 5e irpoTepui Tr\io[iev aKaxvP-^foi TJTop dap-evot e/c 

5. otJk TJKio-Ta 'especially*. 

6. 8pTio-|x6v 811 ' absolutely now a retreat ', the 5^ like tandem 
indicating the outcome or result of previous events. ' They began 
to consider (and indeed it was time to do so) about retreating', 
go-o, see p. 2, 1. 23. 



9. otoi T6 €l'T](rav civ 'they would be able '. For this suffix re see 
on 9, 23, and p. 3> !• 5 f^r (^ re. Compare oaov re, are, (Hare. 
'The force of it is that of an undeclined Tis', Monro Ho7neric Gr. 
§ 108. \_6.v is absent from the mss.] 

ro. €Xavv6vT«v...€'jrl tt^v OctXacrorav 'as the Euboeans were driv- 
ing their sheep down to the sea'; that is, in order to transport 
them to a place of safety in accordance with their agreement with 
Themistocles, see cc. 4, 5. They apparently had not yet been able 
to complete the removal. - 

11. TavTT) 'at that place' i.e. where the flocj^s were^collected. 
[St. reads kirl rrju ddXaa-cxav ravr-qv, ^'^jfff^ the^st^/dT'^rtemisium 
where the fleet lay.] ^ M^, ^ 

12. iraXdp.tiv 'a contmaacfi'^so m Pindar Olymp. 9, 26 it 
means 'art': properly AncipHmarily it is the 'palm of the hand'. 

14. Is Too-ovTo TrapeYvjJLVOv 'he disclosed it so far', i.e. he 
didn't disclose it any further than this. Cp. 9, 44. 

15. Iirl 8^...'irp'q7naa-(,, p. 21, 1. 4 'in the immediate circum- 
stances which had arisen'. For this meaning of eiri cp. the phrases 
ctt' i^epyaa/x^vots, iir' "EWifjcn dv8pdai (9, 17)- 

19. KoiiiS-qs 8^ 'irepi...|i€XT](r€iv 'and as to their setting off, the 
proper season should be his own care'. That is the time in the 
night, see on p. 8, 1. 9. irvp dvaKai6iv to light the ordinary watch- 
fires in the camp, that the enemy might be deceived and believe 
that they were remaining at Artemisium throuL^h the night. 

22. €TpdirovTO [App. A. ii. 5] irpos to. ir^opara 'they set 
to work to slaughter the sheep'. 


23. 4. irapaxp-qo-afxcvot 'having slighted' or 'neglected'. 
The force of Trapd is that of the English mis- in composition. 
<ttS ovS^v X^-yovra 'as being worthless', 'having nothing in it'. Cp. 
the phrase X^yeis ri ' there is something in what you say ', the 
opposite would be ov8^v X^yets. 

24. ovT€ Tt €^6KO[j,£cravTo ovScv 0VT6 7rpo€(rd|avTo 'they neither 
conveyed their families out of the islands nor took any precautionary 
measures for collecting corn into their forts'. Cp. i, 190 of the 

H. VIII. 7 

98 NOTES ON xx 

Babylonians expecting the attack of Cyrus trpoead^avTo crma irecov 
KCLpra TToWQv. 

id. Tr€pnr€Tett T€...'irpT]"y(x.aTtt 'and so they brought disasters 
upon themselves': they brought it about that the result was dis- 
astrous to themselves. TrepiireTTjs conveys the notion of a change, 
especially from good to bad [cp. Tepiir^Teia for the catastrophe of 
a tragedy]. It is a rare word in this sense, cp. Eurip. Andr. 982 pvu 
ovf eireLdrj TreptTrereis ^x^ts Tu^as 'since your circumstances have 
suffered so disastrous a change'. 
11 I. w8e (i\i\. 'is in these terms'. 

3. papi3ap6<j>wvos, see another Oracle of Bakis in 9, 43. This 
compound of ^dp^apos is more ancient in usage than the simple 
^dp^apos, and is the only form in which the word occurs in Homer 
(II. 2, 867), and points to the difference of language as the great 
distinction between the Hellene and non-Hellene. 

4. (SipXivov. In the bridge of ships made across the Hellespont 
the ships were fastened together by six cables, two made of flax, 
four of biblus [7, 36], a coarse variety of the same plant as that from 
which paper was made. dTrexeiv infin. for imperative, G. § 269. 

5. OTjSev xp-qo-aixe'voKTi ' because they paid no attention to '. 
5, 72 KKjjdovL 01)5^*' xpfw/ACJ'os. ^ireori 'verses'. 

7. o-v|X(|)oprj xpct'^Sci'' 'to meet with disaster ', a general phrase, 
used especially in legal language of losing one's citizenship (De- 
mosth. 533); here it is explained by irpds to, [Liyia-Ta, 'in regard 
to their most vital interests'. 


8. 01 [ikv i. e. the Greeks ; he is continuing the narrative from 
c. 19. 

9. o-.-KaTao-KOTTOS the look-out man stationed at Trachis. 
Thus we hear of rjixepbaKoiroL being stationed along the heights of 
Euboea (7, 182) as opposed to (ppvKTwpoi or the signallers by fire 
at night. 

II. KaTT)p€s [Rt. dp- apto] with oars all ready, fitted to start 
at any moment. ira\T|<r€t€ 'should be engaged' [from irdXTj 
* wrestling']. 

15. TptTiKovT^pcp a thirty-oared boat, cf. irevTeKbvTcpos p. i, 
1. II. Tt vc<0T€pov 'any disaster', cp. 6, 2 Karayvwadeh irpbs avTiau 
veurepa Trpi^aaeiv Trprj-ypLaTa es iwvTous iK Aapeiov, 


18. ovk^tC €s dvaPoXds itroi^vvro Tr[V a.Troyjiapr[<riv *no longer 
procrastinated about their departure', is dva^oXds xoi€?a6ai. = aya- 
jSctWety. Abicht quotes Thucyd. 7, 15 on. di {MiWere dfxa ti^ rjpi 
evdvs Kal (XT] es dpa^oXds irpdaaeLV. 


23. ciri\€|d|Ji€Vos 'having selected for himself, i.e. to keep 
with him, waiting behind the others, which they could afterwards 
catch up by their superior speed. 

2. eircXc^avTo 'read ' from the notion of saying over to oneself, 12 
or perhaps of picking out for oneself the words, p. 70, 1. 8. 

3. €irl Tovs iraWpas 'against the authors of your race', i.e. 
against the Athenians who were regarded as the parent stock of all 
lonians, although the Athenians themselves were said to repudiate 
the name of Ionian, and to claim rather to be Pelasgians [Her. i, 
56, 103]. See however 7, 51, where Artabanus is represented as 
including the Athenians among the lonians. 

5. ndXia-ra p.ev...el 8€ [i-q * if possible'...' but if not'. 

7. €K ToO [x^crov "qjiiv e^€<rO€ * remain out of the contest and 
take no part we beg of you', tjimv dativus ethicus. 

Twv Kapcov. The Carians were not Hellenes, but they had 
before resisted the Persians and were therefore likely to be induced 
to desert. See 5, 117 — 120. 

9. olov T6, see p. 10, 1. 9. d\\* vtr dva'yKaCT]s..,d'ir£(rTa<r0at 
*but have fallen under constraint too powerful to allow of your de- 
serting'. For iitt' dvayKairjs cp. 9, 17. This use of Kari^evxOe is 
poetical, cp. Soph. Aj. 124 ott; o-i'7/caT^fei^/cTat /ca/c^ (Ab.). 

13. dir' v|JL€'cov Ti [liv "Ye'-yove. An allusion to the fact of the Athe- 
nians having sent assistance to the revolting lonians in B.C. 500, 
and having in their cause invaded Asia and burnt Sardis ; see 5, 
99 — 102. 

14. SoKCELv i\Lo\ 'in my opinion'. G. § 268. eir* d|Ji({>6T£pa 
vo^wv 'with an eye to the two alternatives'. 

16. Trpos €«vTc3v 'on their side' p. 30, 1. 14. 

tTTtC T€ dv£V€ix9in> ^^^ the subjunctive in a conditional relative 
sentence without Slv see G. § 234. It is very rare except in Epic 
poetry: Ab. quotes c. 108 is ^Xdrj. Cp. Thucyd. r, 137 /xixpi 
rXoOs yiyrjTai. 8iapXT]0f) 'represented in an invidious light*. 

17. dTTi<rrov9 />assive 'distrusted'. 

loo NOTES ON xxiii 


25. ovTO) 81] turn demum 'then at last', or 'when they had 
been satisfied about that\ See p, 65, 1. 20; p. 71, 1. 17. 

ap.a i]X£cp orKi8va|X€va> 'as soon as the rays of the sun were 
spread abroad'. A poetical expression for 'at sunrise'. Stein 
quotes Aeschylus Pers. 504 irplv aKedaad-rjvai. deov aKTivas. And 
Horn. II. 7, 451 ocrov t iwiKidfaTaL rjdos. 

27. P'^xpi' |A€(rov, cp. p. 8, 1. 17 Kara ixiaov rifxepy]?. to 

airo TovTov 'thereafter', 9, 40; cp. rb evdevrev 9, 26. 


13 9. Kal 8vo (xvpidScs 'as many as twenty thousand'. The Kai 
is used to emphasize the contrast. 

II. 4>v\Xd8a eiriPaXuv 'having thrown leaves upon them' i.e. 
upon the corpses. Stein thinks it probable that this was some 
funeral custom, though we know of none such. Others would 
refer the scattering of the foliage to the Ta(ppoL explaining the object 
to be the concealment of the recent digging. yr\v eira(i,T]o-a[Ji€Vos 

'having heaped up earth upon them', the usual word for the 
making of a grave or barrow, see Theognis ^26 — 27 (pvvTa 5' ottws 
wKiara Tri/Xaj 'AtSao irepi^aat, Kal Keiffdai iroW'^v yrjv iira/xTjadiui.ei'ov, 
as also other passages given by L. and Sc. 


20. ov8ev trkoiciv o-jraviwrepov 'boats were the most difficult 
things to get in the world', i. e. there was such a rush for the shore 
that all the boats were in use. 

11. I0T16VVTO, App. D. III. 2 (b). 

22. TjiricTTcaTO, see p. 3, 1. 21. 

24. Kal Tovs ctXwras 'the Helots as well'. We know that 
each Spartan at Thermopylae had his Helot, see 7, 229; but it is 
not stated whether there was the same proportion as in the Spartan 
army which went to Plataea, viz. 7 helots to each Spartan, see 9, 
10 and 28. 

ov \ikv ov8' IXdvOave 'not that he even escaped detection by'. 

Ka\ y6.p hr\ Kal ^cXoCov t^v 'for in point of fact it was abso- 
lutely ridiculous', explained by the next sentence, which might 


be expected to have been introduced by yap, the omission of which 
Stein illustrates by 7, 6 where tovto ixev and tovto 8k introduce 
explanatory clauses without this conjunction. For koL yap Si) /cat 
cp. 7, 236. 

3. Te(r(r€p€S xtXidScs. The numbers originally accompanying 14 
Leonidas to Thermopylae were according to Herodotus [7, 202, 3] 
from the Peloponnesus (including the 300 Spartans) 3100, from 
Thespiae 700, from Thebes 400, — in all 4200. These were joined 
at Thermopylae by about 2000 Lokrians and Phokians, — making 
6200. If we may reckon 7 helois for each of the 300 Spartans 
[p. 13, 1. 24] the numbers will be raised to 8300. But Diodorus 
(11, 4) adds also 1000 Lakedaemonians [i.e. not Spartan citizens, 
probably Perioeci] : — the whole number will thus be 9300. But 
just before the final battle Leonidas sent away all the allies except 
the Thebans and Thespians [7, 219, 220]. The numbers engaged 
on the third day would therefore be 

Spartans 300 

Helots 2100 

Lakedaemonians 1000 

Thespians 700 

Thebans 400 


The Theban 400 deserted to the Persians, and therefore allowing 
for escapes, especially of Helots, and for any that fell on the two pre- 
vious days, and adding 80 Mycenaeans [mentioned by Pausanias 2, 
16, 5] the number of Greek corpses which Xerxes had to show 
may well have been about 4000. And this is the number mentioned 
in the Epitaph inscribed over them [7, 228], 

'MvpidffLV iroTk rySe TpiriKoalais iixdxovTo 
iK TleKoTTovvacov x^^^i-o-Ses r^ropes. 


8. pCov 8€d|j.€voi ' in want of a livelihood '. 

kvipyol ' in active employment '. 

12. «s 'OXv|nrta «5l'yoi€v. The Olympic festival took place 
every fifth year, i.e. there were four clear years between each 
festival. It lasted five days and according to Bockh began on the 


first full moon after the Summer solstice. It therefore varied by 
a few weeks, but may be considered to have usually taken place 
some time in the month Hecatombaeon (July). 

14. K€C(j,€vov * proposed for competition '. 

15. TTJs cXatT]s the garland given to the victors at the Olympic 
games was of wild olive (/co'rij'os). Aristoph. Plut. 585 roi)s vtKwvras 
CTecpavibtxa'i KorLvip arecpavLj}. 

17. 8€i\C-r]v «(|)X6 'was held guilty of cowardice ', properly a 
legal term d^Xelp dlKfjv ' to be cast in a suit ', *to incur the damages'. 
Then it is transferred to the matter of the charge itself, as fiupiav 
6(}>\L(TKavo3 ' I am held guilty of folly', Soph. Antig. 470. 

19. ovT€ TJvc(rx.6To cTi-ywy 'he could not refrain from speaking'. 

22. TTcpl dpexTJs 'for honour', the valour is used for the result 
of valour — honour. So in Pindar aid 3' d/A0' aperaiai irovos da- 
irdva re fiapvarai irpbs ^pyov Olymp. 5, 15; riixa — 6.vbpa irii^ aperav 
evpjVTa 01. 7, 89; fwaicri 5' d/x(p' aperais Terafiai Pyth. 11, 54. 
dperdv ye p.kv Ik Alos e^et? Theocr. Id. 17, 137. 


1 5 I. Kal TO KcipTtt ' most especially ', /cat emphatic : p. 30, 1. 7, 

2. iravo-TpaTiTJ , p. 21, 1. 6. 

3. ov iroXXoicri 'incri irporepov. Neither the exact time nor the 
occasion of this invasion of Phokis is known: but the constant 
border warfare between the two nations liad induced the Phokians 
to build a wall across the pass of Thermopylae for their protection 

[7, 176]. 

8. cro^ilirai toiovSs 'contrives the following trick against 
them'. 7v\j/a5<ras ' having smeared with chalk', cp. 7, 69; the 

object was to be able to distinguish each other from the enemy in 
the dim light without the necessity of shouting a pass- word, which 
was the cause of great confusion in night attacks, see Thucyd. 

7» 44> 5- 

14. aXXo Ti ctvai rtpas ' that it was something strange and 


16. vcKpwv Kal d(riri8a)v '4000 dead bodies and shields'. 
That is, they killed 4000 men on the field. For if the men had 
escaped, the number of shields would have exceeded that of the 
dead bodies, cf. Thucyd. 7, 45, 2 oirXa pLhroi ^ti TrXe/w ij /card 
Toiis veKpoiis eKr,(pdr], many having thrown away their shields. 


19. 01 TTcpl T^v Tp£iro8a 'which are arranged round the tripod', 
irepl with ace. indicates a less close connexion than with gen. Cp. 
p. 20, 1. 17 : Stein quotes 9, 62 iyepero de irpoorov irepl to, yippa (idxV' 
This seems to be the tripod described by Pausanias (10, 13, 4) as 
being the centre of a group of gods; Hercules and Apollo are 
contending for it, while Latona is trying to restrain Apollo, and 
Athene Hercules. It was dedicated by the Phokians as a thank- 
offering for their victory mentioned above (1. 3) under Tellias over 
the Thessalians. The colossal figures (01 fjLe-ydXoi dvSpidvTcs) men- 
tioned seem to have been placed round this work at some little dis- 
tance, though grouped with some regularity [avyeaTeuiTes). 

20. ^uirpocrGe tov vtiov, that is, outside the temple, in the 

21. dvaKcarai, App. D. 11. 6. 


22. 23. Tov 'irf.t,6v iroXiopKCOVTas Icovtovs the land army 

which was besieging them. The plural participle with a singular 
noun of multitude. G. § 138, note 3. 

24. Tr|v itTTTOv avTwv 'their cavalry', in this meaning i] tirvos 
is not used in the plural, but is a noun of multitude. Thessaly was 
full of tich plains, and was especially famous for its horses, and 
Thessalian cavalry were in request all through Greece. 

26, 27. djx<}>op^as Kctvovs 'empty wine-jars'. \ovv is earth 

that has been moved. So avyxovv ' to fill up with earth' p. 37, 1. 18. 

29. (lis dvapirao-oiJLCvoi 'believing that they were going to make 
short work of the Phokians': cf. 9, 59 ovtol ixkv ^orj re Kai ofiLXcfi 
iirrjCcav (is duapnaaofieuoi tovs "'EWrjuas. 


1. ToxjTwv d}ic}>0T€pwv viz. the night surprise c, 27, and the 16 
stratagem which injured their horses c. 28. 

2. ?*yKOTOV 'grudge'. Cp. 3, 59 iyKorov ^x^vre^ Sajuioio-i. 

3. \va)<rniax46T€ 'give way and confess', from the notion of 
difl'ering and fighting with a former opinion. See 3, 25; 7, 130 
and Aristoph. Aves 555 

TT]v dpxw Toi' Af diraiT€?v, 
Kdv fxkv firj (py //,7j5' iOeXriay ^tr;5' evdOs ypuaifxaxvffy 
lepbv irdXefiov irpuvddp aury. 



5, 6. TrXeov aUl...v|X£(ov 6(j>6p6|X60a 'we always came off better 
than you', 'we were always more influential than you'. Cp. 8, 104 
(peptifJievoi ov to. deijrepa irapa Tip ^acxCKl'C 'being the most influential 
with the king'. cKeiva 'that side' = Ta eKelvwv \^'EXk'qv(av'\irpd'y- 


7, 8. eir* ii(xtv lo-rt 'it is in our hands', 'it depends solely on 
us'. irpos adverbial, 'besides', p. 26, 1. 4. 

8, 9. TO irdv ^xovT€s 'though we have the game absolutely in 
our hands', 'though we are all-powerful in the matter'. Cf. the use 
of ^^ets 'you will control' in 9, 2. 

10. dvT* avTwv sc. KaK<2v 'our wrongs' implied in ixvrjoi- 


16. a-S|ov *had been backing up', cp. 9, 31 Kai rives avTQv to. 
'BWtiuoju av^ov. ws €|J.ol SoK^civ. Seep. 12, 1. 14. 

18. Trapiyjtiv ri <r<j>£ai 'that it was open to them to niedize as well 
as to the Thessalians if they chose'. For irapix^Lv = 7rap€2vac, cp. 8, 
106 Trapi^xet ravTa iroLetv. See p. 5, 1. i. For o\jTe...Te cp. 6, 16. 

19. aXXtos 'otherwise than they were', or 'otherwise than 

20. €k6vt6S elvat 'with their own consent at least'. This 
phrase is generally used in a negative sentence. See 7, 104; 9, 
7. An exception occurs in 7, 164. 


23. OVTOD hr\, p. 3, 1. 24. 
17 3. TToSecov properly 'the neck of a wine-skin', 2, 121; here 
it = ' a narrow tongue of land '. 

TavTT] KaraTcCvci 'extends downwards in this direction'. It is 
the district 'of the upper valleys of the Kephisos and its main 
tributary, the Pindus'. Rawl. It stretches from Mt Oeta in a south- 
westerly direction, following the course of the Kephisos. 

6. fjiTjTpdiroXis Awpte'wv, see i, 56 where the Dorians are said to 
have moved first from Phthiotis to Histiaeotis, then to Pindos in 
Doris, thence to Dryopis, and thence to the Peloponnese. 

xxxiv HERODOTOS. VIII. 105 


12. Is TcL oLKpa Tov IIapvT]crov. These Phokians collected in 
considerable force on Parnassus and did good service to the Greeks 
in this and the following years, see 9,31. 

14. K€i^€VT] eir' luvTTJs 'being quite isolated', for iir^ cuvttjs 
'by itself cp. 9, 17 e/cAeucr^ a(pea% ^tt' ewvTuiv iu t(^ 7re5i(^ ti^eaOai, 

cp. 9, 38- 

15. d,vr]viiKavTO [App. E. 2. c. An Ionic form of i aor. mid. 
of dva<p^po}, so in I, 86 dveveiKa/jLevos] 'carried up their goods'. Stein 
refers to 9, 6 vire^eKOfihavTo re TravTa koI avrol dU^rjaav. See also 
p. 19, 1. II. 

18. vir^p TOV Kpio-aCov ttcSCov ' on the heights above the Krisaean 
plain'. Strabo (4, 9) describes it as iirl rots aKpois tov Kpiaaiov Tredov. 

20. ovT« 'by this route'. 

21. ^KCipov 'cut dow^n its trees'. See 6, 75 ^Keipe rb rifievos : 
9, 15 ^Keipe Tovs X'J^povs. See p. 32, 1. 15. eirecrxov 'extended 
over', p. 18, 1. 16; cp. I, 108 rr^v a/xireXov eTrtcrxc'i' T'^v'Aalrjv iraffav. 
Cp. 9, 31. 


24. Kara fi^v ^Kavcrav, for this tmesis cp. 9, 5 Kara fikv i\ev<Tav 
avTou TT]v yvpa'iKa, Kara 8^ to, T^Kva. See p. 34, 1. 23. G. § 191 
note 3, p. 241. 

28. 0Tio-avpottrC T€ Kal dvaOrjixao-i. The former refers to treasures 
in gold and silver money or plate, the latter to statues, tripods and 
other thank-offerings. 

I. irpos Toio-i ovpccrt 'close to the hill country', that is, before 18 
they could get high enough up to be safe. 


3. napairoTaiitous the name of a town in the valley of the 
Kephisos, which reaches the Boeotian frontier at Panopeis, or, as it 
was afterwards called, Phanoteus. 

8. Trdv t6 ttXtjGos 'the people in a body '. Yet exceptions have 
to be made to this statement in the case of the Plataeans and 
Thespians, and even in Thebes itself there seems to have been a 
division of opinion [9, 96-7]. The measure of Alexander in put- 

io6 NOTES ON xxxiv 

ting Macedonian governors in the Boeotian cities looks as if they 
were not considered quite to be relied upon for medism, though 
Herodotos says the primary object was to satisfy Xerxes that 
Boeotia could be trusted. 

11. TTJ86 'with this view'. povXo|X€vot 'because they wished'. 

12. Tft Mt]8mv, see p. 39, 1. 24 (ppoviuv rk BaaiXeos. 


15. Iv Selifj Tov napvT]o-6v direpYovTcs 'keeping Parnassus on 
their right'. 

16. Iireo-xov, p. 17, 1. 21. 

21. dTToSe'^aiev [App. E. 2. e] rd xpr[\i.a,ra 'that they might 
display to Xerxes the wealth of the temple'. Not only was the 
temple of Delphi rich in gold and silver ornaments and works of art, 
but it possessed also a large treasury of money, and was a kind of 
bank for all Greece. 

24. ra KpoCtrov 'the offerings of Kroesos'. Kroesos, king 
of Lydia, having tested the skill of the various oracles of Greece, 
decided that the supremacy in prophetic power belonged to Delphi. 
He therefore offered there elaborate sacrifices of 3000 animals; 
and having made a pile of valuable objects of extraordinary magni- 
ficence, — couches overlaid with gold and silver, gold cups, and purple 
robes, — he burnt them in honour of the god, and from the molten gold 
made 117 bricks of solid metal, weighing i| talents each, and a figure 
of a lion in gold weighing 10 talents, and sent them to Delphi. Be- 
sides these he sent two large bowls of gold and silver, and many 
other articles of value, i, 47 — 52. This was in or about the year 
B.C. 555, when he was expecting the attack of Kyros. 


19 2. diriKaTo, App. D. ii. a. 

4. Kara ytJs KaTopii|«cri ' whether they should bury them in the 
earth '. Cp. Arist. Plut. 237 evdds KaTcopv^ef fxe Kara rijs 7-^5 /cdrw. 

o-<j)ea, App. B. ii. i {d). 

6. irpoKaTTicrOai 'to defend'. Cp. 9, 106 ddijvaTov yap i4>alv€T6 
(r<pi etyat iuvroi/s 'IciJ'OJi' TrpoKarrjadat, (ppovpiopras. 

8. irepTiv App. A. il. 3 {d), 'across' the gulf of Corinth 
into Achaia. 


II. avT]V€iKavTo 'conveyed their goods', p. 17, 1. 15. 

13. Tov 'irpo<}>'r]T6w the Priest, or Interpreter, in charge of 
the temple, whose duty was to note down and hand over to the 
applicant the oracles delivered by the Pythia, when under the divine 
influence, antistes templi, Livy 7, iii. In later times when the 
number of visitors increased there were a larger number of priests. 


15. dircupeov 'saw from a distance'. Cp. 9, 69 fi.Tfi^bvT^% ccpias 
ol tQiv Qrj^aioiP IwirbTat, eincpepo/j.^i'OXJS oibiva K6(r/xou rjXavvov iir 

17. €^€VTiv€i7HL6va, App. E. 1. c. 

21. Kara t6 ipov ttJs npovi]tT]s*A0T]vaCT]S 'opposite the temple 
of Athene Pronaia'. Pausanias (10, 8, 4) says that on entering the 
town of Delphi one passed several temples one after the other, the 
fourth of which was that of Athene Pronaia. 

25. Kttl Std irdvTWV <j)a(r(JLdT&)v ' quite above all other prodigies'. 
For the sense of 5ta cp. p. 36, 1. 17; and for the emphatic 
KoX p. 30, 1. 17. 

3, 4. diro 8^ TOV IIapvT)<rov...l(j>€povTo. This phenomenon is 20 
by nd means improbable, as the huge boulders scattered about on 
the site of Delphi testify. The frequency of earthquakes in the 
region of Parnassus is well described by Professor Mahaffy in his 
description of another town, Arachova, in the same district \^Rambles 
and Studies in Greece^ p. ■261]: 

* The town has a curious, scattered appearance, owing not 
' only to the extraordinary nature of the site, but to the fact that 
' huge boulders, I might say rocks, have been shaken loose by 
' earthquakes from above, and have come tumbling into the 
' middle of the town. They crush a house or two, and stand 
' there in the middle of a street. Presently someone comes and 
' builds a house up against the side of this rock ; others venture 
' in their turn, and so the town recovers itself, till another earth- 
' quake makes another rent. Since 1870 these earthquakes have 
' been very frequent. At first they were very severe, and ruined 
' almost all the town ; but now they are very slight, and so 
' frequent that we were assured that they happened at some time 
• every day.^ 

6. dXa\a7|Ji.6s a shouting of alalai^ a war-cry. Aeschyl. Pers. 
392 fcAaSos 'EW^J'WJ/. . .tpdiop 5' ajxa' AvrrfKaXa^e vrjffidridos irirpas vx^- 

io8 NOTES ON xxxviii 


7. TovTcov irdvTwv 'all these wonders'. It is difficult to deter- 
mine what foundation of truth there may be to such tales. The 
storm and the sudden detachment of the great boulders from the 
mountain are facts in themselves credible enough, see the passage 
quoted from Prof. Mahaffy above; and in a sudden panic among 
men, whose minds were already predisposed to superstitious awe, be- 
cause attacking a place whose sanctity was so renowned, the appear- 
ance of superhuman warriors may easily have been imagined. So 
at Marathon the Athenian Epizelos fancied that he saw one [6, 117]; 
and at Salamis a form of a goddess was believed to have appeared to 
the Athenians as they backed out of the fight [c. 84]; and at the 
battle of Leuctra the natibnal hero, Aristomenes, was said to have 
cheered on his Messenian countrymen [Paus. 4, 32, 4]; and Phylakos 
appeared again at Delphi on the attack of the Gauls [Paus. 10, 23, 2]. 
Mr Grote seems however to hold that this attack on Delphi was 
withdrawn on the news of the defeat at Salamis. ' On this occasion 
the real protectors of the treasures were the conquerors at Salamis 
and Plataea'. Hist, of Greece, vol. 4, p. 463. 

10. 101) BoiwTwv 'straight to Boeotia'. So t'^j) roD tcpoO' idu ttjs 
QprjLKLTjs, 9, 69, 89. 

13. (ictovas 11 Kara dvOpcoTrcov <J)v(riv 'of superhuman size'. 
(f)Tj(xi.% is used of the outward form bestowed by nature, whether in 
regard to appearance or size. See Arist. Vesp. 107 1 Tr]v e/mrju Iduv 
<pvcriv. In Plomer the more common word in this sense is ^vi^. 


16. Iirixtopiovs TJpcaas 'heroes of the place'. Every Greek 
state had its heroes, i.e. certain of its citizens whose public services 
had seemed to deserve apotheosis, either in founding the state or 
defending it. The worship paid to them was different in kind from 
that paid to the god [ws ijpm ivayi^ovaiv ws 6e<^ diovaL Paus. 2, 11, 
7], though the two were apt to be confounded. Instances of such 
national heroes are the Aeakidae of Aegina (8, 64) ; Harmodios and 
Aristogeiton at Athens; Androkrates at Plataea (9, 25). Dr Arnold 
[Thucyd. 5, 11] compares the worship paid to such heroes to the 
adoration of Saints. 

17. TO, T€H£'vea the sacred enclosures round the temples, cut off 


[T^fivw) from the profane ground. ircpl to tpov 'in the neighbour- 
hood oi the temple', i.e. of the great temple of Apollo, p. 15, 1. 19, 

18. Trap' aiiTT^v ti]v 680 v 'abutting on the road itself, i.e. 'the 
sacred road' from Daulis up to the great temple, on which stood 
also the temple of Athene Pronaia, see p. 19, 1. 21. 

' The road from Daulis to the S.-W. leads along a rugged valley 
to Delphi, and falls in with another from Ambryssus on the S., at a 
point halfway between the two. This place was called the (txio-ttj 
656s, or the Divided Way'. Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, ^p. -237. 

21. cs T][i€'as 'to my day'. 

23. Sidrulv Pappdpwv 'through the ranks of the Barbarians'. 


21 '• o-x*^v 'irpo<5 2a\a(xiva 'to come to anchor near Salamis'. 
The more usual construction is o-xe?;/ es, see below I. [3 and above 
p. 20, 1. 27. Thucyd. 3, 34, i ^crxe ej '^otlov, 4, 3, 1 ^j tt]v Ti.'uKov 
ffxovras. Thucydides also uses the datiVe 7, r, 2 (tx^vtcs 'Piyyiy kuI 
Meaa-Tjvr]. But the use of tt/joj is to indicate not the actual putting 
on shore at Salamis, but near it, either on the island or the opposite 

3. irpos Bk adverbial 'and besides', see p. 16, 1. 8. T6 = Tt 
quidy cp. 9, 54 eirelpeadaL rb -Xfiebv eirj -rroiieiu, 9, 7 i yevojJ^vrjs \4<txv^ 
OS yivoiTO apiffTos. 

4. €irl Kttl Toi<ri KaTTJKovori, p. 10, 1. 15, 

PovX-qv ?|x€\Xov irotTJo-coreai 'they had to reconsider their plans 
in view of the disappointment of their expectations'. For the con- 
struction of ^/ieXXov see on p. 2, 1. 3. 

6. iravSTiiicl 'with all their available forces', cp. 6, 108; 9, 37: 
whereas TrauaTpany [p. 15, 1. 2: p. 34, 1. 8] seems properly to mean 
'with a full levy of all arms' — hoplites, cavalry, light-armed; which 
would consist of two-thirds of all available. Cp. Thucyd. 4, 94. 

8. ol hi, 'whereas on the contrary they learnt'. 

Tov 'lo-OfJiov T6iX€ovTas. This wall was built from sea to sea, 
about seven miles east of the town of Corinth, and can still be traced. 
It was completed early next year [B.C. 479]. See 9, 7 — 8. 

9. irepl irXdfnov irowv|i€vovs, 'regarding as the matter of first 
importance.' p. 8, 1. 14. 

10. II. irepicivai 'should be saved', cp. p. 2, 1. 8. dirie'vai 
[a'T — trjfJLL]. oiiTW Sq, p. 3, 1. 24: p. 16, 1. 22. 





15. TTJ Tt? Suvarai, 'in whatever direction each found it 
possible ', i.e. it was left to individuals to go where they pleased ; 
the population was not moved en masse. 

17. Is Tpoi^Tjva. According to Plutarch the people of Troezen 
received them with great kindness ; voted a public provision of two 
obols a day for each adult, and gave a general permission to the 
children to pick fruit. Plutarch Themist. c. 10. 

19. T(rt xP^o"TTip£<{), the two oracles which had been given to the 
Athenian envoys in the early part of the year. The first (7, 140) 
had announced utter destruction to Athens and other Greek towns, 
and had warned the Athenians to fly to the ends of the earth ; the 
second (7, 141) had been less alarming, and had prophesied that 
when all else was lost *a wooden wall alone' should be left un- 
captured to Athene. Some interpreted this of a wooden palisade 
round the Acropolis, but Themistocles had persuaded his fellow- 
citizens that it meant the fleet; and moreover encouraged them by 
the interpretation of the last two lines of the second oracle, 

(3 Qdf] 2aXa/ifs, aTroXets hk ai) r^Kua ywaiKcjv 
ij TTOV (TKibvaixivrj's Arj/xrjTepos rj (rvvio6(rr)s. 

For he remarked that had the god meant to prophesy destruction 
to the Athenians at Salamis the epithet would not have been Oeir} 
but (xxeTXir). The people had therefore been fully persuaded to 
abandon their town and trust to their fleet. Professor Mahafify takes 
the view that the priests of Delphi were playing a double game 
in view of what they thought was the certain success of Persia: 
'I cannot but suspect', he says, *that they hoped to gain the favour 
of Xerxes, and remain under him what they had hitherto been, a 
wealthy and protected corporation '. \Rambles and Studies in Greece 
p. 272.] Perhaps, without attributing to them feelings so unpatriotic, 
we may conclude that being usually under Spartan influence they 
took the Peloponnesian view, — that to save Northern Greece was im- 
possible, and that the only hope was to abandon it and defend the 

20. ovK TjKKTTa 'cspccially ', p. 37, 1. 4. 

21. 6<})iv jj.e'yav. This serpent, emblem of the earthborn Erech- 
theus, was supposed to be kept in the Ancient Temple of Athene 
Polias, which in its subsequently restored state formed the eastern 


portion of the Erechtheum on the Acropolis. This temple also con- 
tained the old olive-wood statue of Athene Polias to which the 
peplus was yearly brought; the sacred olive from which all the 
other sacred olives {/JLopiai) were taken ; and the golden lamp always 
burning, from which emigrants lit the lamp which they took to their 
new home. 

4>v\aK0V. Ionic form of 0uXa/fa, cp. i, 84. The serpent was 
sometimes called o0i$ olKovpos, cf. Aristoph. Lys. 758 ctXV oi) dvvafxai 
yuyy' ov8i Kotfiacrd^ iu irdXei, e^' ov rbv o(J)lv eldov rbv olKOvpov wore. 

22. Iv T(u ipw 'in the temple' sc. of Athene Polias, see above. 
Kttl 8t] Kal ws lovTi 'and moreover as though it actually existed'. 
Herodotos evidently doubts the existence of the serpent : and 
Plutarch [Themist. ro], though apparently believing in the existence 
of the serpent, looked upon the whole affair as a trick got up 
between the priests and Themistocles. Rawlinson well compares 
the story of the priests in Babylon contained in the book of Daniel 
*Bel and the Dragon'. See also the scene in the temple of Aescu- 
lapius Arist. Plut. 678 where the priest goes round with a bag 
collecting the eatables from the altars. e7ri|j.TJvia that is on the 

day of every new moon. 

24. n,€XiT6€(r<ra 'a honey-cake', apparently the proper offering 
to subterranean powers. Thus Strepsiades before going in the den 
of the Sophists, as if he were going into the cave of Trophonius, says, 
^s Tw xetpe vvv Aos /xot fxeXiTovTTav irpbrepov (Aristoph. Nub. 506). 
Thus too Aeneas gives Cerberus melle soporatam et medicatis frugi- 
bus offani (Aen. 6, 420). 

25. dvaio'i)JLOV|i.evT] 'used up', avaiaiixbu} is a verb confined 
almost entirely to Herodotus, who uses it frequently for aj/dXlaKu: or 

26. TTis ip€iT]s 'the priestess'. Plutarch Themist. lo says ol 
lepeis elai^yyeXKou ci's roi/s iroWovi, but insinuates that it was by the 
instigation of Themistocles. 

I. US Kttl TTJs 6€ov diroXeXotirv^s tiqv aKpoiroXiv 'because they 22 
believed that the goddess too had abandoned the Acropolis'. The 
gods were believed to abandon a conquered town. Cp. Vergil Aen. 
2, 351 Excessere mnnes adytis arisque relictis \ Di quibus itnperium 
hoc steterat. Aeschyl. S. c. Th. 207 dXX' ovv deoifs \ tovs rrjs dXovar)^ 
TToXcws iKXeiireiv Xoyos. So Tacitus (Hist. 5, 13) says that when 
the temple at Jerusalem was on fire audita major humana vox. 

112 NOTES ON xLi 

excedere deos ; sif7iul ingens motus excedentium. A passage in Eu- 
ripides [Troad. 23] gives a reason eprj/xla yap iroXiv orav Xa^rj KaK'f) I 
voaeX TO. Ti2u deuiv ov5^ rifiaadai, diXei. 

2. (TTpaToireSov here =' the fleet', cp. p. 43, 1. i. Plutarch 
(Them. c. 10) gives a full description of the scene of the departure, 
the tears, and touching adieus, not the least moving part being the 
leaving behind of domestic animals, especially the dogs. He also 
tells us that the Council of the Areopagus supplied each man fight- 
ing on board with 8 drachmae. 


7. 7rpo6ipT]To 'they had been ordered beforehand', i.e. by the 
congress at the Isthmus, see on p. i, 1. i. 

8. irXevvcs. App. B. i. c. 

II. OTJ |X€'vTot...paartXT]Cov. The two kings at the time of the 
3 days of Artemisium were Leonidas and Leotychides. Both kings 
could not go out with the army together, and as Leonidas was at 
Thermopylae the other king is kept at home. In the next year 
Leotychides took the command of the Spartan ships, while the son 
of Leonidas, Pleistarchus, was a child and kept at home, being 
represented by his cousin Pausanias. 


16. rh avTo irXi]pw|jLa 'the same complement of ships', i.e. 
forty. See c. 2. 

20. AwptKov T€ Kal MaKeSvov ' Doric or Makednian' [old Make- 
donian], two names belonging to the same tribe, see on p. 40, 1. 11. 

23, 24. €K TT]s vvv AoopCSos. Scc p. 1 7, 1. 7. e^avao-TavTCs 
*having been driven out'. 


23 2« """pos iravTas.'Trapcx.op.evoi sc. iffTparevoPTo 'supplying the 
largest number in comparison with any of the other Greeks', irXeia-- 
ras must be understood, its place being taken by the numerals. 
The numbers,— Athenians i8o, total 378 (or 366 as it really is), — 
would almost justify the sense 'as many as all th^rest put together'. 
We must remember also that Athens supplied the 20 ships which 
the Chalkidians manned [c. i]. For a preposition with ace. taking 
the place of a genitive after a comparative clause cp. Thuc. i, 23. 


y'lXlov €k\(1\I/€ls irvKvorepai rrapd to, eK rod irplv xp^^'^^ fiviTixovevo- 

4. |iovvoL 'by themselves', without the Plataeans, as is ex- 
plained by the next sentence, see p. i, 1. 5. 

8. €S TTtpairiv rr\s Boicot£t|s X"P^5 *to the opposite shore, 
namely that of Boeotia', a genitive in apposition, or of definition. 
irepai-qv sc. yr\v. For the use of the word in the relation of one 
shore to another, cp. p. 19, 1. 8. 

ckko|xi8t]v, cp. e^€KOfxi<javTo p. lo, 1. 24. The Plataeans were in 
double danger, for their fidelity to the Hellenic cause and especially 
to the Athenians, and from the enmity of the Thebans. 

9. Twv oiKCTewv * of their families ', includes all members of the 
household, women, children and slaves, p. 56, 1. 26. 

10. 6'7rl...ex,ovTwv 'at the period of the occupation by the Pelasgi 
of what is now called Hellas'. G. § 191, vi. i. For a discussion 
of these names see Historical Index, and cp. i, 56. 

14. *A9T]vai)oi (Ji,€TOvvo}Jid(r0T]o-av 'changed their name to that 
of Athenians '. 

15, 16. o-TpaTctpxcti) [-X7;s App. C. I. 4] 'general'. 'A de- 
signedly indefinite expression instead of the usual jSao-tXei^s' (St.). 
"I«v€s though the Athenians repudiated the term i, 143. Cp. what 
is said in 'A^. TroX. 3 of the origin of the Polemarch. 


17. TwvTo TrX-qpojixa p. 22, 1. 15, 'the same complement', i.e. 
twenty ships, see p. i, 1. 6. twvto Kal ' the same as ' ; for koX 
introducing the second term of a comparison, cp. Thucyd. 7, 71 
Trapa.TT\-r](jio. o\ 'A9i]vatoL iveirovdeaav iv 7!iVpaKovaai.s Kal 'ibpaaav olvtoI 
iv UvXij}. 

19. €TrePw0T](rav. App. A. III. 8. 


20. N-qo-iwr^wv 'islanders ', as opposed to people of the conti- 
nent, and therefore without article. Cp. vTjaot 6, 49 ; 9, 3. 

23. Ti]v IwvTwv sc. 7^v. 

25. Awpi.€€s dir6 'EfTiSavpov, see 5, 83, where to this connexion 
is traced the commencement of a war between Athens and Aegina. 

4. €s Tovs M-qSovs. Plutarch [de malign. Herod, xxxvi] declares 24 
this statement to be false, and that the Naxians as a state supported 
the Hellenic side ; and moreover that, according to Hellanicus, they 

H. viri. 3 


sent 6, according to Ephoros 5 ships. They appear on the Delphian 

Serpent stand and on the Olympic Column. Simonides records that 

their squadron sank 5 of the enemy's ships, and rescued a Greek ship. 

LyjixoKpLTOs rplros Tjp^e /xaxvs, ore Trap 'ZioKafuva 

"EWrjves M^SoiS ai/x^aXov ev ireXdyei' 
irivTC d^ PTJas '^Xev brfiiav, '^kttjv 6' inrb X^'P* 
pixraro ^ap^apLKyju Awpi5' aKL<XKOiJ.h'qv. 
Kara irep wXXoi VT]o-uoTat *just as the other islanders had 
been '. Since the suppression of the Ionic revolt in the year B.C. 
497 — 5 the Persian power had been supreme in the Cyclades, except 
in a few of the islands near the main-land ; and as yet no Hellenic 
fleet held the Aegean. 

5. air^KaTO, App. D. II. a. 

6. o-ir€vo-avTOS sc. avToi)s 'having urged them on '. Cp. 1. 1, 
3S TOP ya/iiov Toi TovTov ^(Xtrevaa. 

9. T(xs Kal Itt* 'A. 'the same number as at Artemisium', that is 
two. See p. I, 1. II. irevTiiKovTcpov, see on p. i, 1. 12. 

13. VT]crtwTcW, see on p. 23, 1. 19. "yTJv t6 Kal v8(op 'earth 
and water ' as symbols of the ownership of the Great King over the 
entire country. This had been twice demanded : once in B.C. 492 
by Dareios when all the Islanders had submitted (6, 49) ; a second 
time by Xerxes in the early part of this year [B.C. 480], which latter 
appears to be the occasion here alluded to, although when speaking 
of it [7, 133] Herodotos says nothing about the Islanders. 


14. IvTos olKT]ja.€voi ©co-irpwToiv that is 'South and East of 
Thresprotia ', which is the S.-W. part of Epirus. 

16. 6|Jiovp£'ovT€S 'coterminous', for oupos = 6pos see App. A. 
III. 7. 

17. €kt6s to the west. The island of Leucas sent three ships, 
but no state west of that, except Krotona in Magna Graecia. 

19. TTJ 'EWdSi. Herodotus does not mean to exclude Krotona 
from Hellas, rather to mark that her sending this ship was in conre- 
quence of a feeling that she belonged to Hellas. 

20. Tpls Trv9i,ovtKT]S ' who had thrice been victor at the Pythian 
games '; i.e. twice in the pentathlum and once in the stadium [Paus. 
10, 9, i] see Hist. Ind. Phayllos. The Pythian games were cele- 
brated, in the third year of each Olympiad, on the Cnossaean plain 
near Delphi, in honour of Apollo, Artemis, and Latona. 



21. Tpi,T]p€aS...'ir€VTTJKOVT€pOVS, SCC OU p. 1,1. 12. 

26. dpi9|x6s...6 irds twv v€wv... Herodotus gives a wrong total — 
by 12 — of the items enumerated in cc. 43 — 48. He reckons 378 ; 
the true result being 366 triremes. The easiest explanation is that 
he- has made a mistake, as is the case in several other places when 
he gives a series of numbers ; or that some error has found its way 
among the symbols for numbers in the MSS. 

Some editors however have accounted for the 12 additional ships 
by supposing Herodotos to reckon in those ships of the Aeginetans 
which were ready and fully manned but left to guard the island [p. 
23, 1. 21]. It is impossible to say with certainty that this is so, but 
it may be noticed that at Artemisium the Aeginetans supplied 
18 ships [p. I, 1. 8] and at Salamis3o, an addition of 12 ; supposing 
then that at Salamis ^a// their reserve fleet of 24 was sent, the 12 
would be accounted for. But this must remain mere conjecture. 
Aeschylos, who was himself present, reckons the number as 310, 
Persae 342 6 TrSs dpi6/xbs els rpiaKddas 5e/ca | vawv 5e/cas 5' ^v rwj'Se 
Xwpis ^KKpLTos. And other authors have given different numbers, 
varying from 271 to 700. See Introduction. 

irdp6| T(Jv ircvT-qKovTcpcov ' without counting the penteconters *. 
The number of penteconters is 7, viz. Keos 2, Kylhnos, Seriphos 
and Siphnos i each, and Melos 2. 


1. irpoQ^vTos sc. dTro(paiv€a9ai, 'Eurybiades having proposed 25 
that any one that chose should express his opinion'. Cf. 9, 27 irpo- 
idriKe \4y€Lv. Demosth. 317 del 5* iv koivi^tq av/n^ipov rj ttoXis irpou- 
ridei (TKOTreiv. See on p. 29, 1. 12. 

2. Tov pov\6|i€vov 'whoever chose', the regular expression in 
public meetings and laws for unrestricted license of speech, or of 
freedom of action in prosecuting etc. 

oKov...iroi^€<r0ai ' where he thought was the most suitable place 
to fight the sea-fight'. Cp. 9, 2 ovk d-q x^po^ iiriTTjSeorepos iparpa- 
TowedeveaOai. The construction is 8kov x^P^^v *in whichever of the 
localities' rCjv iyKparies elai 'of which they had the command ', i.e. 
whether in the gulf of Salamis or further south-west, and nearer 
the coast of the Isthmus. 


ii6 NOTES ON XLix 

4. 'Attikt^ ' the coast of Attica '. direiTo [ott lr\ixC\, had 

been abandoned ', ' was out of the question now'. 

6. o-uv€|^inTrTov ' appeared to agree in recommending '. Stein 
notices the use of the imperfect here as referring to the fact that this 
decision was not final, and in fact was reversed. See 1. 13. 

7. eiriXe'YovTes tov Xo-yov rdvSe ' they urging the following argu- 
ments', the nominative masculine {it07ninativus pendens) is used as 
though oX yvCjfiai rCbv Xeyovroiv were oi \iyovTes ra% yv(Jj/xas. Iiri- 
Xe-yciv = ' urge in addition to what has been said ', 'to allege as an 
additional argument' . Cp. 7, i /^'j imX^y wprbv Xoyoyrovde' alleging 
the following argument ' i.e. as an explanation. 

9. tva <r<j)t Tip.&)p£t] ov8€|xia lirt(|>avi]<r€Tai ' where no help could 
make its appearance '. Cp. 7, 169 'iaxovro ttjs TL/xujpi'rjs ' they 
abstained from giving help ' : Herod, does not use the word in the 
sense of ' vengeance '. 

10. €S TOiis k(avT<av k^oCa-ovrai * they could land and find them- 
selves among their own men ' : cp. p. 40, 1. 17. 


12. TauTtt...€iTLXc'YO(i.6Vcov ' whilc they were engaged in these 
considerations'. Cp. with the use of the active iiriKiyovTes above in 
1. 7. The whole body are said iTrikcyeadac (mid.) to have said over 
to them and so to ' take into consideration ', though individuals iiri- 
XiyovcL. Cp. the distinction between a-woypacpeLv and a7roypd<pe<xdat. 
in 7, 100 : cp. TTOLTjcraadai 9, 15. 

14. €S TT]v ' ArTiK-qv continuing from c. 34. 

17. avTwv eKXeXoiiroTwv Is Il€XoTr6vvT]crov *the inhabitants 
having abandoned it and fled to the Peloponnese', seven hundred of 
the Thespians were at Thermopylae and fell there, see c. 25 and 
7, 222 — 6 : the rest fled to the Peloponnese, and 1800 were at 
Plataea in the following year, but were unable to procure oVXa, 

9' 30. 

18. €S rds 'A0T]vas i.e. 'into Attica\ Cp. p- 34, 1. 15; 9> 
I, 17 ; so es rds 9??/3as ' into the Thebaid ' 9, 13. 


21. diro riis SiaPcwrios. The passage of the Persian army over 
the Hellespont took place at the beginning of spring, d'/^a t<^ ^api, 7, 
37 : if we take this to mean the middle of April, the arrival of the 

LI HERODOTOS. Vlll. 117 

Persians in Attica will be dated as in the latter part of August. The 
battle itself took place in the Attic month Boedromion [Aug. — Sept. J 
for the time for the solemn procession to Eleusis had come, see 
c. 65. 

24. KoXXidScb) dpx.ovTOS ' in the archonship of Kalliades '. 
The first of the nine archons ("A/o^wj' eir<i)vvfj.os) gave his name to 
the year. 

25. ipr\\Lov [in Attic always ^prj/xov] ' deserted by its inhabi- 
tants'. See c. 41. 

26. TO doTv properly used here of ' the town ' as composed of 
buildings, 7r6Xts being a town as composed of citizens {TroXiTai). 
So also when IMardonius took Athens next year aipeei ipTJfiov to 
cuTTv, 9, 3. Stein however regards it as applying to the Acropolis. 
Kai Tivas oXiyovs ' and only some few '. 

1. ra^Cas tov tpov * the stewards of the treasury of the temple ', 26 
that is of the public money (r^s kolvtjs -n-poaodov) kept in the temple 

of Athene Polias, whom Demosthenes (1075) calls Ta/xiaL tCov ttjs 
Oeov. Although no doubt all public money was withdrawn at this 
time for the exigencies of the fleet, there would be objects of reli- 
gious reverence or artistic value still left in the temple, which these 
stewards declined to abandon. There were ten of them. 

2. 4>pa|a(JL€voi...0vpT](r£ tc Kal ^uXoio-t ' having barricaded the 
Acropolis with planks and boards ' : that is, on the west side of the 
Acropolis where it slopes down towards the Areopagus. The other 
sides of the Acropolis were either fortified by the Pelasgic wall [5, 
64; 6, 137], or were looked upon as safe from the abruptness and 
steepness of the rock. 

3. 7J|AvvovTo 'tried to keep off'. inr' d(rQiViCi]s ^Cov 'from 
want of means', cp. 2, 88 rovs XPVP'-^'^'' dadevear^povs. See also 2, 47. 

4. irpos 8^ ' and besides ', p. 16, 1. 8. 

5. t^€vpT]K^vat 'that they had discovered the meaning of. 
t6 jJLavTT]iov. See 7, 141, 

reixos TptToyevel ^vXivou 5l5oc evpvoTra ZeiJs 
fiouvov dtropdriTov reXideiu, to ck t^kpu r' ovrjaei. 

This some interpreted of the fortifications of the Acropolis, others 
on the suggestion of Themistocles of the fleet, p. 21, 1. 19. 

7. Kal avTo hr\ tovto ctvat 'and that this was in their ideas 
m, cp. p. 4, 1. 12] the actual refuge meant'. The infinitive elvai 
depends on i^evp-rjK^vai or some word implied in it. 



KpT]<r4>v-yeTov 'place of refuge', cp. 9, 15, 96. The derivation 
of the word is uncertain. The explanation accepted by the ancient 
Grammarians was ' a place of refuge from the Cretan ' [Kp???]. 


9. itcjJievoi €Trl * having gone up and stationed themselves upon'. 
Cp. p. 37, 1. 16 es rov 'ladfiou 'i^oi>TO. KaravrCov. The Areopagus 

is separated from the western end of the Acropolis by a dip in the 
ground only a few yards wide. 

II, 12. 6K(i)£iav * as often as they had set a light to': 
the optative is iterative, or as it is sometimes called of indefinite 
frequency. Cp. i, 17 6/cws ei'^ kv rrj yrj /capTTos adpos TrjuLKavra 
ecr^^aWe ttjj/ arpaTLTju, p. 56, 1. 7 ; p. 63, 1. 17, 

15. irpoBeSw KOTOS ' had betrayed them ', that is, had failed to 
withstand the assaults of the enemy and had fallen. The barricade 
therefore was in addition to whatever permanent fortification was 
already existing at this point, and which still admitted of defence. 

16. Xd-yovs ' proposals', 9, 14. 

17 — 19. aXXa T€...Kal 81] Kal 'among other measures to which 
they had recourse they rolled down upon the Barbarians as they 
approached the gates huge masses of rock '. oXoirpoxos see 

Xenoph. Anab. 4, 2, 2. [el'Xw volvo, or according to others 6'Xos 
rp^Xw.] Tcls irvXas the gates in the Pelasgic ring wall facing 

the Areopagus in front of which the Propylaea afterwards stood. 

20. €Trl xpdvov oruxvov, cp. 9, 62 xp^i^o" evrt ttoXAoV. Also with 
definite numbers, 9, 8 eiri dcKu rjfxepas. 

dTrop£T|o-L 4v€X€o-0ai ' was in perplexity ', ' was at a stand '. Cp. 
9, 98 ev dTTopirj dxovro. 


22. XP^^<? * ^^ length '. Cp. 9, 62 ws 5^ XP^^V for^ eyivero rd. 
acpdyia XPV<^'^<^- ^K t»v aTropwv ' in these difificnUies ', p. 53, 1. 24. 

23. 87] tandem, p. 10, 1. 6. ^5ee 'it was fated '. 

24. Ti]V * AttiktJv T-qv €V TT| ijircCpo) * Attica on the mainland ' 
as opposed to the Islands, such as Salamis and others. He is 
again referring to the two oracles given in 7, 140 — i. 

25. ?p,irpoo-9€...irpo, that is on the northern side, still called the 
front of the Acropolis. 


26. o-rria-Qi *on the side remote from'. ttjs dv68ov 'the 
regular pathway up ' the Acropolis. 

27. )iTJ...dvaPaCT]. For the construction after aj/ 7;X7rt(re, which 
is equivalent to a verb of fearing, see G. § 218. Kara ravra ' at 
that spot'. Ab. quotes 3, 64 irpcoixaTiadr] Kara tovto r-g avros wpo- 
T€pov Tov debv "Attiv ^TrXTj^e. 

I. Kara to ipdv ' by way of the temple of Aglauros ', which was 27 
on the northern side of the Acropolis near the cave of Pan. 

4. eirl TT^v dKp6TroXiv. Cobet would omit these words ; but 
they indicate that the Barbarians had not only climbed up to the wall 
but were actually on the plateau of the Acropolis ; see p. 26, 1. 9. 

5. Kard Tou Tf^xeos ' down from the wall '. 

6. r6 (ifiYapov ' the shrine of the temple '. 

7. erpdirovTO irpos xds irvXas, cp. p. 10, 1. 22. 

8. TavTas...e<}>dv€vov ' and when they had opened these gates 
they then began slaughtering the suppliants ' i. e. in the temple. 
The gates are those of the wall. 


12. 'Aprapdvu), He sends to Artabanus because he had at first 
dissuaded the enterprise [see 7, 10 — 18] and had been sent back to 
Susa in charge of the realm in the absence of the king [7, 52-3.] 

15. Tovs <|>v'Yd8as the family of the Peisistratidae and their ad- 
herents; p. 26, 1. 16. 

18. 4v8u(iiov ' a religious scruple'. Cp. 2, 175 ei'dvfica-Tbv iroirj- 
ad/xevov. Cp. Thucyd. 7, 50, 4 iv66fiiov TroLovfxeuoL. So also the 
verb epdv/xeTadai id. 7, 18, 2. Id. 5, 16 es ivdvp.iav ' by way of exciting 
a religious scruple '. 


23. *Epex0€os...vii6s. See on p. 21, 1. 22. 

23. eXaC-q. The sacred olive from which the other sacred olives 
in Attica were supposed to he cuttings. ddXao-cra according 

to Pausanias [r, 26, 6; 8, 10, 3] was a salt well on the Acropolis 
which communicated with the Aegean and in which the roar of the 
ocean could be heard. Xo-yos 'story' or 'myth'. The story is thus 
given in Apollodorus [3, 14, i — 3]. "In the time of Cecrops the 
gods determined to select each a city in which to be separately and 


specially honoured. Poseidon came first to Attica, struck the 
Acropolis with his trident and opened a well (ddXaaaa) which is 
now called the well of Erechtheus. Afterwards came Athene and, 
calling Cecrops to witness that she took possession of the place, 
planted an olive. The god and goddess then disputed for the 
possession of the land; Zeus referred the question to a jury of 12 
gods: Cecrops was summoned as a witness to prove that Athene 
had planted her olive first. The verdict was in her favour : she 
called the place after her Athens, while Poseidon in wrath flooded 
the Thriasian plain and submerged Attica." Soph. O. C. 711. 

25. jxaprupia Be'crGat 'alleged as evidence', see above. 

26. KareXaPe 'it was the fate of this olive to be burnt'. Cp. 
6, 103 rbv Ki/uLoova Kar^Xa^e (pvyeTu. Except in this passage Herodotus 
seems always to use it ol persons. 

28 I. <rT€X€X€os, 'trunk' or 'stump '. So in Pindar Nem. 10,62 
Spuos tv aTeX^x^i- th^^^ol. 

The shooting out of the burnt stump of the Sacred Olive may 
well have seemed to the Athenians, when they heard of it, as an 
omen of their future restoration sent by the guardian goddess of the 
city. The length of the shoot may have grown with the telling, but 
there is nothing incredible in the main fact. The olive is a tree very 
tenacious of life and will survive burning in a wonderful manner. 
Thus Pliny [N. H. 7, ■241] says oliva in totiiin amhusta revixit. Cp. 
Vergil Georg. 2, 303 — 313. Accordingly the sacred olives {fjLopiai) 
standing in various parts of Attica were protected from destruction 
even M'hen reduced to stumps by fire or lightning, and were then 
called (Tr]KoL See Lysias, Orat. 7 irepi tou cttjkov. 


4. c5s ^o-x€ Tci ircpl... *what had happened to the Acropolis'. 

6. rh irpoKcCucvov irpTjYH''a' 'the proposal before them', i.e. that 
of abandoning Attica to its fate and removing the fleet close to the 
Isthmus, see c. 49. 

7. TJctpovTo 'began hoisting their sails'. 

9, 10. vu| T6 kyiviTo, Kal ot 8iaXv0£VT€S...6o-ePaivov 'after 
leaving the council they were just going on board their ships as the 
night was falling': or 'night was just falling as those who had 
broken up from the council were going on board'. For re and /cat 


thus indicating simultaneousness see p. 3, 1. 16; p. 47, 1. 17; 9, 55 
^s velKea re diriKUTO Kal 6 Krjpv^ Trapt'crraro. 9, 5 7 ot re d/x(pi 'A/xo/*- 
<papeTov irapeyLvovTb acpL /cat i] 'iwiros TrpoaeKeeTo irdcra. 


12. lv9avTa 8t] 'ifwas in that position of affairs', p. 67, 1. 18. 

17. irepl ov8€(Jtit]8 'in irarptSos vavjiaxTJcrets 'you will not 
have any longer a united country to fight for', or 'any country to 
fight for in future which may be looked upon as one'. He means, 
*it will be no longer a question of defending Hellas as such, but 
each squadron will have to fight separately for its own city '. 

20. w<rT€ \Lr\ ov Siao-KcSao-BTJvai ' from being scattered in every 
direction'. The double negative accompanies the infinitive after a 
negative sentence. G. § 263, 2 note. 

22. dpouXC-go-i a poetical use of the plural in abstract nouns, 
cp. airopiriai p. 26, 1. 20. Abicht also compares the frequent 
Homeric aTaadaXiya-i. 

23. Siax^ai 'to rescind', *to annul', as opposed to iKvpwdr} 1. 
9; lit. 'to pour different ways', and thus 'to obliterate'. In 
Xenoph. Cyr. 5, 3 of the effect of wet upon the tracks of animals (rd 
tx^rj) opposed to crvuiaTTjJt. 

dvayvuxrai *to persuade', both this meaning of dpayiviicTKeiv 
(7, 11) and this form of the ist aorist are peculiar to the Ionic dialect. 
This form only occurs in composition, see p. 29, 1. 8; p. ^^, 1. 4. 


2. I] inroOiiKT] 'the suggestion ', cp. i, 11,6 r]<T6€U ry inroOrJKy. 29 
4. <rv[ji}ii^at ' to communicate ', p. 34, 1. 20. This rare mean- 
ing is illustrated by various commentators from Theognis 64 
dX\d doKei fikv irdaiv dirb yXdxraijs <f)i\os eXpai 

Xprj/xa 8^ (Tvp.p.i^7js, fjLTjdeul prjb^ otlovv 

7. ibiVTOv Troicvp.€vos 'pretending that they (the arguments) 
were his own', 'adopting as his own'. Cp. 4, 180 t6v Ata eojvToO 
fiLV TTOiTjaacdat. dvyar^pa. 

a. dvt'yvcixrc, p. 28, 1. 23. 

122 NOTES ON Lix 


12. TrpoSeivat tov Xo-yov 'introduced the discussion', 'ex- 
plained for what he had summoned them '. The president of an 
assembly in opening a debate was said X670J' irpoTLdivai [Ken. Mem. 
4, 2, 3 TTJs TToXews \6yov irepl vivos wporcdelffrjs] or TrpoTtdemt followed 
by infinitive [p. 25, 1. i]: or irpoTLOhai yvdjfxas [Thucyd. 6, 14 Kal 
(Ti), (3 RpvTavL, yvu^jxas irpoTldei. addis 'AdTifalots]. Cobet therefore 
wishes to omit tov, Varine Led. p. 353. 

13. iroXXos \v 'was very urgent', 'said much', cp. the Lat. 
creher fuisti 'you often said' Cic. pro Plane. § 83. Cp. 9, 91 ws 5^ 
iroXXbs riv XiaabpievoSy i, 98 riv woWds itro iravrbs dv8pbs Kal wpo^aX- 
\6/j,€vos Kal aive6p.euos. Cp. also 3, 46 t'Xeyov iroXXa ola Kapra 

17. pairCtovrai ' are struck with the wands of the keepers of the 
course' {pa^dovxoi. or'^XXavodlKat Paus. 6, 2, i). In Thucydides 5, 
50 one Lichas vwo tQv pa^do^xo^v irXrjydis ^Xa/3e for some breach of 
the rules. See Holden's note on Plutarch Themist. 11. This anec- 
dote is repeated by Plutarch, as well as the still more celebrated 
answer to Eurybiades on his raising his stick, 'Strike but hear me', 
irdra^ov p^ev aKovaov 84. 

airoXvo|X€vos 'by way of excusing himself. Sometimes with 
an ace, Thucyd. 8, 87 ^ovXo/xtvos irpds avroiis airoXveadai rds 


20. CKCCVWV p. 28, 1. 17. 

23. ouK 'i^epi 01 K6<r|xov ovSlva * it had not been becoming in 
him '. See on p. 31, 1. 27. Kwrtiyopiiw sc. tQv arvp,p.axo}v . 

24. €tx*'''®j see p. 6, 1. 17. 

§ 1. 

25. Iv <roi vvv Io-tI ' it is in your hands ', 'it depends on you*. 
Cp. Soph. Aj. 519 tv (Tol TTttO-' ^yuiye aih^op-ai, p. 65, 1. 17; 6. 108. 

27. dva^€6|Tis...Tds ve'as 'remove the ships to the Isthmus'. 
ava^evyvTuvai. is properly ' to harness again '. Elsewhere Herod, has 
TOV arpaTbv (9, 41) or to ffTpaToiredov (9, 58) as the object. Its use 
with ships shews that its original meaning was quite merged in that 
of ' removal'. 
30 I- ttVTt9€S...dK0i5<ras 'listen to the alternative courses and con- 
trast their advantages against each other '. 


3. tA TJKKTTa T]|i,iv <rv}j,<|>opov €<rTi ' which is as far as possible 
from being to our advantage considering that the ships which we 
have are heavier and fewer in number than the enemy '. [The Mss. 
have es TO. I have ventured to omit es which it seems difficult if 
not impossible to construe. Stein imagines that the copyist may 
have left out some such verb as dvdyeiv ' to put out into which 
open sea '. ] 

4. PapvTcpas. According to Plutarch [Them. 14] the Persian 
ships were heavier and more cumbrous than those of the Greeks. 
It has been proposed to read /Spaxurepas. 

dpi0(i6v €Xd<r<rovas. The number of the Greek fleet as given in c. 
48 was 378, that of the Persian ships [7, 184] was originally 1207; 
and though that number had been reduced by shipwreck and losses 
in battle, they were still as vastly superior in numbers to the 
Greeks as before, owing to reinforcements. See c. 66. 

5. TovTO B\ ' and in the next place '. For the phrase rovro [xhv 
...TovTo 5^ see p, 40, 1. 6 and "J, 6; g, "j and 27. Here the first 
antithetical sentence is introduced simply by fjih in 1. 2, cp. 5, 45. 

8. avTos a|€is 'you yourself will be the instrument of bringing 
them against the Peloponnese '. 

9. Kiv8uv€v(r6is...'EXXd8i 'and what you will stake on the 
event will be the safety of the whole of Greece '. kiv8vv€V€iv 
' to be in danger' may stand (i) with infin. KivSvueijaet &iro^a\e?v tov 
vavTiKOU (jTpaTOv p. 33, 1. 7, (2) with prep, irepl iKeivrjs Kcvdvyeijetv 
8, 74, (3) as here with dat. of object risked, cp. 7, 209 Ktudweveiu 
TV ^vxv- 


10. ToordSe xj3r](rTd ' the advantages which I will enumerate'. 
12. rd oiKora [oiV ws = et'/cws App. E. (f)] 'what we have a 

right to expect '. 

14. irpos ijp.€'«v * on our side', 'in our favour'. Cf. Eurip. 
Ale. 57 TrpbsTwv ixovruv, <J>o?/3e, rbv voficv Hdrj^. Cf. p. 12, 1. 16. 

15. TTipiyCvtrai present for certain future, ' will be saved '. For 
the meaning cp. irepieluai p. 2, 1. 8. 

virtKK^eTai [ = inr-€K-K€TTai used as pass, of vireKTid^vai. 'have 
been removed '] see c. 41. 

16. Kal fi-qv 'again'. Kal rdSe 'even the point which you 
care most for', i.e. the safety of the Peloponnesus, 

17. TOV Kal ir€pi€\€(r0€ * which you actually cleave to', ' wliich 


you value'. Cp. 7, 160 T175 Tjyefxovirjs TrepUxecrde, but in 9, 57 it is 
used without any case following. Kal emphatic, p. 19, 1. 25. 

6|AoCci>s...'Io-6(i.(p * if you stay where you are you will be quite 
as much fighting for the Peloponnesus as (Acat) you would near the 
isthmus'. For koL cp. p. •23, 1. 17. 

19. o-4)€as i.e. the Persians, cp. 1. 8. 

§ 3. 
21. vjAtv ethic dative 'you won't have them coming to the isth- 
mus'. For Trapeivat is cp. 6, 24 iraprjv is ttjv ''qv, Arist. Plut. 
411 KuraKXluetP avrov els * kaKkrjinov. 

23. €Ka<rT€'p<«) TT]s 'AttiktJs may mean 'farther than Attica', 
or, ' farther into Attica ', cp. 9, 14 iKaararw ttjs 'Evpu^irrjs. 

24. K€p8av€'o|JL€V ' we shall be the gainers by the survival of 
Megara, Salamis, and Aegina '. Kepdabetv is the opposite of ^rj/u- 

25. Xo-yiov ' an oracle ', referring again to the oracle given in 
7, 141 and especially to the line cJ 6ei7] SaXa/xts, aTroXeiS di <ri/ reKva 
yvvaiKCov. See on p. 21, 1. 19. 

27. c5s t6 tiriirav *as a general rule'. The full sentence is oIkotu 
^ovKevoiiivoLffL oIkotj. idiXei ylvecrdai ' to reasonable plans reasonable 
success usually comes '. IGe'Xei ' is wont ', cp. 7, 157 rd; eS ^ov- 
\ev6ivTC Trp-rjyfjLaTL re\evrr) cvs to iirlirav xpT/crri) ediXei einyiveadai.. 

28. ovS4 6 0€os...7vw( 'but when men counsel ill heaven 
itself is not wont either to further human designs'. irpoa-)(0)piiiv 
irpos 'to join as an ally', cp. Thucyd. i, 103, 4 irpoaex'^'PW^v koI 
'M.eyaprjS ' AdrjvaloLS is avfifxaxicLf' Id. 3, 61, 3 7r/)oo"e%a;/37/caj' Trpbs 
'Adrjvalovs Kai [xer avrCjv iroWa •qfids 'i^Xairrov. 


31 2. l7r£<|>€p€T0 'attacked', 'inveighed against'. In the literal 
sense of 'attack' cp. p. 47, 1. 19, Thucyd. 4, 67, 4 rots tCjv 'Adrj- 
valwv oirXirais iincpepo/iiiuois ^ejSaiovs ras irvXas irapiaxov. 

3. ovK €(Sv 'forbidding', cp. 9, 2. €'iriij/T]((>itei'V 'to put the vote 
to', i.e. 'to allow a vote to a cityless man'. This word is applied 
to him who puts a subject to the vote, the president of an assembly, 
cp. Thucyd. 6, 14, i cri), (5 irpirapc, ravra iin\pri(pL^ Kal yuiv/xas irpo- 
ridei avdis ^Adrjvaiois. There does not seem any example of its use 


with dative of those to whom the vote is put earlier than Lucian. 
Many therefore interpret this 'Don't put this to tlie vote for a city- 
less man', i.e. at his instance. This construction is quite as diffi- 
cult as the other, and produces a less satisfactory sense. 

4, 5. iroXiv ■Ydp...o-u}ApdXX€crOai 'for he bade Themistocles 
not deliver a vote with the rest unless he could show that he had 
a city', i. e. unless he could show that he appeared for some existing 
city as its envoy. For ovtco after a participle cp. p. 12, 1. 25. 

For Yvw^as crvjipdXXecrGaL sententias dicere see 5, 92, i et'xere 
h.v Trepl avTov yucj^/jLas d/jLeipovas av/x^aX^crdai i)Trep vvv. (St.) 

6. Kart^xovTo ' was actually in possession of the enemy'. 

10. 'ifTT dv 8iT]K6(rtat v€€S...*as long as they had 200 ships'. 
The point of Themistocles' retort is shown more at length by 
Plutarch. ' If you go away and desert us a second time, it will 
soon be heard in Greece that the Athenians have possession of a 
free city and a territory as good as that which they lost'. Plutarch 
however seems to combine the two councils of Herodotos into one_ 
meeting [Them. 11 J. 

mam M (f--^ 


14. €'n-€<rTpa|Ji[.i.€va sc. tir-q, 'earnestly', cp. i, 30 dpero iin- 
(TTpe(p€(i}s. Cf. 7, 160 iTeidr) uipa direcrTpa/j./xevovs rovs \6yovs rov 
llvdypov [where some read iirearp., but the analogy of aTro^X^ireiv 
* to look earnestly at ' from the notion of looking away from every- 
thing else will serve to justify the aTrearp.]. 

<nj.,.€l 8^ }ii] , . . * If you will remain and act like a brave man, — 
well and good, but if not' — for this aposiopesis followed by eZ 5^ 
/xrj cf. Aristoph. Plut. 468 

Kh.v p.kv aTO(f>^vu} fji.6vr]v 
dyadQv Lirdvrwv odaav alrlav i/x^ 
vfuv, 5i' ifx4 re fw/ras v/xds' el 8^ fi^ 
iroieiTOu 'qdr] tovO^ 8tl hu doKrj. 

*If I prove to you that I am the author of all blessings to you, and 
that it is by me you live, — well : otherwise do what you please 
to me'. See Goodwin's Moods and Tenses, p. 112, note 2. 

15, 16. Th Trdv Tov TToXcyov 'the whole fate of the war'. dXXd 

p. 78. 1- 30- 

18. Tovs olKCTtts 'our families ', see p. 23, 1. 9. 

126 NOTES ON Lxii 

19. 2ipiv Ti]v €V 'IraXfT), for Siiis see Historical Index. 
The idea of finding in the west a new home and new prosperity 
more than once reappeared in Athenian history. This perhaps 
mfluenced Pericles in promoting the colony of Thurii in b. c. 444, 
and caused the readiness of the Athenians to interfere in the quar- 
rels of Syracuse and Leontini in Sicily in B.C. 427, which eventu- 
ally led to such disasters. A reported migration of lonians to Siris 
was probably the ground on which Themistocles based the claim of 
Athens to a hold upon Siris. The notion of a whole Hellenic 
community migrating en masse to the west was not a new one in 
Hellenic history, see the Story of the people of Phokaea i, 163 — 7. 

20. Xd-yia, another instance of the use made by Themistocles 
of the popular belief in oracles, noticed by Plutarch, when he was 
inducing the Athenians to leave their town : Them. 10 arjuiela 
daifxovia Kal XRV^/^o'^^ ewrjyev avroh. We cannot tell to what par- 
ticular oracles he refers : but the collection which went by the 
name of Bakis contained oracular verses referring to a large number 
of different matters and in all probability some referring to Italy 
and Sicily. 


23. dv€8i8dcrK€TO ' began to be convinced '. 

24. SoKceiv 8e |xoi. Seep. 12, 1. 14. ..v..^ f>^«,.>, .--0^^ 

27. iyCvovTo. The words dTro\i.Tr6vTU}v ^KO-qvaluiv 'if the Athe- 
nians abandoned them', form the protasis of a condition, the apo- 
dosis is iyivovTo without dV. This omission of du gives a more 
emphatic expression to the certainty of the result ; just as in Latin 
the corresponding tenses of the indicative are used for the sub- 
junctive as in Verg. Aen. 2, 54 si mens non laeva fuisset Im- 
pulcrat (for impulisset) ; and just as we say, ' I had done so ' for 

* I should have done so '. We must also note that although the 
sentence is in the form of a past condition it is so by anticipation: 
the contingency is really one of the future. 

32 1,2. TavTT]v...8iavav}xax.€€Lv ' he decides upon (selects) this 
decision, namely, that he should remain there and fight the battle 
out'. Like 8(.afji,dx€(^9ai [Xen. Oecon. i, 23] dcavau/iiaxeeiv means 

* to fight to the end', and so is rightly used of the main battle 
as opposed to any skirmish. 



3. ^TTccrt aKpoPoXicrd|X£vot. 'after this skirmish of words'. 
The meaning of aKpo^oXi^eadai is to skirmish as opposed to coming 
to close quarters, see Thucyd. 3, 73; the metaphor is similar 
to that in p. 41, 1. 15 wdLajxbs Xoycov. 

5, 6. T€...Kal see p. 3, 1. 16. <r€io-|xos. See on p. 20, 1. 4. 

8. eiriKaX^cracGai * to summon the Aeakidae to come as 
allies to their aid'. For the worship of Heroes see on p. 20, 1. 16. 

9. 'iBo^^.-iiroUvv. Notice the tenses, the aorist of a single 
complete act, the imperfect of the beginning of a series: 'when they 
had once determined on these things they also set about doing 
them'. Ab. and St. compare 7, 128 ws 8^ iTedufxrjae Kal iiroUe 

II. Iirl AlaKov 'to fetch Aeakos'. Cf. Arist. Ranae iii rjvcK^ 
TJXdes enl rdv K^p^epoy. See on 9, 44. 


14. <f>\ryds, of the Athenian exiles with Xerxes, see p. 27, 
1. 15. 

15. €K€{p€To. See p. 17, 1. 21. 

16. Ip-qiios *A0T]va£a>v. See p. 25, 1. 25. 

19. diro *EX€vo-ivos...Tpi<r(JLvp£«v. On the sixth day of the 
great Eleusinia a solemn procession went from Athens to Eleusis, 
carrying a statue of lacchus (Bacchus) adorned with myrtle and 
torch in hand, along the sacred road which traversed the 
Thriasian plain, raising joyous shouts of lacche! oh lacche! [See 
Arist. Ran. 316.] Not only Athenians, but all other Greeks also 
might share in the ceremonies at these mysteries, and possibly a 
crowd of 30,000 persons might at times have been present at them. 
If the story is in any way true, it shews how important they were 
considered, if even at this time of danger and national disaster some 
worshippers were found to keep up the celebration as best they 
might ; just as for several years during the Peloponnesian war, 
when the inroads of the Spartans made it dangerous or impossible 
to go along the sacred way as usual, the Athenians who wished 
to join in the initiations were conveyed by sea to Eleusis, until 
in B.C. 407 Alcibiades on his recall escorted the sacred pro- 

128 NOTES ON Lxv 

cession once more by land at the head of an army [Xen. Hellen. 
I, 4, 21]. We must regard the number {rpLa/jLvpiup) as not meant 
to be exact but to indicate a large crowd. 

21. irpoKare 'forthwith' [irpo], for the suffix re see on p. 10, 

1- 9- 

23. dSarlfiova twv ipwv, that is, he had not been initiated, and 
did not know the sacred song which was sung only by the 

For the discussion of the ceremonies at and meaning of the 
Eleusinian Mysteries a dictionary of antiquities must be con- 
sulted. It is enough to say that as they were probably connected 
with a more ancient form of religion than prevailed in Greece, 
so they were almost the last of all heathen ceremonies to die out 
before the advance of Christianity. They embraced a mystic 
worship of Nature-powers as represented by corn and wine [Demeter 
and lacchus], and initiation in them was held not only in some way 
to purify the character, but to speak to the devout of another 
life of hope beyond the grave. This may be illustrated by two of 
the very numerous passages referring to them in ancient literature. 
'Blessed is he' (says Pindar, fr. 102) 'whoso shall not go beneath the 
hollow earth until he hath beheld them! He knoweth of the end of 
life that by God's grace it is but a beginning'. ' They who share in 
these initiations' (says Isocrates, Panegyr. 6) 'have sweeter hopes 
concerning life's end and all time to come '. 
33 2- 0CWOV 'supernatural'. 

3. €s Ti|Ji.0Dp£T]v 'A0r]vaioi(rL 'to protect the Athenians', see on 
p. 25, 1. 9. 

4. KaTao-KTixl/T). Cf. €vi(XKrj\pav p. 20, 1. 23. 

7. Ktv8vv€vo-et diroPaXeiv. For constructions of KLvdvve^iav see 
p. 30, 1. 9. 

9. rfi Mt]Tpl Kttl TTJ Kovpr) 'to Demeter and Persephone'. 
[Cobet would read Arj/xrjTpi in which he is supported by the best 
MS.] One of the objects of the Eleusinian mysteries was supposed 
to be that of celebrating the wanderings of Demeter in search of 
her daughter [i] Kop-q). 

10. 6 j3ovX6|X6vos, see on p. 25, 1. 2. 
18. €K 'after', p. 7, 1. 10. 

il 19, 20. €Trt SaXafuvos c'n'l to o-TpaTOTreSov 'in the direction 
lof Salamis, so as to rest over the camp of the Greeks'. For this 


'juxtaposition of i-rri with different cases cp. 9, 47 ott/o-w yye 
Tous ZTraprtTjras eTri to de^ibv K^pas' ws 5' aiirws Kal 6 Map86vios iirl 
ToO eviovvaov, where the distinction of meaning is the same * to the 
left wing' and ^tozvards the left wing'. The Greeks who were not 
4aa. board were encamped in Salamis. 

22. fi^WoL 'was destined', p. ?, 1. 3. 

23. KaTaTTTo|x6vos 'appealing to', cp. 6, 68 dewv Kaiairrofxevos. 


25. 0T]iio-d|xcvoi, see c. 24. 

28. ws €|xol 8oK^€iv, p. 12, 1. 14-. For the numbers see on 
p. 30, 1. 4. 

■2. h Tds'AGrjvas 'into Attica', p. 25, 1. 18. 34 

4. uiro Tov x.€ijiwvos cc. 12 — 13. 

8. iravo-TpaTiTJ. See p. 15, 1. 2. 

II. irXi]VT«V'7r€VT€...ovv6|xaTa [App. A. III. 7]. The five islands 
mentioned in c. 46, Naxos, Melos, Kythnos, Seriphos, Siphnos. 
Notice that Herod, speaks of these small islands as woXeis 'states'. 

13. io-atripoa 'further south', cp. ^aoj p. 2, 1. 23. For the 
gen. T^s 'E/Wdoos see on p. 30, 1- 23. 


15. diriKaTo, App. D. il. a. is rds 'AQr\va.<s sec p. 25, 1. iS. 

17. ^KapaSoKCOv 'weie watching', cf. 7, 163 KapaSoK-qaovra tt]v 
fidxv^ V irea^erai, cp. ib. 168; properly 'to watch with out- 
stretched head ', like a combatant looking out for his enemy's blow, 
cp. Eurip. I. T. 133 KupaSoKuiv TdiriovTa Tpa^/fxara, 

19. KaT^pT]...€Trl rds veas 'went down to the shore (from the 
town) to where the ships lay '. 

20. (rvp.|Jii^ai ' to converse with', p. 29, 1. 4. 

21. irpot^tTo ' he sat down in state', 'in a conspicuous place *. 
23. roi^Cap\oi, used generally by Herodotos of officers in the 

land force, see 9, 42, 53: but in 7, 99 it is also used of naval 
officers. He uses a Greek title for a certain rank, though that may 
not have been the exact title used in the several fleets. In Athens 
the taxiarchs were tribal officers next in rank to the Strategi. 

us <r<|)i Pao-tX€iis...t8€8«Kt€ 'according to the rank the king 
had assigned to each '. One of the si)ccial ways in which an 

H. V[ir, 9 

I30 NOTES ON Lxvii 

Eastern king rewarded his subjects was by assigning a place more 
or less near himself. Cf. Xen. Oecon. 4, 8 oi)s jxkv av ala-davrjTat. twv 
apxovT(j3v (TwoiKOVfihrju T€ T7]v x^pai' irapexo/Ji^yovs Kal hepyov oZaav 
ttJv yrjv... TovTois /Jih x^P°-^ "^^ dWrjv TrpoaTL6T]aL...Kal ^dpats evri- 
/tots yepaipei. Many references in the Old Testament to this cus- 
tom will occur to the reader. The kings of Sidon and Tyre are in 
the place of honour here because the Phoenicians were the most 
important providers of ships. See 7, 96. 

25. |X6Td...l'7rl adverbial, p. 17, 1. 24; p. 62, 1. 18. Herodotos 
very often uses fxerd in this way. The different grades indicated 
by the two prepositions also should be noticed, 'next', and 'fol- 
lowing in order *. 

27. diro7r€Lpc6n€vos ' by way of ascertaining the opinion of each '. 
See p. 5, 1. 22 and 9, 21. 


35 2. Kard TwvTO yv<a[ir]v k^i^ipovro ' were unanimous in the 
opinion which they expressed '. The force of the middle in this 
phrase is that of producing as their own ; cp. 5, 36 where the same 
expression is used under similar circumstances. 

§ 1. 

5. cTirai, App. E. 2. The infinitive for imperative, cp. p. i r, 
1. 4. [Stein reads elireiu with the mss.] 

6. KaKCo-TTj ' the most cowardly', cp. ideXoKaKelv p. 12, 1. 11. 

8. 860-iroTa, r-qv 8^ coucrav ' My lord, I on the other hand 
must declare my real opinion '. For the reading of this passage see 
notes on next. The 5^ at the beginning of such a speech implies a 
contrast with what has gone before. Stein shews its force by 
quoting i, 32; 3,82; 8, 137, 142, in which passages it as here 
introduces a similar speech, and comes immediately after the vocative 
of the person addressed. 

For the meaning of coucrav 'real' cp. i, 95 tov eovra \6yov 
Xiyeiv. Artemisia hints that the others have not spoken their real 

9. rd rvy\dv<a <|>pov€Ov<ra dptoTTa in apposition to yvJj/XTfv^ 
•namely the ideas which I actually entertain as being best calculated 
to promote your wishes '. 


10. KaC Toi rdSc 'well then, this is what I say'. 

11. TTOieeo (al. iroiee), see App. D. ill. footnote 8. 

13,14. TrdvTws ' at all '. dvaKiv8uv€i»€iv ' to undergo a risk', 
implying that such action is superfluous or at least voluntary. 
See 9, 26 XP^^^--'^^^ arparov T(p crrpaTt^ /jltj avaKLvSweveiu cv/x^dX- 

17. dirifXXa^av 'came off', 'fared', a common use of airaX- 
Xaacreiv, cp. 5, 63 6 aroXos ovtcjs dw^XXa^e , still more common in the 
mid. and pass. Cp- Aristoph. Plut. 271 fxujp d^ioh aTraXXayrjpai 

§ 2. 

19. avmro\i\i.(iiv — TToXe/jLicov, cp. 7, 2^6. It is a word not used 
by Attic writers. 

20. TttS v^as avTOv 'i\r\s irpos "yfj. The policy of keeping the 
fleet entire and in close proximity to the army had been urged on 
Xerxes before by Achaemenes, see 7, 236. 

24. 8iao-K€8q,s fut. (TKe8a[a]u}. Kara iroXts- Cp. the fears ex- 
pressed by Mnesiphilos, p. 28, 1. 18 — 22. 

25. •irdpa = 7rdpe(TTi. 

26. VTJcru), Salamis. 

I. drpcfjii^eiv 'that they will remain where they are'. App. D, 36 
III. d, note 2. 

€K€i9cv that is from the Peloponnese. 


5. 7rpo(r8T]Xt](rr)Tai ' may damage the land force besides ' . 

Tr^6% adverb. See p. 16, 1. 8. t68€ Is 9v[i.6v pdXcv ' reflect upon 
this truth ', cp. 7i 5 1 es dvixov /SaXeO to TraXanov ^ttos. For pdXcv see 
App. D, footnote 9. 

8. <rol, note emphatic position of pronoun. ev <ru|i|jtdxwv 
\6ybi 'in the category of allies'; 6, 19 iv dvSpoTreSojp Xoyi^j. Arte- 
misia does not venture to speak against the Persians, but has a real 
contempt for these other non-Hellenes ; though the Egyptians are 
said to have borne off the prize of valour at Artemisium [c 17]. 


13. on^|X(f>opTJv tiroievvTO. See p. 6, 1. 7. 

15. ovK 44 'dissuades', p. 31, 1. 3. d.'yat6|i€VoC [dydo/xai] t€ 

132 NOTES ON Lxix 

Kttl 4>6ov€ovT€s ' who wcrc ill disposed to and jealous of her '. Cf. 
6, 6 1 (i)66v(^ Kai ayy xp^oiievos. 

1 6. dT€ €v irpioToicri T€Ti|iT]jievT|s ' because she enjoyed the 
highest position in the king's esteem '. The introduction of the 
gen. abs. with are, instead of a participle agreeing with avr^^ 
shows that the writer is giving his own explanation of their jealousy. 
Cp. p. 47, 1. 14. €v irpcoTotcri may be either masc. or neut. op. Thuc. 
4, 105 8uvaadaL ev rois TrpdjTOLS tcou rjireipwrwu and id. 7, 27, 4 
ej' TO s irpdoTOLS cKaKuae to. irpdy/xaTa [7/ Ae/ceXeta]. For omission 
of article in this idiom see instances in L. and Sc. 

17. 8id 'above', cp. p. 19, 1, 25. rfj Kpicri 'this expression 
of opinion', sententia [but Stein reads dvaKpiai 'contradiction', 
'opposition', quoting Plato 176 and 277. See note on text]. 

2 I. TOtori irXe'oo-i ' the majority '. 

22. KaraSo^as seems only a strengthened 56^as, ' having made 
up his mind ', cp. p. 2, 1. 22 and 9, 57. 

23. t6t€ 8^ 'whereas on this occasion'. eSeXoKaK^civ, p. 12, 
1. 1 1 : the present is here used as an historical tense. 


25. irapijY^eXXov 'when they (the leaders) passed the word 
round to put to sea '. 

26. irapeKpCGrjorav ' were ranged in line of battle ', the forces of 
the two parts of the word are—eKpidrjaau 'they were separated', 
xapa 'in kteral order': so that it is a proleptic word, — 'they were 
so separated as to be in line '. 

37 3. hreyivtro ' came down upon them while thus engaged ', 
' overtook them '. 

4. ovK TjKio-Ta, p. 21, 1. 20. 

5, 6. dppcoScov oTi . . . vav(xa\€€iv |A€XXoi6v...'iroXiopK'qo-ovTat 
' But they were alarmed (at the thought) that they were going to 
fight for Attica while fixed at Salamis, and that if conquered they 
would be caught in the Island and subjected to a siege '. ' Verbs of 
fearing as they imply thought sometimes take the construction of 
ordinary indirect discourse ', and with ?>ti introducing a causal sen- 
tence cp. Xen. Cyr. 3, i, i ecpo^etro on dfpdrjffeadai ^fxeWe ra^aaiXeia 
oiKodo/jLeii^ apx^H^evoi. Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, p. 85, 6. The 
expression vavfxaxieiv /xiWotev is to be noted as equivalent to a future 
coordinate with TroXiopKiqaoyTai, the optative is used as representing 


the thoughts of another, just as the future optative is used for the 
indie, fut. in oblique oration. The variation to the indicative in the 
second clause is a matter of idiom like the variation of the moods in 
two final clauses, both being grammatically admissible; see p. 4, 
I. II ; p. 40, 1. 12. 

8. dTro\aji4>0€VT£s 'cut off from retreat'. 


II. £tI tt]v ireXotrowtio-ov 'to invade tlie Peloponnese ' : but 
they got no farther than the Megarid, see 9, 14. 

16. Is t6v'Io-0(jlov t^ovTO. Seep. 26, 1. 9. 

18. <rvy\<i»fravT€s 'having blocked up with earthworks', see 
on p. 15, 1. 27. 

20. olKo86p,€ov * they began to build '. The wall which 
crossed the Isthmus at a point about seven miles east of Corinth 
was finished in the following spring, see 9, 8. The distance across 
is about five miles. 

22. i^vcTo * was being wrought to perfection '. The verb drca 
is nearly confined to poetry, the more common form avvco being 
generally used by Attic prose writers. 

23. (}>op(JLol ' baskets ' [Rt. fpep, (p^pca, (popeoj, (popos], it was also 
used as a measure of corn about equal to a medimnus. x|/a|x|Jioy. 
The sand, as Stein remarks, was for the double purpose of making 
mortar and filling up the space left between the two sides of the wall 
to be made into a solid mass of rubble. 

24. 25. cMvvov ' rested ', cf. i, 67. A verb confined to poetry 
and Ionic prose. vvKTds...T||J.^pT)S, p. 4, 1. 16. 


26. irav8TjjJL€l 'with every available man', see TrauarpaTirj 
p. 15, 1. 2; p. 21, 1. 6. 

4. virepappcoEe'ovTes rfj ' EXXdSi. Stein regards this dat. as 33 
anomalous quoting Eurip. Suppl. 344 i] reKouaa x^"^^P'^PP^Sou<t* 
ifiov, but it may be looked upon as a case of a dative of advantage, 
like the converse iX-rriSa ^x"^" (ruTTjpias ttj 'EX\d5i. G. § 184, 3. 

6. Kdpvcia. This Spartan festival [see Hist. Index] began on 
the 7th of the montli Metageitnion [the Spartan Karneios] and 

T34 NOTES ON lxxii 

lasted to the i6th. It was therefore late in August. irapoix^xec 
tj8t] ' had been concluded by this time ', and therefore — Herodotus 
means — the other Peloponnesian states had no excuse for not 
appearing. The Karneia had before been alleged at Sparta as an 
excuse for delay, see 7, •206. 


9. avTox^ova opposed to eTTjXvda in 1. 14. Those people, of 
whose coming to a land no history or tradition existed, were consi- 
dered to be avToxdoves ' natives of the soil ', in this case the Pelasgi. 
Thus the Karians claimed to be autochthonous of Asia Minor 
(i, 171), and the Athenians of Attica, of which the symbol was the 
grasshopper formerly worn by them [Thucyd. i, 6, 3]. So too the 
Sikani are said to be avrox^oves of Sicily [id. 6, 2, 2]. In 9, 73 
auT^x^wj/ is used just like our ' native '. 

12. ovK €|€xwpT]<r€ did not quit the Peloponnesus, that is at the 
coming of the Dorians. See Historical Index s. v. Dorians. 

13. Ti^v dX\oTpCT)v ' the land of others '. The Achaioi, a name 
which in Homer is used often as a general appellation for Greeks, 
seem to have lived in southern Peloponnese, and retreating before the 
conquering Dorians settled in the district along the north coast of 
the Peloponnese, hence called Achaia, anciently named Aegialos 
[Paus. 5, I, 1]. 

14. eTTiJAwSa ' subsequent immigrations '. 

18. IIapcDp€T]Tai iravTcs ' to the Leranians belong all the towns 
of the Paroreats', that is the ' mountain peoples' of the district Tri- 
phylia in Elis. The word only means * dwellers by the mountains ', 
but came to be used as a geographical term for this district, cp. 4, 

oi 8^ Kvvovpioi..."I«v€s 'The Kynurii seem to be the only 
people who are at once lonians and autochthonous'. As Stein 
says, two ideas are involved in the sentence : ' the Kynurii seem to 
be lonians, and in that case are the only ones still remaining in the 
Peloponnese '. 

20. €K868wpC€vvTat.,.xp6vov 'have been thoroughly Doricised 
both by being under the rule of Argives and by the lapse of time '. 
The difficulty of the sentence lies in the fact that viro has to be sup- 
plied before rov xpovov from the previous line, and yet is in a 
different sense ; viro ^Apyeiuv is a genitive of the agent depending 


upon a.pxofJ.^voi, while viro tov xpot'ov is instrumental. Cobet 
[ Variae Led. p. 424] proposes therefore to omit apxa/nevoi as having 
been a gloss explaining vtto 'Apyeliov, [sc. dpxofievoL,] which was then 
introduced into the text. 

21. 46vT€S 'OpvtTJTat Kttl ircpCokKoi 'being in the position of 
Orneats or perioeki '. The inhabitants of Orneae resisting the 
Dorian conquerors were reduced to the position of the Spartan 
Pti-ioeki or unenfranchised farmers ; and thence the name was applied 
to all others remaining in the country in the same position. Cp. the 
derivation given by some of the word Helotes, viz. from Helos on 
the Laconian gulf, and of Caerites in Roman polity. The Argives 
seem to have destroyed Orneae in B.C. 416 [Ihucyd. 6, 7, 2]. 

23. irdpc^ Te5v, by attraction for irdpe^ eKcLviov ds. €k tov 
yicrov Karearo [App. D. II. a] 'held aloof from the war'. Cp. 
p. 12, 1. 7. 

24. KaTT]|i«vou 'by so holding aloof they were really me- 
dizing '. 


25. ToiovT<p irovu) o-uv€'<rTa<rav ' were engrossed in the active 
labour I have described ', i.e. in building the wall. Cp. 9, 89 Xt/ty 
ffvcTciuTas Kal Ka/xdru). Cf. 7, 170. 

26. aT€ irtpl Tou iravTos i'i'St] 8p6|iov Beovrcs 'seeing that their 
all was now at stake '. Herodotos is fond of this metaphor from 
the race-course, sec 9, 37 ware rpix^^ """^pi- ^V^ ^^V^' 7> 57 ""e/ot 
iuvTov rp^x^"'" Cf. Aristoph. Vesp. 376 woi-qauj irepi \pvxvi Spofiov 
dpafieiv. p. 55, 1. 26; p. 78, 1. 12. 

r. cXXd|i\)/co-6ai ' that they would distinguish themselves'. Cp. 39 
I, 80 T(^ iTTTTi/cy iWafXTreadai. 

2. TttvTa refers to the facts mentioned in cc. 71 — 3, viz. the 
advance of the Persians towards the Peloponnese, the abstention of 
many of the Peloponnesian states, and yet the comparative security 
of the peninsula by the rapid completion of the wall ; in spite of 
this reassuring circumstance however the fleet were still (ojiws) 
alarmed for the safety of the Peloponnese. [The comparative ob- 
scurity of this train of thought has suggested to some the reading 
dfiws, while Abicht thinks that we should probably read o/xoius.] 

5. o-iY'Q X6"yov tiroUcTo 'began saying under his breath', or 
'secretly', cp. 2, 140 ciy-ij tou Aidioiros 'without the knowledge 

-136 NOTES m-N xxxiv 

of Aethiops ', clam Aethiope. iTheiise of o-r/ij in fliis'adverbial sense 
of ' secretly ' accounts for its employment in what seems a kind o/ 
.bull in such an expression as ai-yr^ Xoyov TroietadaL [ = \^yeLv'\. 

GtevfJia •noi(.v^i.vo\.= 6aviJ.6.^ovTes 'expressing their surprise at"'^ 
ccp. p. 41, 1. 25. For TToielaGai ' regard' see p. 2, 1. 7. 

<6. lleppd^T] 'it (the discontent) burst out '. Cp. 6, i29o>5/3oy- 
'\6[j.evos iKpayrjvat es airdv. 

7. a-vWoyos re tr\ ' and a meeting for debate actually took 
place '. 

8. 01 |X€V sc. ^Xeyov. For this construction St. compares Soph. 
Ant. 259 \6yoi, 5' iv dWrjXotaiv kppodovv KaKoi, \ (pv\a^ k\iyx''^v 

9. irepl IkcCvtis kiv8vv€V€iv * and to fight in defence of it '. 
This is not a construction of KLvdvvevetv with preposition = * to hazard' 
[see p. 30, 1. 9], but KLvdvue^eip here = fj-ax^ffdai and rrepl 'in behalf 
of, cp. II. 12, 24.^ eh oiojubs dpLcrros djxvueadai irepl Trdrprji. 

irph, p. 3, 1. 6. 
*A9T]vaioi. hi, sc. iKiXevov. 


13, etrcrovTO tti "YVcojjit] ' was outvoted ', for the opposite vikuv 
see on p. 5, 1. 15. 

19. QicnrUa liroCT)o-€ 'caused him to be admitted citizen of 
Thespiae'. t>;s lireSeKovTo 'when they were admitting new citizens'. 
Of the Thespians 700 had fallen at Thermopylae [7, 222], the 
Persians had burnt their town [c. 50], and we find afterwards that 
they were so reduced that they could not supply themselves with 
arms at Plataea [9, 30]: that they should enrol new citizens there- 
fore when the troubles were over was natural ; and Themistocles 
was so influential in Greece in the period immediately following, 
that his recommendation would be enough to obtain admission of 
his friend. 

21. '4\iyc...ra.Zi. The whole incident is graphically described 
in the Persae of Aeschylos, 351 sq. See Introduction. 

24. <j>pov^«v rd Pao-iXe'os * well disposed to the king's interests', 
p. 18, 1. 12. Notice the omission of the article with /Sao-tXe'os. 
The king of Persia is spoken of as /3acrt,\eus. 

25. KariiuepGe, p. 30, 1. 26. 

-Lxxvi HERODOrOS. VIII. i37 

27. iraplxet *you have an opportunity', for this impersonal use 
see p. 5,1.1. 

1, Tci vfJi^Tepa {|)pov€'ovTas. See above p. 39, 1. 25 and 7, 102 40 
TO, aa (ppoviety. 


4. diraXXdo-o-cTo ' departed ', though the act. is used in p. 35, 
1. 17 in sense of ' came off'. 

5, 7. TOVTo |iiv...TovTo 8i * iu the first place', 'in the second 
place ', see on p. 30, 1. 5. 

7. cirtiST] ryCvovTo fico-ai vvktcs * towards midnight '. Accord- 
ing to Aeschylos [Pers.366] the orders were to do this eDr' civ <p\^ywv 
olktIclv rjkios x&ova X-q^rj. For vvkt€s ' the night hours ', cp. Arist. 
Nub. 2 TO xPVf^^" '^<^'' vvKTiHv oaov airipavTov. This particular phrase 
'midnight' is always without the article, see Arist. Vesp. 218 airb 
niao}v vvKTuv ye Trapa/caXoGcr' del. 

8. TO dir' loTr^p-qs Kepas 'the western or j-ig/i^ wing'. The 
sense of airb like that of e/c in p. 26, 1. 22 is 'on the side of. 

9. kvk\ovjjl€voi *by way of encirclin!:^ the Greeks or 'circling 
round towards Salamis ', but Her. elsewliere always uses this word 
transitively, p. 6, 1. 5; 3, 157. The Persian ships were stationed 
all along the Attic coast from Phalerum as well as on the S. coast 
of Salamis. This extreme left wing was now brought up the Saronic 
gulf so as to rest upon the east coast of Salamis, while, according to 
Aeschylos (Pers. 374), a detachment went to the west of the island 
to close up the passage between it and the Megarid, though Herod, 
does not mention this movement directly; the right wing was moved 
closer to the Peiraeus, and the islet (v-rjals) of Psytlaleia, between 
Salamis and the mainland, was occupied by 4000 troops (Pans, i, 
36, 2; Persae 439). 

10. Keov Ti Ktti TT]v Kvvdo-ovpav. Stein suggests that these 
names apply to the same place, see Hist. Index. For this use of 
Tc.Kai cp. p. 22, 1. 20 AuipiKOf T€ Kal MaKedvbv idyos. 

13. dv'r]Yov...tva 8T|...€^'g...8oi€v. For the change of mood see 
on p. 4, 11. 4 and 10. 

14. Sovvai tCo-iv 'to give satisfaction', on the analogy of Biktjv 
Sovvai. Elsewhere ricn is used in the sense of ' punishment inflicted ' : 
see I, 86; 8, 106; or of ' reveng': taken', 8, 105. 

T38 NOTES ON lxxvi 

i6 — 21. (OS belongs to ivdavra f/AXiara i^ocao/x^vuv 'on the 
ground that, whenever the sea fight did take place, the men and 
wrecks would be sure to be washed ashore there more than any- 
where', p. 42, 1. 21. The final clause after aire^i^a^ov is ha... 
iT€pnroi<2aL, and for the subj. mood used dramatically (that is, as 
representing the actual thoughts of the person concerned) after 
historic tense see G. § 216, 2. 

For the meaning of i^oiaofihiav see p. 25, 1. 10. 

22. TT]S vvKTos 'that night', the gen. of time within which, 
P" 37> 1- "ZSj G. § 179. ou8^v diroKOiix-qOcvTes 'without taking any 
interval of sleep '. The meaning of the compound diroKoifiaa-Oai seems 
to be that of sleeping as a relief from other employments, 'to get a 
snatch of sleep ', and thus to be naturally used of the sleep taken in 
the midst of military duties. See Arist. Vesp. 211, where the old 
man's servants have been keeping watch for Philocleon when besieged 
by his son ('as though he were the town of Skione'), — Sosias says, 
'since w^e have driven this enemy away' tL ovk dTr€Koifnf)dT]iJ.€v oarou 
oaop (XTiXriv; 'why shouldn't we snatch just a wee drop of sleep?' 
Stein, however, regards diro as intensive, 'without getting any sound 
sleep'. Polyb. 3, 79, 10 ^pax^ fi^poi rrji vvKrh airfKoiixCjVTO. 


41 I. KaraPaXXeiv 'to bring into contempt', used as the opp. of 
i^adpeiv 'to exalt' in 9, 79. 

3. *ApT^(i,i8os...aKTi]v- The coast of Salamis on which stood 
a temple of Artemis. 

4. Kvv6crovpav p. 40, 1. 10, 'dog's-tail', seems a common name 
for a peninsula. The particular place here meant is uncertain. See 
Index and Introduction. 

5. Xiirapds 'shining' [lit. oily], either from the clearness of its 
air, of which the Athenians were proud [Eur. Med. 829 del 5iA 
XaixirpoTaTov paivovres a/3pc3s aldipos], or from its groves of olives; 
though Aristophanes [Ach. 637] said it was an epithet better suited 
to sardines, 

el 54 Tts v/xds vTrodcoweva'as Xnrapds KaX^aeteu 'A^T^vas 
€Vp€TO irduf dv bia. rds Xiirapds, dcpiwv ti/htjv irepidx/zas. 

6. ap€(r(r€i = (r/3^a-ft, a form rarely if ever found elsewhere; for 
meaning, see 5, 77 'ia^eaav Hi^pLv. Kopov 'Presumption' resulting 

Lxxviii HERODOTOS. VIIT. 139 

from over-great success or wealth. For the birth of kooos from ijj3pis 
'unchecked impulse', cp. Pind. 01. 13, 13 ij^piv Kopov jxarepa 6pa<T6 

7. 80K6VVT dvA irdvra iriG^o-Oai 'expecting to be obeyed in 
ever)'thing', 'expecting to rule the world'. For SoKcvvra see App. 
D. footnote (9). 

9. (XevOepov rjixap 'the day of freedom,' sc. 'freedom', cp. 
Horn. II. 22, 490 rjixap 6p<f)aviK6v 'the day of orphanhood ', = 

II — 13. €S Toiav!Ta...€v8€ The syntax of this sentence is 
much dislocated, though the meaning is clear. The es stands in the 
way as it did in p. 30, 1. 3 ; and, if we understand ea^Xixpas after ^s 
Toiavra [see 1. i], we are met with the difficulty of coupling two parti- 
ciples i<T^\i\}/a% and Xiyovn by the conjunction /cat, which are in 
different cases and refer to different people. Of this latter anomaly 
however Abicht quotes another example in Herodotus {7, 9). All 
would be made easy by omitting ^s ; but if this is to stand we must 
understand ia^Xixj/as as above, and translate 'Looking at such facts 
and considering that Bakis speaks thus clearly I dare neither venture 
on an argument against oracles myself, nor can I admit any such 
from others '. 

Or we might possibly combine es Toiadra with ovTCtj euapyeojs and 
translate 'Now against Bakis when he speaks in regard to such 
facts and so clearly I dare neither' etc. 

The dative BoLkiSi depends upon the verbal subst. dvriXoylrjs, 
which is itself a partitive gen. for avTCXoyl-qs ri, if indeed this latter 
particle has not dropped from the text ; finally dvTiXoyirjs is followed 
by a preposition irepl ■xp'qcfxCjv as though it were a verb : for which 
Stein compares 7, 237 KaKoXoylrj$...^eivov irepi. 


15. (dOicr^os \6y<t)v 'a sharp combat of words', cp. p. 32, 1. 3. 
wOia/jLos (a pushing) = 'a hand to hand engagement', 'a personal en- 
counter', see 9, 62. 

16. ircpiKVKXcovTo ' were actually engaged in surrounding them '. 
See p. 40, 1. 9. 

18. Kara x^P^v 'unmoved', ''in statu quo ^. 

T40 NOTES ON lxxix 


i8. <rvvecrTT]K6Twv...T«v o-TpaT-q-ywv 'while the generals were 
contending'. Cp, Thucyd. i, i, i ro dWo'EWTjvcKbu bpdv <xvvi<jTd- 
ixevov TTpos aXXrjXovs. Cf. Her. 7, 142 a-vvea-TrjKv^ai yvwuac 'op- 
posed', I, 208 yuufxai (xkv avrai avv^araaav. 

■20. €^(»><rTpaKi(r|X€vos ' who had been banished by a sentence of 
ostracism ' two years before ; he was residing at Argos. 

[The institution of ostracism is explained by Grote, History 
of Greece pt. ir. ch. xxxii. It was peculiar to Athens and a few 
other states, though a somewhat similar process called petalism 
(from the votes being inscribed on leaves Tr^raXa) existed in 
Syracuse [Diod. ir, 87]. It was instituted by Cleisthenes as a 
means of preventing civil disturbances (o-rdo-eis) from the excessive 
power of one man, or the keen rivalry of two statesmen. The 
Ecclesia was first asked without mention of names whether 
there was occasion for such a proceeding: if the answer was 
in the affirmative, the agora was arranged for the voting of the 
ten tribes, and the ostracism was inflicted upon a man on 
the condition (i) that 6000 in all voted, (2) that the majority of 
such named him. The votes were written on bits of earthenware 
or shells [6(j7-pa/ca], hence the name. The sentence so passed 
consisted of an order to a man to reside for 10 years out of 
Attica; but it did not involve permanent loss of citizenship or any 
loss of property. The institution lasted until B.C. 420 when 
it seems to have been discredited by being employed against a 
mean person named Hyperbolos [Plut. Arist. 7;'Nic. 11]. 

Ostracism prevailed also, it is said, in Argos, Miletos, and 
Megara. Some hold — against Plutarch — that 6000 votes were 
required against a man before he could be banished. 

23. o-ToLs tirl TO (TvveSptov 'appearing at the council', not 
entering it, in the sense of taking part in it, as the next word ^|e- 
KaX^eTO shows. Cp. 3, 46 KaTaardvTes im tovs dpxovras, 9, 5 
diriKoixcvoi iirl ttjv fSovXrjv. According to Plutarch [Them. 12, 3] 
the last council was held in the tent of Themistokles. 

25. IxGpov see Plut. Themist. 3 ' Themistokles early took up a 
position of hostility to the leading men, and especially towards 
Aristides, whose political course was diametrically opposite to his 
own. Various motives are assigned to this enmity ; but the fact is 
that the difference of their habits and character accounts for 
it. For Aristides was by nature gentle and high minded; his 
political conduct was never inspired by the desii^e of popularity, 
nor could he refrain from opposing Themistokles in the wild 


schemes to which for the sake of his own advancement he was 
continually inciting the people'. 

viro, cp. p. I, 1. 3. XTJ0T]v...Troi€V[J.evos 'forgetting', ctTroXai'^a- 
vofievos, cf. p. 39, 1. 5 where diov ^a Trot€VfX€i'OL = dav/ud^ourcs. 

I. o-vfi.|XL|at *to communicate with him', p. ig, 1. 4; p. 34,42 
1. 20. 

5. Kal Br\ Kal 'and especially of course', p. 26, 1. 18. 

7. oTt t<rov...X^-Y€iv 'that it matters nothing whether they 
talked much or little '. 

9. avToirrqs 'an eye-witness'. Aristides had seen and under- 
stood the movement of the Persian ships as he was himself coming 
from Aegina. 


16. e| €fi€o 'by my instigation', ore 'since'. 
18, Trapao-Tijcrao-Qai ' to bring them over to our view'. 
21, «S ov TTOiivvTiav 'from a belief that the Barbarians are not 
so acting', p. 47, 1. 14. 
23. Si) 'of course'. 
25. ti TTcp ' if, as is no doubt the case'. 


27. irapcXGwv ' having come before the council'. 

1. crrpaTOTreSov 'fleet' p. 22, 1. 2. 43 

2. 'irapapTc'€<r0ai = 'Trapa(rK€va^€o-9at (1, 17) 'to make the pre- 
parations for battle', 'to clear the decks for action'. One of these 
preparations appears to have been to unship if practical)le the great 
sails, that the ships might be as light and convenient as possible. 
[Xen. Hell, i, r, 13.] 

5. ovK lireiQovTo ra i^ayyeXQivra 'did not credit the news'. 
The natural construction o[ TreLdeadai. is (r) with the dat. whether of 
person or thing, or (2) with ace. of thing dat. of person TavTci 
aoi ireidofiaL. But Herodotus has two varieties of construction 
besides the ordinary one (1) with gen. of person — ireideaOai ^fjL^o 
^, 126; Cj5. 5, 29, 33; {2) as here with a neuter accusative, cp. 2, 12 
ra irepl AiyvTrTov uf Kal roicri \iyov(TLV aina ireiOofJXii. 

142 NOTES ON Lxxxii 


TO. Is Tov TpCiroSa. That is on the tripod dedicated at Delphi 
from the spoils taken in the following year at the battle of Plataea. 
It stood on a stand made of three twisted serpents, the three heads 
affording places for the three legs of the tripod; which stand 
still exists at Constantinople, whither it was taken by the Emperor 
Constantine. The inscription was on the stand, not on the tripod, 
and can still be deciphered. See 9, 8i ; Thucyd. i, 132. 

12. TTJ AT]fjLVLTi, see p. 6, 1. 28. 

13. Is TOLS o-ySwKovTa Kal TpiT]Koo-ias. See above p. 24, 1. 26 
where the total (a wrong one according to the items) is given 
as 378. 

15. KaT€'8€€ impersonal 'there were wanting two ships to 
complete the number'. 


17. 7rap€<rK€ua^ovTo. See on 1. 2. 

18, ii»s T6 S-q 8il(}>aivc Kttl ot^.TTOiT^o-cifievoi 'and as soon as 
day began to break they (the commanders) summoned a meeting of 
the armed marines, and Themistokles made the best speech of all'. 
For TC.Kal expressing simultaneousness see p. 3, 1. 16. The 
plural TTOLrjad/xeuoi refers to all the commanders of whom Themis- 
tokles is one, and the construction, though halting, is intelligible: 
'having assembled the men (they made speeches), Themistokles 
best of them all'. For a participle not followed by a verb see 
p. 23, 1. I. And for Ik irdvTwv cf. i, 134 rificoai 8^ €k irdprcou 
Toi)i aTxto'Ttt eu}vT(2u oUiovras, 'especially'. Aeschylos also [Pers. 
387] represents the start of the Greek fleet as being at daybreak. 

20, 21. TO. 8^ 'iiTia — dvTi,Ti6t|jL€va 'and his expressions were all 
a contrasting of things base with things noble '. 

21 — 3. o<ra 8^...alp^e(r0aL 'and advised them, to use his own 
words (577), in all that the nature and constitution of a man admitted 
of, to choose the nobler . The participle vapaive(ras agreeing with 
QefiLffTOKXhjs takes the place of a verb. For KaTda-raffLS cp. 2, 173 
ovTU) drj Kal dvdpdbirov KardffTacrii. For 81] introducing the words as 
the thought of another see p. 4, 1. 12. 

23. KarairXllas ' having thus finished ', a metaphor apparently 
from weaving, ' to wind up ', cp. 4, 205 ovi: e5 t-^v ^Stjv Kar^irXe^e. 



So also diairX^Kciv, see 5, 92 StaTrX^^ai'Tos top ^iov c5. Find. Nem. 
7, 99 pioTov ap,u.6(rai.s rj^q. Xnraptfi re yrjpa'i SiairXiKois evdalfiou ibvra. 

25. 8i} 'accordingly'. Kal 'and simultaneously', cp. p. 4, 
1. 12; p. 26, 1. 7. 

Kara ' in the matter of ' p. 45, 1. 15. See for the calling in the 
Aeiikidae c. 64. 

I. €v9avTa ' thereupon ', dvTJYov ' began putting out to sea'. 44 


3. tiva-yoji^voLo-t ' as they were in the act of leaving land '. 

5. €irl irpvfiVTiv dv€KpovovTO 'began to back water', the pre- 
position is omitted in 1. 16. dvaKpouco-Oai ' to push oneself back- 
wards', i.e. to row backward; cp. 6, 115 i^avaKpovad/xei^oL. w'kcWov 
• were neai-ly running aground '. 

6. l^avaxOels ' having got clear off shore '. 

8. ovTft) %r\ 'it was in these circumstances', p. 3, 1. 24. 
Aeschylos {Pers. 411) says that the enemy's ship thus attacked was 
a Phoenikian, and we see in the next chapter that the Athenians 
were opposed by the Phoenikians. 

12. X^-yerai. Notice the double construction after this word, 
first an indirect clause introduced by ws, and then an ordinary ace. 
and infin. (pave'Caav biaKeKevaaadai. This is another instance of 
idiomatic variety in two clauses essentially coordinate. 

13. 8iaKeXev<ra(r6ak...6v6i8£(ra(rav ' encouraged them to go on 
after first uttering the following taunt ', cp. 9, 5 diaKeXevaafx^vr] yvvr] 

14. orrpaToireSov ' fleet ', p. .2, 1. 2. 

15. (3 SaijjLovioi. This form of address seems to be meant to 
express surprise and some angry contempt, see 7, 48 : but like other 
kindred expressions its meaning would doubtless be modified by 
the tone in which it was uttered. 

li^XP** Koo-ov * how far ?', or ' how long ? ', see p. 2, 1. 13. 


16. KOTol ' opposite ', see 9, 46 etc. CTardxaTO, App. D. 11, a. 
t8. rh irpd? 'EXcvarivos...K^pas * the wing towards Eleusis and 

the west', p. 45, 1. 23. There does not seem however any appre- 
ciable difference between the meaning of irpb^ with the gen. here and 

144 NOTES ON i.xxxv 

with the accus. in 1. 19, 20. The same variation occurs elsewhere, 
see 4, 37 TO irpos '^(xirkp'qs...Ta irpbs Boperjv. See the remark on 
1. 12, and cp. eTTi used with gen. and ace. in 9, 47. See above, 
p. 33, 1. 19. Stein observes that eair^prj and ^W9 here stand for 
North- West and South-East. 

10. rfieKoKOLKiov, p. 12, \. 11. 

22. (Tvxvwv ovv6|xaTa ' the names of several ', i.e. lonians. 

27. enipavvcvo-e 'became absolute ruler of. 
45 I. KaTaorTif]<rdvTwv twv Ilepo-ewv 'on the appointment of the 
Persians'. In B.C. 492 Mardonios had been sent down to Asia 
Minor by Darius to supersede Artaphernes, and with instructions to 
put down the tyranni in the Ionian towns, which seems to have 
been a measure intended to conciliate Hellenic feeling to the Persian 
over-lordship [Her. 6, 43]. But such a measure was much at vari- 
ance with the interests of the Persians and was not likely to have 
been long maintained, and indeed Herodotos indicates that it would 
seem incredible in his day. 

2. €v€pYeT't]s...'n"o\Xi] 'was entered in the records as a "bene- 
factor" of the king and a large quantity of land was given him '. The 
custom of keeping a record of such as had done good service to the 
king is referred to in Esther c. vi. ' On that night could not the 
king sleep, and he commanded to bring the book of records of 
the chronicles; and they were read before the king. And it was 
found written, that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh.,.who 
sought to lay hold on the king Ahasuerus '. The word ciiepyenji 
by which Herodotus here translates the Persian title was well known 
in Greek polity, and was bestowed by states on leading men in other 
states in return for good services received. See Thucyd. r, 129, 2 
where Xerxes tells Themistokles Kelrai <xoi evepyecia iv rep ripLeTepip 
oiKip elcraei dvaypairTos. Cp. id. i, 137, 7. And for the practice 
among the Greeks of giving this title accompanied by fixed privileges 
see Xen. Vect. 3, 11 ; Demosth. Lept. 466; Fals. Leg. 446. Some- 
times the title and certain privileges were given to all the citizens 
of a state, as to the Syracusans by the people of Antandros [Xen. 
Hell. I, I, 26]. 

3. opoo-a'Y'Yai. ' This word is interpreted by Photics and 
Hesychios as ao}pt,aTO(pv\aK€S ^acrtX^wj "body-guards of the king", 
and in this sense is used by Sophocles fr. 185'. Stein. Persian 
scholars seem divided as to its derivation. 

Lxxxvii HERODOTOS. VIII. 145 


6. €K€pat5€To ' were entirely demolished ', used here and in 
c. 91 to indicate the breaking up of the ships by the charges of the 
enemy. Elsewhere Herodotos uses it of plundering a town or de- 
stroying persons or things, i, 88 k. acTv. 7, 1-25 oi X^opres rdj 
KanrjXovs €K(p6.i^ov /xovvai. [It is from the Rt. Kep, from which we 
have had Keipoj p. 32, 1. 15.] 

7. aT€, p. 38, 1. 26. 

8. Kara Td|iv ' in regular order of naval war '. Cobet would 
omit these words as being merely equivalent to aiiv Koafxcp. But the 
two clauses balance; avu Koapufi is opposite to ov Terayixivitiv, Kara 

Ta^lV to OVTi (TVU vbip. 

10. ^jJLcXXc. p. 2, 1. 3. 

11. i^(rdv Y€ Kal c-ylvovro, ' were and showed themselves to be'. 

12. d|xe£vov£s IctfVToiv t]' 'their valour was even greater than at 
Euboea ', i.e. at Artemisium. The phrase d/xeivoues iwvrwv is re- 
garded as making one comparative adjective. Cp. 2, 25 6 NetXos 
ewvToO p^ei TToXXy vTrodeearepos ij tov d^peos. 

irds Tis irpoQviJLtoncvos. For the singular participle clause after 
plural verb cp. the construction of quisqtie : and for the converse 
see p. 43, 1. 9. 

13. Bii\LaCvo)v p,ip^r]v. Cp. p. 8, 1. 15. For tSoKtc tc follow- 
ing participial clause cp. p. 75, 1. ir. 


15. Kara ' in regard to ', p. 43, 1. 25. 

16. lACTt^cTcpovs. See on p. 5, 1. 8. 
18. (j.d\\ov ^Ti. p. 3^, 1. 20. 

23. Trpos Twv TroX€|x(wv 'on the side nearest the enemy'. See 
p. 44, 1. 18; p. 66, 1. 16. 

25. <ruvTJv€iK6 'turned out successful'. Cp. 9, 37 ov fxeuroi ts 
ye t4Xos oi avurjveiKe to ?x^oj t6 ii AaKedat/xoviovs. 

26. (^ipova-a 'full till', cp. /F.sdiin. in Ctes. § 82 etj toOto 
tf>ipo}v T€pii(TTT}<T€ tA TpdyfjiaTa ' in his violent haste '. 

29. 2Tt...€dvTwv 'while they (Artemisia and the king) were in 
the vicinity of the Hellespont', irepl with ace. cp. p. 15, 1. 19. 

1. U 'irpovoCr]s ' on purpose', 'of malice aforethought', opposed 46 
to Kara. TvxVi <^P' 3, i^i. 

H. VIII. lO 

146 NOTES ON Lxxxvii 

8. avToio-i, sc. the Greeks, as is implied by the subject rpirjpap- 
Xos, a Greek trierarch. This pursuing trierarch is said in c. 93 to 
have been Ameinias of Pallene. 

y. irpos aXXas eTpdircTo 'turned his attention to attacking 
other ships', p. 10, 1. 22. 


9, 10. TouTO |i€v...TOVTo h\ 'in the first place'... 'in the second 
place', p. 40, 1. 6. 

o-vvT]veiK€ 'happened fortunately', p. 45, 1. 25. 

13, 14. 0T]€i)p.€Vov 'surveying the battle'. See p. 47, 1. 28 sq. 
Kai 8ii 'and thereupon'. 

17, 18. <})avai 'said yes'. r6 iTria-r\\Lov 'her ensign', that is 
the design on her ship's prow. Such a design is mentioned in 3, 59 
where certain ships are said to have had the figure of wild boars on 
their prows. The position of this figurehead would make it plain to 
a spectator from shore, but it would not be seen by the Athenian 
captain pursuing. 

19. TiTTio-T^aTo 'they believed', p. 5, 1. 21. 
21. Kal TO . . . KaTTJ-yopov yevitrQai 'and the fact that no one M'sls 
saved from the Calyndian vessel to be her accuser'. 


26. TTovi}) 'engagement'. 

26 — 8. diro |X€v ?0av€...dir6 8^ sc. '^davov, cp. p, 17, 1. 24; p. 

34> 1- 23. 
47 '2« Kal [AT] cv xcipciv vofjicp diroXXvp-evoi 'and if they did not 
perish in actual fighting'. Of. 9, 48 es xeipwj' voixov a-mKiadai. 
For ixr) with participle in conditional sense cp. 7, loi ovk a^i6[iaxoi 
eiai ifik iircovTa irpoaiielvai /xr) ebvres dp6p.iOL. 
3. 8t€V€ov, see on p. 5, 1. 3, 4. 
6. evOaiJTa 'it was at that point'. 


12. 8t£<f)0dpaTO App. D. ii. {a). 

14. «s irpoSovTwv 'on the ground that they (the lonians) had 
played traitors'. For the change of case cp. p. 36, 1. 16. 

18. KarcSvcTo 'became water-logged'. That this does not mean 
entirely sunk is shown by the passage immediately following, and by 


Thucyd. i, 50, i ol Kopivdtoi ra <TKd(f)7) ovx cIXkov ava^ovfxevoL tCjv 
veQp as Karadvaeiav, irpos d^ roi/s dvOpuirovs (f)ovev€LV eTpd-Kovro, 'The 
Corinthians did not set to work to tow off the hulls of such vessels 
as they had disabled (water-logged), but turned to slaughtering the 

19. €'iri<|)6po|ji€'vTi 'charging'. See on p. 31, 1. 1. 

23. €ppv<raTo sufficed to save the lonians from the danger in 
which they stood from the accusation of the Phoenikians. 

28. tva...8iaPa\X<«)(ri dramatic subj. after a past tense in the 
main clause, 'that they may not (he said) after playing the coward 
themselves slander men better than themselves'. See p. 40, 1. 17. 

2. Kanjixevos vtto tw ovpei 'sitting under the crest of the hill 48 
opposite Salamis which is called Aegaleos '. Rawlinson from a 
personal survey believes that he discovered the exact position of 
Xerxes' seat on a small eminence beneath the N.W. extremity of 
Aegaleos [Scaramagna), which commands a view of the narrowest 
part of the bay. Aeschylos (Persae 464) says that Xerxes was ' on a 
high hill near the beach, which commanded a view of the whole 
fleet'. And Plutarch (Them. 13) describes it as being 'above the 
Ileracleum, where the channel is narrowest'. 

3. dv€7ruv6dv6TO 'he always asked the name of the man who 
did it'. 

4. dv^7pa({>ov 'entered it in the book'. See on p. 45, 1. 2. And 
for the "YpajijiaTicTTal 'king's secretaries' thus accompanying the 
king, see the account of the review of the army at the mouth of 
the Strymon, 7, 100, dic^iKadviav ^irl dpfxaros irapd ^dvos ^u eKaoTov 
iirwddveTO, kol dw^ypacpou ol ypajxixo.TLaTal. 

iraTpoOev 'with the name of his father'. Cp. Xen. Oecon. 7, 3 
dpofid^ovres ytte 'Icrx6/iaxoj' irarpodev irpoa KoKovvTai. 

5. 6. irpos Sc Tt Kttl Trpo<r€pd\€TO...Trd06os 'and what con- 
tributed also something to the punishment of the Phoenikians was 
the fact that Ariaramnes a Persian was there who was on friendly 
terms with the lonians'. Cp. Thucyd. 3, 36, i koI irpos ^we^dXero 
oi)K €\dxi-<^T0V TTJs opjXTJs al Ile\oTrovi>7]<xio)u vrjes is 'Icjyiav iKcipots 
Poi)dol ToXfiTfiaaaai irapaKivdvpeuaai 'And what contributed more 
than anything to their passionate determination was the fact that 
the Peloponnesian ships had ventured boldly into Ionia to assist 
these men'. 

10 —2 



10. viroo-ravTCs 'having thrown themselves in their way'. The 
Aeginetan ships were in the position of a reserve ; but there is no 
need to translate here ' laid in wait for them ', as if they had 
intentionally concealed themselves. 

kv Tw 7rop6|jL(tf seems to mean the narrowest point, that namely, 
between Psyttaleia and the Attic coast which is less than 4000 feet. 
Plut. Arist. c. 9. 

12. €K€pdttov 'kept destroying', see p. 45, 1. 6. 

14. oKws 'whenever', with optative of indefinite repetition, cp. 
p. 26, 1. II ; 6, 31 o/cws 5^ Xd/3oi. 6, 61 o'/cws hk eveUeLe. G. § 213, 3. 

15. <})£p6fji6Voi lo-e'irtirTov 'as they were running at full speed 
they fell in with the Aeginetans'. Notice the masculine participle 
referring to the crews instead of the ships, p. 45, 1. 26. For the 
meaning of (p€p6fJt,evos indicating rapidity, cf. Aesch. in Ctes. 89 
TrdXiv TjKe (pepo/J-euos els ttjv eavroO ^ijctlv. For €l(r^iri7rTov cp. 7, 210. 


16. <ruv€Kvp€ov 'came alongside each other'. 

18. TJ irep d\i, see 7, 179 — 181. Biogr. Ind. s. v. Pythcas, 
20. KaTaKouevTa 'cut to pieces'. He fought so determinedly 

that he was 'almost hacked to pieces' [KaTeKpeovpyrjdr] dxas, 7, 181), 

and yel was not killed. 

22. Tov 8TJ...Si8ft)vti] 'and it was with ihis man still on board 
' that the Sidonian vessel was captured'. 

23. o-wG-qvat is 'escaped to Aegina', 'got safe back to' p. 65, 
1. 20. 

25. T6v...|XT]8t(rp.ov 'he shouted out to Themistokles in taunting 
terms as to the charge of medizing which had been brought against 
the Aeginetans'. In B.C. 491 the Aeginetans had been charged with 
medizing because of their having given earth and water to the king, 
and Krios, father of this Polykritos, had been one of the persons 
in Aegina M'^ho had put himself forward to resist the consequent 
demand of hostages by Kleomenes. See 6, 50, 73. Polykritos 
now asks Themistokles ironically whether he thinks the Aeginetans 
still medize? 
49 I. dir4ppt\l/e 'threw out tauntingly', cp. 6, 69 eKelvos tovto 
drreppiype to ^ttos. i, 153; 7, 13. 

3. iiro TOV TTcJov (TTparov ' under cover of the land force ', cp. 

xciv HERODOTOS. VIII. 149 

9, 96 ^s T7)v Tjiretpov airiirXeov okus ^uxtl virb rbv we^bv arpaThv top 
ffipirepou cbvra iv rrj MvkoKt). 


4. •rJKOv<rav...api(rTa 'gained the best renown', cp. 6, 86; 9, 79. 

5. Iirl 8^ 'but next to them'. 

8. 6s KaL^eircSiwIe 'who, among other things, was the man 
who chased Artemisia', p. 45, 1. 21. In mentioning the high 
credit gained by these men Herodotos cannot be referring to the 
formal dpLareia, which was a subject of vote afterwards, see c 123. 
Yet Diodorus (11, 27) says that it was assigned to Ameinias. 

10. TJ Kal. The second of two alternative or conditional 
clauses is frequently accompanied by /cat. See p. 27, 1. 18; p. 53, 
1. 17; I, 19; 3, 33; 9, 5 etc. 

11. Trpos 8€ 'and besides', p. 16, 1. 8; p. 48, 1. 5. 

12. (K^CTo ' was publicly offered'. |jLvpiak Spaxp-CLi about ;[^40o. 

13. 8€iviiv...€'iroi€uvTo 'they were indignant', p. 8, 1. 13. 

14. 87) sums up and dismisses the subject, c^. on 6, 52. 


18. avT^Ka Kar' dpxo-S ' at the very beginning of the battle '. 

19. rd la-ria dtipd\).ivov ' having spread his sails '. The sails 
were furled for action, durin^j which only the oars would be used ; 
in fact the greater sails were if possible put ashore. See 6, 13. 

22. Trjs ZaXa|xivCT]s sc. yrjs, topographical genitive ' in Salamis ', 
p. 7, 1. 20 ; p. 20, 1. 27. Ytv€o-0ai see note p. 50, 1. 2. 

24. Gef-fl irop-iTTJ ' by the guidance of Providence '. 

Tov relative. ovt6...oiit€ These negatives are used instead of 
the simple ov to mark the logical antithesis between the sender 
and the recipient, and yet the clauses are not grammatically 
co-ordinate. The first oUre qualifies strictly (pavijuai, the second 
belongs to el86<n * but there was no appearance of anyone having 
sent it, nor were the Korinthians to whom it came acquainted at all 
with what had happened to those actually engaged '. twv 0.116 ttis 
<rTpaTi"r]s ' of the state of affairs in the army ', — a common way to 
speak of something distant, /rom which news must come to the 
speaker, cf. Aeschyl. Agam. 521 Kijpv^ 'Axatwi', xatpe, tuv dird 
arpaToD. Eur. I. T. 540 rts el trod' ; ws ei5 nviOlvu Td<p' EXXdooj. 

I50 NOTES ON xciv 

50 2. tos...'Y€vecr0at 'for when it got near'. The infinitive is 
often kept even in subordinate clauses of oratio ohliqtca. So above 
p. 49, 1. 1^\ cp. 9, 41. See Clyde § 97. It is not confined to 
conjunctions of time or relative pronouns. In 9, 41 it is used 
after hQa, in Thucyd. 4, 98, 4 after et, and in Xen. Cyrop. i, 6, 18 
after on. See also Thucyd. i, 92, 5; and note on Aeschines in 
Ctes. § 96. Goodwin M. and T. § 92, 1 note 3. 

3. Tovs diro ' those on board the boat ', see p. 49 1. 24. 

5. Kal 81) 'already'. Cp. 9, 6 koX Stj e.< Botwr/?? eX^yero elvai. 

7. raZi 'as follows'. 

8 — 9. ws auTol...oi"EXXiiv€S ' that the Korinthians might take 
them (the speakers) as hostages and put them to death if the Greeks 
should not turn out to be in the midst of victory'. For aY€o-0ai 
in this sense see 6, 73, 85. 

9. i][v |i,ii...^a£va)VTai. A subjunctive clause is dramatically 
used instead of the optative in oratio obliqua, as being the very 
words employed by the speakers oloi re elfjLev . . .rju fir] (paiuuvraL. 

ovTCD 8t| 'it was in these circumstances', i.e. after hearing these 
words. See on 6, 36. 

II. eir* €|€p-yao-|j.€voio-i ' when all was over ', i.e. when the battle 
was finished. Cp. 9, 77 ai/riKa fierck ravra AitIkovto 'M.avTiv4es ct' 

TOVTOvs...<J>dTis ^X*t 'are credited with conduct of this kind', 
cp. the converse phrase with a similar meaning 9, 84 ^et riva (pdriv 
...dv7)p 'E(piaLos ddxpai Mapddpiov 'is credited by some'. Thus \070s 
^X^i Tiuct or ^x^'- '^'■^ Xoyou, and alrir] tlvcl e'xei, or alTlrjv ^x'^'- ''"'^ in 
the same chapter 5, 70. 

15. |JiapTvpe€t...'E\\ds. The epigram of Simonides is quoted 
in all editions in illustration of this statement (fr. 100) : 

cJ ^eXu evvdpov tot' evaiop-ev darv Kopbdov' 
vvv 5' ap^pi MavTOi vacro^ ?x^' SdXa/its* 

pda d^ (poLuiaaas prjai Kal H4p(7as iXovres 
Kal Mrjdovs lepav "EXXdSa pvadp-eda. 

And also an epitaph of the same poet (fr. 103) on Adeimantos : 

ovTos ' A.deipidvTov kcLvov Td(po?, o5 Std jSouXds 
'EXXds iXevdepias dp^cpidero (rTi<f)avov. 

The enmity between Athens and Korinth which existed from 
B.C. 460 to the outbreak of the Peloponuesian war, and the efforts 


xcvi HERODOTOS. VIII. 151 

made by the Korinthians to form a counterpoise to the growing 
naval power of Athens by an alliance with Epidauros, would 
account for the attempt on the part of Athenian patriots to decry 
the services of the Korinthians at the time of the Persian invasion, 
and would explain the ease with which anything to their discredit 
would be believed at Athens and communicated to Herodotos. 
[Thucyd. i, 103 — 106.] Adeimantos is represented throughout as 
backward in the war, and as hostile to Themistokles, cf. 5, 59, 6r. 
Plutarch accuses Herodotos of being influenced by a bribe from 
Athens ; and Dion Chrysostom has a story that he asked for pay 
at Korinth and was refused. 


17. ToiJ Kal...e'ir€|xvT](r9T]v, see c. 79. tos dvSpos apio-rov 'as a 
man of the highest character', including of course ' courage '; but 
Herodotos had no occasion in the previous mention of him to say 
anything of his prowess in the fight. 

18. Gopvipu), p. 47, 1. II. 

70. irapaTeTaxa-TO, App. D. ii. a. They had been stationed 
on board ships along the coast of Psyttaleia to prevent the Persian 
troops there [c. 76] from giving help to their comrades in diffi- 
culties. Aesch. Pers. 454. 

22. dir€pT](r€ d^wv 'took them with him and disembarked 
them '. 

23. T^ vTj<ri8i. See p. 40, 1. 5. 


25. KaT£ipv<ravT£s 'having dragged on shore '. 

27. TavTTj 'in that direction', 'in that part of the bay'; for 
many of the ships were wrecked while trying to escape along the 
Attic coast towards Phalerum ; and many more were drifted away 
by the W. wind mentioned in the next sentence. 

3. TTJs 'AttiktJs the topographical genitive, see p. 49, 1. 22. 51 

4. KwXidSa the Kolian beach was 20 stades (about 2^ miles) 
from Phalerum. Pausan. i, 1,5. Col. Leake identified it with the 
point called now the ' Three towers ' {rpeis iri^pyoC) and Stein accepts 
this without comment ; but recent authorities have decided upon 
a point more S.E. Capi' St A'osmas. 

152 NOTES ON xcvi 

9. Avo-io-TpcLTO) dat. of agent after perfect pass, so Bd^tSt and 
Moyo^atV above. G. § 188. p. 62, 1. 16. 

11. (f>pv|ov(ri. 'shall roast', the women are to use the drift- 
wood from the wrecks, oars, spars and other fragments for fire- 
wood. The Mss. have (ppi^ovai ' shall shudder at ' ; and some 
have explained that there is an intentional ambiguity between the 
two words. The simple meaning is quite forcible enough. 

12. airtXdo-avTOS Pao-iXeos ' after the king had marched away', 
i.e. when the inhabitants returned in the autumn of 480 after the 
Persian army had evacuated Attica. 

^(icXXe (icicrQai ' was destined to be '. Cp. p. 2, 1. 2. 


14 — 17. jui) inro6T]Tai...Kiv8vv€V(rT|. For the subjunctive in a 
clause depending on a verb in a secondary tense {deicras . . .i^ovXeve) 
see Goodw. A/, and T. p. 80, i. Cp. on p. 4, 1. 10; p. 40, 1. 17. 

17. Ktv8vv€vcrT) 'lest he should be in danger'. For the change 
of subject of two verbs grammatically co-ordinate, see 6, 30. 
cPovX€V€ ' he began to think over '. 

19. eireipdro ' he pretended to be proceeding with his attempt ', 
'he went on with it'. 

20. Siaxowv 'to make a causeway across'. This distance was 
nearly a mile at the narrowest part, where a service of ferry boats 
was afterwards established under strict supervision. See Aesch. in 
Ctes. § 158. The object of the causeway would be- to enable the 
Persian land army to cross to Salamis and take the Athenian 
refugees prisoners, without fear of the terrible fleet by which theirs 
had just been conquered. Rawlinson notices that Alexander took the 
Island of Tyre by a similar construction, but there the distance was 
only half and the depth of water much less. Ktesias (Pers. 26) and 
Strabo (9, i, 13) assign the formation of this plan and the beginning 
of the embankment to a period before the battle, as the various 
editors point out ; but the words of Herodotos do not preclude 
this, — nay rather confirm it; the imperfect eireipaTo means 'he went 
on trying', as though nothing had happened. 

"yavXovs of Phoenikian transport vessels see 3, 136; 6, 17. 
The line of ships lashed together was independent of the x<^^^ ^"^ 
meant to protect the men working at it, as well as to give a passage 

xcviii HERODOTOS. VIII. 153 

to men crossing ; and this may very well have been begun after the 

21. dpWeTO, cp. 5, 120 oi d^ avTis iroXe/x^etv dpr^ovro. 

23. €v iJTTKrTeaTO 'were fully persuaded'. See p. 3, 1. 21. 

24. <os...'irap€crK€i)aorTai ' that he was fully determined and pre- 
pared'. The perfect is used dramatically for the pluperfect. Xerxes 
would have said irapiffKetjaafiat,. For the future infinitive after a 
verb expressing intention, cp. the construction of /^eXXw, p. 79, 1. 12. 
Ik iravTos voov 'in real earnest'. 

26. ^|nr€ipov. . .8iavo£T]s ' acquainted with his character '. diavola 
opp. to the iraiSeia and \6yos of a statesman in Aesch. in Ctes. § 170. 

a)ia...Kal, cp. 4, 150 aua re ^Xeye ravra /cat ebdnvve is rbv Bdrrov: 
and 3, 65 ; 4, 67. (Abicht.) 

27. ^ircjiirt €S Ile'pcras i.e. to Susa, see p. 27, 1. 12. 


2. o Ti irapa-ytverai 'which arrives at the destination', so 6, 95 52 
irapeyivovTo bk koX al iTiraywyol vies. 

OvTjTov cov 'I mean anything less than divine'. Herodotos uses 
6vT}Tbv as equivalent to ^Gjov in 2, 68 ttolvtuv tQjv tdfiev dvrjrQv tovto 
i^ i\ax''<^T6v jxiyKXTOv yiverac (of the crocodile); i, 216 TrdvTOJi' rCJv 
6vt]tQv to rdxi-cTTov (the horse). And Xenophon (Cyrop. 8, 6, 18) 
says of these dyyaprj'ioL some people declared that they went 
faster than cranes, but that at any rate they went faster than 
anything human on land {dudpojirivuv ire^rj). outw w ithout conjunc- 
tion, see 6, 15, 21. 

3. o(rc«)v...686s that is, as Xenophon explains, a day's journey 
of a horse. The American pony posts are made with shorter relays. 

5. 8i€<rTao-t 'are posted at intervals'. 

7. |xi] ov generally after a verb containing a negative idea, 
which is itself negatived, cp. 6, 88; 9, 18; G. § 283, 6 — 7 and § 263 
note, cp. p. 28, 1. 20; but also following any negatived verb, see 
p. 69, 1. 7. Tov TrpoK€i|j,£vov 'the distance allotted to him'. 

10. TO hi 6v0€VTev 'and thenceforth', cp. 9, 11. 

11. Kara Tr€p...\afJLTra8i]<}>op£T]. On the torch races see note 
on 6, 105, where they are mentioned as being used in the worship 
of Pan. Of the two kinds of torch racing the Persian courier-post 
is comparable to that in which the contest was between two or 
more lines of men stationed at intervals, each man carrying the 

154 NOTES ON xcviii 

torch to the man in front of him, — and especially to those races 
which, as was sometimes the case, were run on horseback. 

13. aY-yapiiiov n. 'an express'. Rawlinson mentions two deri- 
vations of the word, — angareh ' an account book ', and so ' regis- 
tered'; and harkareh 'a common drudge' or 'workman'. The verb 
ayyapeijeiv 'to requisition' is well-known from its use in St Matt. 
5, 41; 27, 32 etc., cp. Esther 8, 10 'he. ..sent letters by posts on 


15. ouTW 8t] Ti. The d-q has a certain sense of irony, 'to such 
a strange degree ! ', as though Herodotos were thinking of the 
groundlessness of their rejoicing. 

16. ws for uKxre. 

|ivp<riVT)ort...l(rTop€crav. For this custom of expressing gladness 
in connexion with religious rites see 7, 54. The scene on the 
entry of our Lord into Jerusalem will of course occur to cur minds. 

17. k^v^ioiv GvfxirfiJLaTa 'and were burning incense', dv/xiav 
here has a cognate accusative. It is used with other words which 
indicate something used in the same way as incense. See 3, 107 ; 

4' 75; 6, 97. 

Kttl avTol...ev'7ra9€ir,(rt 'and were universally engaging in sacri- 
fices and feastings'. The avroi emphasises the distinction between 
the people at large and the special class who would conduct the 
religious services. For ev Qvcrir\a-i k.t.X. cp, 3, 27 '^(xap eV daXiricri. 
r, 24 Idoji' . . .Tovs dvdpd)irovs kv evTradeiriai idvras. 

19. lTr€|€\0o{)<ra 'which arrived on the heels of the first'. 

<rvvixi€ ovroi 'threw them into such consternation '. Cp. 7, 142 
avvex^ovTo at yvu/xai tQv (pajxivcav. It is more common in poetry. 

Tovs KiOwvas KaT€ppTi|avTO. This sign of mourning, rendered 
familiar to us by the writers of the Old and New Testament, was 
common to all Eastern peoples. Thus Aeschylos describes Xerxes 
as watching the fight at Salamis, — prj^as d^ tt^ttXous KdvaK0}K6<ras 
XLy6 (Pers. 470). Herodotos uses a very strong expression 'they 
tore their inner garments to pieces'. Cp. 3, 66 Travres rd eadijros 
ix6fM€va elxov, ravra KaTTjpeiKOPTo. 

21. MapSdvtov 6V alriT] tiOcvtcs 'laying the blame on Mar- 
donius'. So alri-r] is said ^x^'^ t'-^<^ (5> 7o)' Cp. 5, 106 Spa fii) i^ 
ixTTepiTS aeojVTUv h alTir) (XXV^' 



I. <rvfJL<|)opiiv...'iroi€V|i€vov 'much distressed inconsequence of 53 
the sea-fight'. Cp. 9, 77. 

3 — 5. <os 8wo-€i...Kai ot Kp€cr<rov el't]. The future indicative is 
used in preference to the future optative, but in the second clause 
the ordinary optative of the oratio obliqua is used. The change of 
mood is perhaps only another instance of the taste for variety 
evidenced in the use of subj. and optative in final clauses [see 
on 9, 51]. But notice that here and at p. 56, 1. 24 — 5, as well as 
in 9, 69 (d'y7AXeTat...6'rt /J-axv t^ yiyove Kat viKuiev ol fiera nai/cra- 
vieu}) the time of the action is different. In p. 61, 1. 3 the infinitive 
is used by a similar variation, and in 11. 4 and 5 of the same page 
the indicative and optative. Abicht says that the optative 'gives 
the thought a more subjective colouring'; but in the instances 
before us, as in p. 56, 1. 24, the reverse seems to be the case. 

4. avaYvwcras 'for having overpersuaded ', p. 28, 1. 23; p. 80, 
1. 12: referring to his speech given in 8, 9. 

5. dvaKi,v8vv€v(rai 'to stake everything again on the risk', see 
P- 35> !• H; 9' '^^- dvaKiv5vv€}j€tu is constructed with a participle 
in 9, 26, 41; but Kiv8vveij€iu is followed by an infinitive in p. 51, 
1- 17 J P- 33» J- 7- See note on 6, 9. Cp. the double construction 
of ireipao'dai. 

7. virJp ^.e-yaXcov ai«p7;G€'vTa 'having played for high stakes', 
•endangered himself for great objects'. Cp. Thucyd. 7, 77, 2 iv 
Ty auT(jj KLv8vv(f) rots (pavKoTdroL^ aiojpovfiai. 

irXeov...^<{>€p€ 'his opinion inclined more to'. Cp. 5, 118 tovtov 
ToO ivSpbs 7] yi'uouT] ^(pep€...avfM^dX\€iv. 6, lio tQv i] ypcbinrj 'i(pepe 

9. 'rrpo(r€4>ep6 ' he propounded the following proposal'. Cp. 5, 
40 Trpoa^(p€pov avT(p rdde. Cp. 3, 74, 134; 5, 30. 

12. 6 r6 irdv (jx'ptov 'the decisive contest'. Cp. p. 31, 1. 15 
t6 ttSLv tov ttoX^/jlov. 

15. ireipiio-cTai avTiwdr^vai ' will make the experiment of facing 
you'. Treipdadat. is constructed by Herodotos both with participle- 
and infinitive: with the former it generally refers to an attempt 
actually made, see 6, 5, 50; 9, 26, 53; with the latter to a future 
possibility, cp. 6, 138. Yet in 6, 9 tovs euvroO ^nacTos v/x^uv 

156 NOTES ON c 

iroKiriTa^<j9o) aTrotrxtTw oltto tov Xoiirov cvfifiaxiKov this dis- 
tinction appears to be neglected. There is the same indefiniteness 
in our use of 'to try'. The two phrases 'I will try swimming', 
and, ' I will try to swim ', may sometimes approach each other so 
nearly as to be hardly distinguishable. 

17. vvv 'then', 'accordingly'. 

ir£ipw}JLe6a ttjs Il€\oTrovvT](rov 'let us make an attempt on'. In 
this sense ireipav is used in 6, 82. The middle is elsewhere used 
with persons. See i, 76; 2, 163; 7, 125; 9, 46. 

18. €l hi Kttl 'and if also on the other hand'. For this use 
of /cat with an alternative clause cp. p. 49, 1. 10; 9, 91 elpero etre 
K\r)d6vos ^V€K€v...etT€ Kai Kara (Tvvtvx'-'QV ■■■ 

Trape'xei impersonal = Trctpea-ri, cp. p. 5, 1. i ; p. 16, 1. 18. 

20. "E\Xt]o-i...8ov\ovs 'for the Greeks there can be no escape 
from becoming your slaves, after having given account for what 
they have done now and on former occasions'. ov8e}JL£a ^kSvo-is... 
...HT] ou...€tvat. After an expression implying difficulty or im- 
possibility fxy] ov is pretty frequently found with the infinitive, and 
ovdefjLia ^Kdvcns^ddvvaTov iariv iKdCvai. Cp. I, 187 deivbv idoKee 
eTvai fiT] ov ava-irovddl^eiv. 3, 82 Arjfxov HpxovTOS dSi^vara ixt] oit 
KaKOTTjTa iyyiveadaL. The accusative Sovras, in spite of the dative 
"EXXt^cti, arises from the influence of the infinitive, by an attraction 

fairly common in Greek writers; cp. p. 60, 1. 22. t«v is attracted 
into the case of an antecedent unexpressed, for eKeivuu d. 

21. irpoTcpov. Though the reference is to the Peloponnesians 
primarily, yet we may understand various events in previous Persian 
expeditions, such as the battle of Marathon, to be included. But 
the special reference is rather to the treatment of the Persian envoys 
ar Sparta (7, 133). 

22. €l 8' dpa quodsi forte, see p. 59, 1. 28. 

24. Kttl Ik TwvSe 'in this case also', 'in these circumstances'. 
Cp. Dem. de Cor. § 256 ^k tCjv ivovrcov *in the existing circum- 
stances', p. 20, 1. 22. 

25. KaraYtXacTTOvs sc. by causing them to give up the attempt 
to subjugate Greece. 

26. 6V Totcri Il€porT)(ri * as far as the Persians are concerned '. 
ov8iv...TrpT]-YPidTwv 'it is not by the fault of the Persians that 


any of your affairs have been brought to confusion '. There is a 
parallel use of h in Eurip. Hippol. 324 ev aol XiKei^oixai 'it will 
be your fault if I fail'. Soph. Aj. 510 iv aoi irda' iyiniye (rwfo/iat 
' my salvation depends wholly on you '. 

27. oKov 'in what respect', 'at what p(nnL\ 

28. #o£viK€s...Al'YV'imot...Kvirpiot...KfXiK€S without definite 
article, 'mere Phoenikians, Egyptians etc' Cp. 9, 28 'Adr]uaiovs 
d^ioviKUT^povs elpai ^x^"' ''"^ K^pas ^irep 'ApKadas. 

30. TovTo TO irdGos 'this defeat', p. 51, 1. 13. So rb TpC^ixa 6, 
132. tjSt] cSv introduces a necessary consequence of what has been 
said before, as in 6, 53. 

1. ii'Bca 'home'. Cp. i, 15, 157; 4, 80; 5, 14. 54 

2. i^\ Z\ emphatic and opp. to ai) fi^v, ' but on me should fall 
the duty'. 


5. COS €K KaKwv a joy great in proportion to the distress which 
it followed, lit. 'considering that it was after misery'. Cp. Thucyd. 
7, 42, 2 T^J 5^ TpoT4p(p (TTpaTe^fjiaTL tQu 'A.O'qvaiojv, ws ck KaKUJV, pui/xr] 
Tit iyey^vrjTo. CK 'after', cp. Eurip. Hipp. 109 e/c Kwa'^ias 'after 

6. Pov\€V(rd|X€Vos goes with viroKpivc'eo-Qat ' he said that he 
would answer, after consideration, which of these two courses he 
would adopt '. The future indicative iroiTJo-ci retained in oblique 
narration dramatically, by a very common idiom. 

7. uts...i^ovkivtTo 'while he was consulting'. 

8. ciriKXtJTowrt 'those summoned to council', 9, 42. 

10. irpoTcpov, see c. 68. 

1 1 . |i€Ta<rTTi(rd|JL€vos ' having caused to withdraw '. The middle, 
because (i) the action is done by the agency of others, cf. 6, 46 
pavTrrjycladai, ib. 48 troUeadai, and (2) because the action affects the 
subject, cp. I, 8 [KGpos] fj.eTa(TT7j<rd/j.€vos tous aXXous etpero 'Kpotffov... 

1 5. (icraCrioi * involved in a share of the blame for any disaster'. 

16. PovXo^JLCvoio-i o-<j>i 7€VotT dv ' they will be glad to have'. 
d7ro8e|is 'an opportunity of shewing it', i.e. that they were 

not to blame for the disaster. 

21 — 23. re, in the former clause irepl t^$ vavfxax^V^, 
serving as a kind of date, is opposed to uOy. 


23. ovK e(3(ra iroie'eo-Qai ' advising against my allowing it be 
fought'. For iroUcorOat see note above 1. 11. 

■24. ciriTvxft) cS PovX€vo-d|xevos ' I may succeed in taking the 
right decision'. 9, 12 ti^7x^^^ ^"^ ^ovXevd/xevos. iTrirv\<a is a 

deliberative subjunctive. Cp. p. 55, 1. 16. 


25. avvePovXcvcTO 'consulted her', notice the middle contrasted 
with avve^ovXeva-as above 1. 22. So <ru}JipovX€vo}j,€va) 'to one who 
consults me'. 

27. 6'iri...irpT]'yjAa(ri 'seeing, however, that matters have come 
to this pass', ' in the circumstances M^hich have arisen'. Cp. p. 10, 

1- 15. ^ ^ 
55 2. TovTO |i€v...TooTO Sc. See p. 40, 1. 5. 

4. TO, vo€wv Xiyn. 'what he speaks of as in his mind', lit. 
' designing which he speaks '. 

o-ov TO ?p70v ' the credit of the achievement is yours'. For this 
use of ^^701* cp. 6, 29 TO 8e 8rj ^pyov rrj^ lttttov tovto eyepero. 9, 102 
oKois eavTUiv yhfjTaL to ^pyov /cat firj AaKcdai/xovicju. 

8. €K€iv<ov Twv irpi^YjJtdTwv sc. irepuovTojv ' while that empire 
which you have in Asia remains'. Stein joins irepi oIkov t6u cbv to 
ffvfi^opr], but the next sentence seems rather to point to its belonging 
to TTprjyfxaTOJv, ' there will be no great disaster as long as you and 
the power you possess in your native country survive' i.e. in Asia 
as opposed to Europe, wepl is not local, but the cKdvtav practically 
justifies the translation given. Baehr ' te qtiidem salvo salvisque tuae 
domus rebus\ The king's house and the kingdom are identical, 
Petat c'est moi. For the sense of irpiiYixaTa ' power ' or ' empire ' 
cp. 6, 13 Ta ^aciK^os Trp-fiy/xaTa. ib. 39 KaTuXafixf/ofiepos to. irp-qyiJ.aTa. 
Abicht brackets irepi oXkov tov cbv. 

10. d-ywvas 8pa|JL€0VTai -ircpl o-<|)€ft>v avTwv 'will at many times 
and in many ways find themselves in danger'. A metaphor from 
the race-course. Cp. p. 38, 1. 26. 9, 37 wore Tp^x^v irepi Tiji 
xpvxV'^- 7' 58 Tepi euvTOv bpafieiv. 

11. TJv Ti irdGT) i.e. 'if he is defeated and killed', a common 

Xo-yos 'account'. Cp. 4, i35rw»' rjv i\dxc<rTos airoXKv^iipoiv \6yos. 


9, 70 OLTOi iv ovSevl \6yc{) d-rruXovro. lb. 80 eaOijTOS 7roiKi\7]<; \6yos 
CyipcTo ovd^ eU. See p. 6, I. 13. 

14. irvpwcras, see c. 53. For his purpose see 7, 8, 2 /xAXw 
^ev^as TOJ' 'EXXtjctttoj'toj' IXav crparbv 5ia t'^s 'Evpuirr]? cttI rrji/'EXXaSa, 
iva'Adrju aiovs Tifji.ojpriaai,ui. 


16. eireTv-yx^'VC 'she succeeded in expressing exactly what he 
had in his own mind'. Cp. p. 54, 1. 24. 

18. SoKMiv Ipiol, see p. 12, 1. 14. 

19. ravT-qv p.€v corresponds to avviirefjiTre d4 in c. 104. For 
this coupling of different parts of two clauses, cp. Aesch. in Ctes. 
53 doKeiv fikv dXi^dr] \iyecv, dpxcua dL 

20. Is "E<|)€<rov that they might be sent thence to Sardis and 
then up the country to Susa; for the road began from Ephesos, see 
p. 56, 1. 9; 5, 54. v60oi born of TraXXa/cai. 


23. <j>€p6|JL€vov...ov TO, ScvTtpa sc. TO, TTpCjTa ' was the most 
influential of the eunuchs', or *the highest in rank'. Cp. 7, 211 
oiibkv ttX^ov icfiipouTo 'they succeeded no better'. For the litotes cp. 
I, 23 oidevbs devTepos. 

26. Iireav ' whenever ' (eTrei au), usually eirrjv in Attic poetry 
and prose before Xenophon. Yet iirTju is really Ionic. See 
Meisterhans Gramm. der Alf. Insclir. p. 210. In 4, 134 four MSS. 
have itriiv. 

27. dfi.<|)t...'Trd\ios. The genitive of place after djU0i is very 
rare, if not unexampled. 

28. Tt xaXtirov 'a misfortune', cvtos XP°vov 'shortly ', 'within 
a short time', opp. to kKo.'i xp^^ov, p. 82, 1. 7. 

I. TTw-ycDva, see i, 175, where Herodotos says that it happened 56 
three times. Stein and Abicht bracket the clause from oi 5^ 
U-rjdaaies to 'Ep/xdri/xos rju as an interpolation from the ist book 
written by some scholar as an explanation on the margin, and 
thence taken into the text. It had long ago been condemned 
by Valknaer; but is defended by Baehr. 

i6o NOTES ON cv 


4. <\%'x\ emphasises /xeyi(TT7) like 51] 'the very greatest ever 
known '. Cp. p. 57, 1. i. 

6. TT]V ^oT|v KaT€o-TTJ<raTo 'secured his livelihood' [Cobet would 
read KareKTifiaaTO, cp. p. 57, 1. 1—2]. For diro cp. 2, 36 Troicvfievos 
dirb To^TbJV T7]v ^6r]v. 

7. oKws...KTi]o-aiTO, the optative of repeated action, p. 26, 
1. II ; p. 48, 1. 14. 

8. el'Seos 6ira(JL|j.t'voi s ' that had reached their time of beauty', 
'full-grown boys'. Cp. i, 139 6'(rai 5^ eld^os 8k eirafxixivoL elal /cat 

9. €S SapSts T€ Kal "E<J>£0'ov, that is, for export into Upper 
Asia: the road going through those places. See p. 55, 1. 20. 

II. 'n'C(rTios...TT]S'TatrT]S 'entire confidence'. 
13. Kttl 8ti Kal. Cp. p. 21, 1. 22. 

Kal ov -ydp. The reason is given by anticipation. Cp. p. 57, 
1. 24; 9, 61, 87. 

15, Trapd Pao-iXe'a to the king's palace at Susa. 


18. a»p|Ji.a 'was engaged in starting', eirl ' to attack'. 

20. Kara 8t] ti TrpTJY|Jia, negotii nescio cujus causa, cp. the force 
of b-q in 8'f) TTOTe, ei b-q Tore, 6'ti 5^7 Trore, 6vodev bri irore and the like. 
Ti]v Xiot vejJLovTai 'which is inhabited by Chians'. See i, 160. 
Note the absence of the definite article, cp. p. 53, 1. 28. 

24 — 26. ^OL-.TTon^o-et, for the variation of moods see p. 53, 
1. 3—5. In both cases the future indicative expresses a more certaii 
result than would be conveyed by the optative. 

26. €K€£vT) 'there' ie. at Sardis. tOvS olKeras 'his family', 
including wife, children and servants. Cp. p. 3, 1. 2; p. 23, 

28. dpa 'accordingly', 'as a natural result'. There is an 
ironic consciousness of the coming tragedy conveyed by the word. 

29. iravoiKCr) 'with his entire family', cp. 9, 109 rij 8k KaKQs 
yap ^6ee iravoiKir} yev^adai. 

irepUXape 'got him into his hands'. Cp. 5, 23 ireav avrbv 

evil HERODOTOS. VITI. i6i 

I. i^'St] |jLaXicrTa...dvo<rioDTdT<av. For the emphatic Tjdrj see 57 
on p. 56, 1. 4. Thus we find it used to mark a climax, see 7, 35 
r8r) d^ TJKovaa * and I have even heard '. Aeschihes in Ctesiph. 
§ 52 Kal ravra Tjdr) ra irepl MeidLav ' and, above all, there was the 
affair of Midias '. 

4. cSoKCc's T€ 'and you expected !' 

7. wo-TC <r6 [XT] (i€ji-4/a<r0aL 'that you may have no occasion to 
undervalue', 'to find fault with', or 'think insufficient'. The word 
is bitterly ironical. So fie/xwroi 'inadequate' Thucyd. 7, 15, 1. 
i/j.€ix\f/d/xr]v 'I spoke disparagingly of, id. i, 143, 3. There is a 
similar ironical use of the verb in Xenophon Hell. 6, 2, 34 ei 5^ 
Tis /HTJ aKoXovdrjaoL, irpoeLire fiT] ix^jx^p^aOaL ttjv diKrju. 

13. ircpiTjXGe 'returned upon him', 'overtook him' as by a 
heaven-sent fate and vengeance which lay in wait for him ; 
generally with the notion of ' outwitting ', as in 3, 4 <70(pir) fiiu 
TrepLrjKde 6 ^dvrjs. Sometimes it merely expresses a final result, 
7, 88 ^s (pdlacv TrepiijXOe 7} vovao'i. 


17. SioXcYeuv 'to select', the notion of comparison between 
the persons offered for selection is conveyed by hd. Cp. p. 62, 
1. 16. 

18. •7roi€€iv...'ir€ipcJji.6vov 6}jLoia 'and to do his best to make his 
deeds tally with his professions'. Herodotos varies the construction 
of ireipaadai with infinitive and participle (see p. 53, 1. 15 compared 
with iireipdTo KarKhv 6, 5) ; this is the third variation, — in which the 
word expressing ' the attempt ' is put in the participle — ' to make 
as far as trying was concerned '. 

19. TavTTiv rrjv T]|x4p-r]v 'during this day', i.e. of the fight. 
The battle had begun at daybreak. Aeschyl. Pers. 388. 

TTJs 8^ wKTos 'but in the course of the night', p. 37, 1. 25; 
p. 40, 1. 22. 

2r. d.Trr\yov 'began to start their ships'. 

22. ws Tctxcos d\i ^KaoTos 'as quickly as they each could', 
cp. 6, 1 16 ws Tro8u)v elxov. 9, 59 ws ttoScDv ^Kacrros elxov. 

23. iropcvBifjvai Pao-iXci ' for ihe king to go over on foot '. The 
purpose or epcxcgetic infinitive depending on dia^vXa^oOaas. Cp. 
§ 265. Madv. § 148 Rem. 3. 

n. viii. II 

i62 NOTES ON cvii 

24. \dp introducing the reason by anticipation, cp. p. 56, 
1. 14. 

26. €7rl iroXXov 'for a long distance'. So eTrt of extension of 
time 9, 62 XP^^°^ ^""^ TToXXoj', p. 70, 1. 18: of space 2, 32 vi/ierat.... 
rrjv Trpbs •^cD X'^PV^ '''V^ 1>vpTtos ovk eirt ttoWov. 

27. 6KO|j,£^ovTO 'they continued their voyage'. 


§8 2. icard \(lipr]V, cp. p. 38, 1. 9. 
3. -n-cpi ^dXr^pov, see c 92 end. 

7. 8ia)|avTes 'after chasing them', or, 'though they chased 

10. 8id vi^o-wv 'from island to island', taking the island course 
instead of coasting along the shore of the mainland. In this 
technical sense the phrase is always without article, see 6, 95 Trapa re 
'iKapiov Kol dta urjaiov rbv ir\ovp eiroievvTO. 9, 3 ajxa 8k xCpaoiai 
did. vrjaojv idoKee ^aaCKi'C hrjKibaeLV k.t.X. 

11. cirl 'up to', p. 33, 1. 19. 

12. yv(ji[i.7]v CTiQeTO 'gave an opinion'. The expression seems 
derived from the idea of actually depositing a voting pebble or 
tablet. Cp. 3, 81; 7, 82. 

13. tout' dv. The dv is so placed to emphasise touto 'that 
this was the very worst thing they could do to Greece'. 

. 16. r[a-v\Ct\v jm] d-yeiv ^ not io keep quiet', as we wish him to 
do. It is a litotes for eTix^Lp^eiv tl (6, 20). Cp. 7, 11 e^ i)p,eh i](rvx<-V^ 
dyo/xep, d\X' ovk eKelvoi, dXXd kol pidXa cTTpaTevcroPTaL iirl ttju 

18. TO dirio-ttf 'back home again', cp. 4, 134. The neuter 
article to is frequently used in such adverbial phrases. Cp. rb 
ivdevTCP, rb iirl tovto. 

20. ^p-yov €xo(i.^va), cp. p. 6, 1. 17. 

22. •q'T0i...'Y6 'either, of course'. 

25. ov |JL«v€eiv. The infinitive in indirect discourse with ov. 
See 9, 58; G. p. 308. 

26. €S 6 k\Qr\ 'till he shall have come'. Without d*', see on p. 
12, 1. 16. 

27. tj8t] belongs to to ipOavrtv and introduces a necessary 



consequence, 'and so from that time forward'. Cp. p. 52, 1. 10; 
•nSr) wf p. 53, 1. 30. 

28. 'iroi€€<r6ai,..Tdv d^cSva 'to take care that the fight is for his 
(the king's) territory '. 

cl'xovTO 'they held to'. 


3. Tovs ye iroXXovs 'the main body at least' i.e. of the allies. 59 
The Athenians were ready to follow his advice and commands. 

5. n€TapaXcov...*A9-qva£ovs 'turning from them to the Athe- 
nians'. The word is used intransitively meaning 'to change plans' 
or 'feelings'. Cp. i, 65 /xeT^^aXov wde is evvoixiTjv, ib. 66 jxera^a- 
XoPTes evPoiMTjOrjaau. 7, 170 fjiera^aXovTas avrl /xiv KprjrQv yeviadai 
'l-qirvyas. But the middle in 5, 75 of physical movement [xere- 
^aXKovTb re Kal airaWdaaavTo ' they faced round and marched 

6. €KTr6(J)€v"y6TO)v sc. Twv (3ap^dp(av 'at their having escaped'. 

7. ^irl <r<J>€'«v avTcIiv PaXXojxevoi 'deliberating by themselves'. 
Cf- 3> 155 fTr' ifjiewvTov ^aXofievos. For eirl with gen. defining 
connexion with an object distinct from others cp. 9, 17 ctt' icovrCuv 
'ii^eaOai and note. 

9. TToXXoio-i neuter 'many cases'. 

10. €S dva-yKai-qv dirciXi^BevTas 'when brought to bay'. 

12. dvaXa|JiPdv€tv...KaKOTTjTa 'repair their former misfortune'. 
Cp. 5, 121 TovTo TO Tptofia dvi\a^ov. For KaK^rqs cp. 6, 67 touto 
dp^dv...T] fivpirjs KaKoTTiTos rj fxupiTjs evdaLfioviTjs. The abstract word 
used for the concrete KaKbv. 

13. €vpi]p.a -Ydp 6vpT)Ka|xev...dv&)o-ttp.€vot 'we ourselves as well 
as Hellas have had an unexpected stroke of luck in having repelled 
so vast a cloud of men'. Grammatically rifxas re koX t7]v "RWdda 
are in apposition with eijp7)/j.a 'we have been fortunate enough to 
save ourselves and Greece, a stroke of luck, by repelling'. Or we 
may regard evprjfxa evpjjKa/xev as a single compound verb governing 
an accusative 'we have fortunately managed'; cp. Aesch. in Ctes. 
i8i MiXrtctSTjs fJMXV Toi>s /3ap/3apous viK-qcras and other examples 
quoted by Madv. § 26, 6. For evp-q^ia see 7, 10; 7, 155 yuerd touto 
TO eOprifia, Thucyd. 5, 46, i eKelvois 5i dvaTuxovaiv 6ti Taxttrra 
iijptjjxa elvai 5taKip8vv€vaat. 

1 I — 2 

1 64 NOTES ON cix 

14. ve4>os, cp. Polyb. 9, 37, 10 (of the threatened Roman 
invasion) XtK'qQa.aiv aurois eTTLcnracrafxevot ttjXikovto vi<pot dwo t?}s 

16. €(}>6ovT]<rav. The (pOovos of the gods against everything 
too great or powerful is a doctrine frequently appearing in 
Ilerodotos. i, 32 to deiov irdu kov (pdovepov re /cat rapaxwSes. 3, 
40 eTTLCTaixhi^ rb Oeiov ws '4<jti, (pdovepov. 7, lO § 5 (piXec yap 6 Beds 
rd uTrep^xoz'ra Trdpra ko\o{)€Lv...ov yap e^ (ppovieiv fiiya 6 deos &X\ov 
^ iuvTov. 

18. ardcrGaXov ' presumptuous', 'blindly impious '. The w^ord 
is poetical. Cp. 7, 35 iveT^Wero Stj uiv pairi^ovTas \4yeLu ^dp^apd 
T€ Kai drdadaXa. 9, 18 /at? virapx^f-^ 'ipya drdadaXa iroiiwv. 

OS TO. l!pa...d'YdX|xaTa. The Persians burnt the Greek temples, 
says Herodotos, on the plea of revenge for the burning of the temple 
of Kybebe in Sardis in B.C. 500, see p. 77, 1. 28 f. ; 5, 102 ; 7, 8, 2. 
Aesch. Pers. 805 

ot yr\v [xoXbvTes 'EXXdd' ov dedv ^perT) 
rjdovvTo (TvXdv ov8k infnrpdvai veus' 
^(lifiol 5' d'CaroL, baifxbvcav 6^ IdpifiaTa 
TTpdppi^a (pvpdrjv i^av^arpaiTTaL ^ddptav. 

21. d'7r6jJia(rTC"y«o'€, see 7, 35. The dirb is intensive, 'violently 
scourged '. 

22. ^dp anticipatory, cp. p. 57, 1. 24. vvv jiiv 'at this time of 
the year', answered by dfia bk T(f ^apc in 1. 26. 

24. T«v otKcrewv 'our families', see p. 56, 1. 26. tis 'let each 
man'. Cp. p. 65, 1. 16; 6, 9 vvv tls vixeoiv eiJ Troirjcras (pavrjTO} rbv 
^aaiXios oIkov. dvairXacrdo-Qa) 'restore', 'rebuild', (nropov dvaKus 
€X€T« 'let him give his whole attention to sowing', cp. i, 24 
dvaKcos elxe twj' iropdijAtav. 

25. iravTcXecos direXdo-as 'as having entirely driven off the 
Persians', 'in the conviction that he has entirely driven off', i.e. 
as far as Attica was concerned, for the Persians were still in 

26. Iwlp. 33, 1. ly. 

27. diro0T]KT]v sc. xctptros 'a store of gratitude', 'with a view of 
securing for himself a claim on the gratitude of the Persians'. Cp. 
6, 41 x^P'-'^^- /^'^yciXrjv KOLTadiicrecdai. 7, 178 xaptf ddduarov KariOevTO, 
9, 60, 78; Aeschin. in Ctes. § 42 TroXXrjv x^piv KaraOlp-evoi. 


78 ijv dpa * if after air, • if by any chance', p. 53, 1. 22. Cp. 
Demosth. 3 Olynth. § 26 et ris dpa olSeu vix(av oiroia nor' ?<ttiv, 
Lycurg. § 136 el rts dpa iffriv atadrjais rots ^/cet ire pi tu)v ivOdoe 
yiyuofxiuuiv. Cp. Plato Phacdr. 255 15 iau dpa Kai iv t(^ irpoadeu... 

30. TO irtp wv Kal c-ye'vcTO 'just what in fact did acti^Uy 
happen'. J^/J.^^^ 

CHAPTER ex. m, O 

I. aupaXAc 'was using d«cei/^/,(^>f^s putting them off the 60 
scent'. Cp. 5, 107 \iywv0M/t^vk^a\\e. Willi an accusative 5, 
50 5ia,8a\Xw»' iKilvov eu. \fii6 Xiywv 5i roidde a^p^ea Ste/SctXero. 
Arist. Thcsm. 1214 dUfiaX^ (jl c3 ypavi. See Thompson on Phacdr. 

3. StScyfitvos tlvai (ro<^ds, cp. p. 68, 1. i. 

«<|>dvTi c'wv *he had been proved to be', i.e. by the result of his 
policy in regard to fighting the Persians at Salamis. 

<ro(}>6s T€ Kal ewj3ovXos. Cf. the estimate of Themistokles by 
Thucydides (i, 138) rCw re irapaxfrqp-a bC AaxiVrTjs ^ovXi/s KpariaTos 
yvw/xuv Kol Tujy p.iXKbmu}v iirl TrXuaTov tov yem^ffofxivov dpiaros 
€lKdaT7}$. o-ot|)us is especially applicable to natural ability or 

6. fivBpas dirtTTfjiirc according to Plutarch (Then), c. 16) he 
sent Arnaccs one of the king's eunuchs who had been a prisoner of 
war. irXoiov 'a transport', opp. to a I'ays fiaKpd or rpi-rfpijs. 

•J. 1% irciCT-av pdcravov ci'iriKV«op.€Voi<ri 'no matter to what 
torture they might be put'. Spies and traitors when caught were 
put to the rack. See Demosth. de Cor. § [33. 

9. avTis, see p. 39, 1. 17. 

16. ?<rx< 'prevented', *kcj)t back'. Cp. 9, 12 viruof^dfuvoi 
cx^^^^ ■'^o" ^irapTnjTrjv firj i^Uvai. 

18. KOjiCjto 'proceed on your journey', p. 11, 1. 19; p. 57, 
1. :7. 


20. <r<^t dir(8o£( 'they had decided against pursuing'. The 
negative dx^So^e is followed by /at/, as woids containing negative 
ideas often are, though this /iij cannot be translated in English, 
Goodw. § 283, 6. Cp. I, 152 dirioo^i atfn fit) Tifiupiciv'luai. 

1 66 NOTES ON cxi 

2 2. Xvorovras, the accusative after iho^k <r0i is caused by the 
influence of the infinitive. See 6, 22 iodKee SL..^ov\€vo/jiei' 
dTTOLKlrjv eKTrXietv jn-qde fxevovras Mr)5oL<XL dovXevecv. p. 5.3» ^- '^O. 

23, 24. e^eXetr cp. 9, 86. vr^crttoTewv 'of all Island Greece', 
in this sense always without the definite article. Cp. p. 23, 1. 20. 
So vTJcroi. 5, 31- 

24. alTr,6evT€S...XP'nH'Ci,Ta. These demands upon the islanders 
for money Themistokles no cioubt regarded as founded on natural 
equity. The combined Greek squadron had been and were fighting 
for their deliverance, and it was but fair, as they could not give 
help, that they should contribute in money. It may perhaps be 
regarded as the beginning of what became the organized exaction of 
<p6pos instituted in B.C. 476 in virtue of the confederacy of Delos, 
and which (under this name or, in the new league, under that of 
(jvvTa^ts) was continually increased by special exactions of the 
dpyvpoXdyoc vrjes, whenever Athens was in need, or could find a 
decent pretext for doing so, down to the time of the battle of 
Chaeroneia (B.C. 338). 

61 1. IleiOw T€ Kal * Ava"yKa^v. In Plutarch (Them. 21) they are 
given as Ilet^cb and Bfa, and the two gods in the reply of the 
Andrians as Ile^'ia koL 'Airopia. See the same chapter for the 
discontent and hostility roused by Themistokles in these pro- 

4. Kara, X670V d'pa 'naturally, as it appeared from what he 
said ', p. 4, 1. 27. 

4 — 5. T]o-av...TJKOi€V for the change of mood, see 6, 3; 5, 97. 

5. 6cwv \pii\(rT£v "qKOiev €u 'and were well off for beneficent 
gods'. Cp. 5, 62 dvdpes xp7?;udTWf ed yJKOPres. i, 31 rod ^lov ed 
TjKovTi. I, 149 X^PV^ Coplojv TJKOvaav ovK ofxolcos. 7, 157 ^^ ^^ 
dvvdfjiLos 79/cets /Ae7dX'?7s. The genitive is one of respect, ^/ceiv is 
constructed like ^xetj'. Madv. § 49 b R. 2. Schweigh. sees an 
ironical allusion to the ruined state of Athens at the time. 

€irel...€lvat 'for the Andrians were' said they. The infinitive 
is often preserved in the subordinate clauses of the oratio obliqua, 
Cp. p. 49, 1. 22; 6, 137 Tainrjv us Ideiv T»ds' A6r]i^alovs i^epyacr/xivTjv 
ed. G. § 260 note 2. 

6. •yecDircivas [ir^vo/JiaL, Trhrjs] 'poorly off for land', cp. 2, 6 
ocroi fikv yewirdvai elai dvdpd)Tru)v...ot bk ttoWtjv 'ixov(yi-- Andros, in 
spite of this complaint, was and is a ierLile island, es to. (le'-y'-o'Ta 

cxii HERODOTOS. VIII. 167 

avTJKOVTttS takes the place of a superlative adverb, 'to the higliest 
degree', p. 8', 1. •21, cp. 7, 13 (ppeuwv yap es rd cfxojvroZ Trpwra ov 

7. dxpil<rTOvs 'unkindly', cp. 9, iii X670S uxp^ros. 

8. ' A\Li]\a.vir\v 'inability', 'helplessness', a rare word, cp. an 
inscription apud Aesch. in Ctes. § 184 Trpwroi dvcrjiievewi' evpov 
djj.-qxo-vlyjv (of starving out Eion). Alkaios Fr. 92 dpyaXiov ireviav, 
KaKov dffX^TOf, d jxeya dd/J.vr]<jt Adov dfxaxavia ai>u ddeXcpeg.. 

9. eir-qPoXous ' being in possession of these gods'. 9, 94 
TOVTOju iiTTj^oXos y€v6/J.€vos, cp. Soph. Ant. 492 Xevaiocrav ov5' hrq- 
pdkov (ppevQu. It is a poetical word, and a metrical variation of 
€Trl^o\os. For its active use, cp. Aeschyl. Ag. 528 Tepirvrjs dp -qre 
T7]<x5' ^irr}^o\oL vQcrov. 

10. ov8€KOT€...Kp€or(ra). That is, the Athenian power can 
never do impossibilities, — it cannot make them pay what they have 
not got. The present ctvat of what is existing at the time and will 
exist: 'Neither now nor ever can the Athenian power overcome 
their inability'. 7, 172 ovdai^d yap ddvvaairjs dvdyKTj Kpecrcruu e0u 
(quoted by Stein). 

11. 81) sums up and dismisses the subject. Cp. 6, 52 r-iyj/ /xey 
or} llvdiT]!/ radrd atpL dveXeiv k.t.\. 


16. Toio-i Kal 'in the same words as'. So tu^vto Kal p. 23, 1. 16. 
TttJra Kal rd 6, 102. 

19. €|aipT](rei see p. 60, 1. 23. In this connexion the word 
probably refers to the notion of removing the inhabitants from a 
conquered place. Cp. 5, 16 tous ev t-q Xipivg KaroLKyj/jL^vovs e^atpieiv. 
See on 6, 33. Xt'Ywv <Sv...<rw€XeY6 'by the use then of these threats 
he succeeded in collecting great sums'. The imperfect of continued 

22. T«v (rTpaTT]"ya)v i.e. of the ten Athenian Strategi, who 
managed foreign affairs. Themistokles would, therefore, they 
thought, be able to wield the whole power of Athens against them. 
aiv-Q 'reputation', 'respect', a poetical word. Cp. 3, 74; 9, 16. 

23. el 84 81) 'but whether as a fact'. VT]<riwT^<«)v, see on p. 60, 

37. Tov KaKOv v-irepPoXi] 'a postponement of misiortune'. That 

1 68 NOTES ON cxii 

is, apparently, they were punished all the same for medizing by being 
forced to submit to the presence of the fleet and the violence and 
extortion of the other commanders besides Themistokles. 

28. 8i^(|)u"yov TO (rTpdT€V(j,a 'avoided a visit from the fleet'. 

29. ji^v vvv 'so then', introducing the conclusion of a series of 
facts. Cp. 6, 22, 45, 47 etc. 

6|"Av8pov 6pfJi€0|X6VOS 'starting from Andres', 'using Andros as 
his base of operations'. Cp. 5, 94 eiroK^jJieov yap ^k re 'AxtXAi^tou 
ttSXlos 6piJt.e6fjt.ei/OL kuI ^Lyelov xpo^ov eirl avx'^oi' MyTiXTjualoi re koI 

30. Trapd VT^criwrewv, see p. 60, 1. 24. XdOpr] 'without the 
knowledge of the other nine strategi'. vSee the violent attack upor. 
Themistokles by the poet Timokreon of Rhodes quoted in Plutarch, 
Them. 2, who calls him apyvpiwv vir6Tr\e(as, and asserts that he got 
large sums from individuals accused of medizing. It is certain that 
by some means Themistokles became possessed of great wealtli. 
Plut. Them. 25; Aelian V. H. 10, 17. Grote, vol. V. p. 140. 


62 1. ot 8' d)Ji<{>l H^p^ea 'Xerxes and his army'. Thucydides 
(8, 65, i) uses d/A0t in a similar phrase in one of the two places 
in which he has this preposition, ot dfx(f)l r6v Ueia-avdpov. Else- 
where Thucydides uses irepL : and though d/x(pi is fairly frequent 
in Herodotos, it soon disappeared in Attic prose. See on 6, 62. 

3. Tijv avTi]v 680V ' by the same route by which they had come'. 
See c. 50. The army seems to have come from Plataea over 

4. dvc«>pCT)v Tov ^T€Os ' too late in the year', 'an unseasonable 
time'. It seems to be an a7r. Xe7. Aristophanes (Ach. 23) has 
dwplav sero. For the construction cp. dwpt tG}v vvktQiv [Aelian ap. 
Suid. s. v. dwpta]. p. 82, 1. 7 e/cas XP'^'^'O". 

6. ircipdo-Oai, p. 53, 1, 17. 

7. dTriKaro 'when they had arrived'. App. D. II. (a). 

9. Tovs dOavdrovs, cp. 7, 211 oi 8k Uipcrai iKde^dfieuoi iinfj'icrav, 
Toiis dOapdrovs iKoXee j3aai\e{>s. The explanation of their name is 
given in 7, 83. They were always exactly 10,000. 

TO. XeC\)/€orGai Pao-iXeos 'said that he would not be separated 

cxiv HERODOTOS. VIII. 169 

from the king'. Cp. 9, 66 XeLTrojxivov Mapdouiov dirb /SatnX^os. 9, 19 
Xeiveadai ttjs e^68ov AaKedaifxovicjv. 

II. Tovs 0<«)pi]KO<J>6povs the Persians, — who wore irepl rb a-Q/xa 
KidCJvas xeipt5a>roi>s irotK^Xoys XcttiSos aidrjpiTjs (7, 61), 'sleeved tunics 
of various colours covered with iron scales'. In 9, 22 Masistius 
wears a 6wpT)^ xpt)o-eos XeTrtSwros under a purple tunic. 

12 — 13. TT]v I'ttttov thv x.'-^^'HV. The 1000 cavalry picked from 
the whole army who headed the king's guard on the march {7, 40). 
For 7) tiriros see 9, 14. 

Mt^Sovs (7, 62). 2dKas (7, 64; 9, 31, 71}. BaKTpiovs (7, 64; 
9, 31). ^Iv8oi<s (7, 65 ; 9, 31 ; 3, 94). 

15. KttT* oXi-yous 'in small groups', 'taking a few from each', 
opp. to ^dvea oXa. 

el'Sca see p. 56, 1. 8. 

16. SioXc'-ywv, p. 57, 1. 17. T€oi<ri (Ti<rl)€iroiT]}i.€vov, dat. of 
agent, see p. 51, 1. 16. 

17. tv 8^ irXcio-Tov ^0vos ITcpcras aipe'ero 'but of a single race 
the Persians were those from whom he selected the largest number'. 
Lit. 'but one race he chose in greatest number, — Persians', '^v and 
Tr\et<jTov are placed together to bring out the contrast more clearly : 
grammatically Wvos and liepca^ are in apposition [Abicht reads ev 
5^]. The imperfect (aipeero) is used of a process that continued for 
some time. 

18. <rTpeTrTo<}>6povs . . . xj/€Xio<})6povs, see 7, 88; 9, 25. The 
Persians commonly wore such chains and bracelets. Plutarch 
Them. 18 describes the corpses on the shore after the battle of 
Salamis as irepiKd/xevoL rpiXia XP^^^ '^"■^ (TTpeirTois. Cp. also 
Xenophon Oeconom. 4, 23. 

eirl 8i 'and next to them', p. 34, 1. 25. 

20. ^ufit) S^ ^<r{rov€S. For this view of the superiority of the 
Persians as soldiers, see 9, 68. 


24. 4Xt]Xv0€€ Ionic pluperf., 5, 98. 

26. TO 8i86fi€vov 'whatever was offered'. For iK instead ot 
vwb (common in Herodotos), see 5, 21 ^-^rjais fx-eydXij ix twv 
Wepaiiav iylvtTo. 6, 22 t6 e/c tCjv arpaTTjyuif twu (r^ere/awj' 

lyo NOTES ON cxiv 

63 I- KttT^XaPc 'overtook', p. 4, 1. 5. 

4. 'HpaKXeiSai ot diro STrdpTT]s 'the Heraclids of Sparta', 
that is, the kings, see c. 131. For a-wh see p. 49, 1. 25. 

7. Karao-x^wv ' after pausing ', ' having remained silent ', generally 
eTTtcrxwj' in this sense, cp. p. 33, 1. 26; p. 62, 1. i. But cp. 5, 19 
ovoafxQs ^TL KaTix^<-v ol6% re rjv *he could by no means restrain 
himself any longer' (cucrTe dk §apiws (p4poou elire Trpos ^Ajj.uvrr)v 
Tdde). In the passive, see p. 64, 1. 21. 

8. SeiKvvs es tovtov 'pointing to him'. detKvvadai, 'to stretch 
out the hand', Horn. II. 9, 196 rcb Kal beLKvvixevos irpo(X^(f>r] irbdas (jokvs 
'AxtXXeiJs. Herm. 367 dei^aro 5' els Kpovicoua. But Herodotos uses 
the active in this sense, cp. 4, 150 ideiKvve is rbv Bdrroj'. 5, 49 
dtiKvvs es T-qv 777s irepiodou. 9, 82 deuivvvra is eKariprju tov SeiTrvov 
Tr^v irapaaKevqv. 

9. Map86vtos...8£Kas Swo-ei. For the fulfilment of this in the 
contrary sense to that intended by Xerxes, see 9, 64. 


1 1 . 8e|d|JL€Vos TO pT]6ev ' having accepted the words ' (as of good 
omen), cp. 9, 91 BiKOfxai rbv oluvbv rbv 'H-yrfcriaTpaTov. See p. 62, 

16. ws clirciv 'so to speak', modifying the preceding statement. 
G. § 268. 

17. oKOv...'YivoCaTO 'w^herever they come from time to time' 
optative of indefinite frequency, cp. p. 26, 1. 12. So the indefinite 
eupoiev in 1. 19. 

19 — 21. ot S^.-KaT-qo-Giov. For 5^ in apodosis cp. 9, 70 ^ws 
fiku yap dirrjffav ol ' AdrjvatOLf oi 5' ■qjxvvovTO. 

19 — 24. ot 8^...8i€<|)9€ip6. See Grote iv. p. 489. Aeschylos 
gives a dreadful picture of this retreat, which Grote criticises as 
exaggerated. Thirl wall (2, p. 316) seems to accept it as authentic- 
ally supplementing the narrative of Herodotos. The passage of 
Aeschylos (Persae 485 — 5 1 3) seems to contain only the same state- 
ment, expressed in somewhat heightened language, as that of 
Herodotos, except in the particular of the disaster on the Strymon 

vvktX 6' iv TaijTTj debs 
Xei/Aw;/' dojpov upae, Tr-qyvvatv d^ irdv 


phdpou dyvou "STpvfidvoi' deoi>s 84 ris 
rb irplv vop.l^oov ovda/xov, tot' tjux^to 
Xtratci 7ara;' ovpavbv re irpoaKwCov. 
iirel 8i iroWa deoKXvTQv iiraOffUTO 
CTpaTds, irepq. KpvcrTaWoirijya 5ta, irbpov 
Xcicrris p.kv ■qp.uiv Tvplv aKedaadijvat deou 
cLKTivas (bpfxi^dT) aeaua/ji^vos Kvpei. 
(pXkyiav yap avyais Xafiirpbi ijXiov kijkXos 
fxlaov irbpov 8l7}K€ depp.aiv03v (pXoyi. 
'ttctttop 5' ctt' dW'q\oL<rtv ' rjvTvxeL de tol 
OCTLS To-XK^Ta TTvevfi dir4ppT]^€v ^iov. 

To this Grote objects the impossibility of a sudden frost of one 
night in November freezing the Strymon sufficiently to induce the 
army to venture on the ice, and for a certain part to get over ; and 
further observes that the army was not in so great a hurry, as no 
enemy was on their rear. Rawlinson agrees with Grote, and refers 
to the fact that a bridge of boats had been thrown across the 
Strymon for the downward march, which probably was used again 
(7, 24, 114). Some editors of Aeschylos doubt the genuineness of 
the passage altogether. Many rumours doubtless reached Athens 
of the king's disastrous retreat ; and some accident may have 
occurred on the Strymon of which it suited the purpose of 
Aeschylos to make the most. But it is evident that nothing certain 
was known at the time ; for late in the next year, after the battle 
of Mykale, the Greeks had not heard of the destruction of the 
TIellespontiue bridge, see 9, 106. See also on p. 65, 1. i. 

26. tva...'yivoiTO 'wherever he was', cp. supr. 1. 17. 

|jLe\c8aCv€iv curare, a poetical word, cp. Theogn. 11 29 ipiiriofxai 
irevi-qs 6vp,o(pdbpov ov ixeKebalpwv. Theocr. 10, 52 cvktos 6 tCj 
^arpaxt^t TraiSes, /3^os' ov fieXeSaluei Tbv to me'iv eyx^vvra, but 
apparently used in this medical sense in Ionic, as Hippocr. 598, 26 
is quoted. Cauer TzV. Ion. p. 319. Roberts Epigr. p. 78. 

28. t6 Ipov dp|ia see 7, 40; drawn by the Nisaean mares, 
9, 20. 

2. dir^aPc 'got back', i, 61 inroXa^^v T-qv Tvpavvlda. 64. 

3. v€p.opLevas 'as they were grazing', only used again by Herod. 
in a metaphorical sense 5, loi rd Trepi^crxara ue/xofxivou toO ttu/joj. 

4. Twv «xvw Qpr\tKO)v 'the up-land Thracians', i.e. those living 
inland. Cp. i, 1^0 Tiji du(>}"A\vos'Aair)s. 

172 NOTES ON cxvi 


7. v'nr€p(})v€S 'of unnatural cruelty'. It is used in a good sense 
in 9, 78 kpr^ov ^pyaarai tol {/wep^v^s fx^yaOos re Kal kclWos. It is a 
neutral word meaning anything beyond the ordinary course of nature, 
whether for good or bad, and came to be used colloquially somewhat 
as are 'awful', 'tremendous' in modern conversational English. 
See Arist. Eq. 141 uirep^vd t^x^W ^X^^' Nub. 76 fiiav edpov 
arpaTTOv dai/Jiovicas vTrepcpva. Pax 229 vwepcpvrjs rb fxeyedos. (Plut. 
734). Plut. 750 virepcpvTJs 6&os. Thesm. 830 ttoXX' au yvvdiKes... 
fjLefx.rl/aifJLed^ av Tolaiv avdpdcnv otKaius' ^v 5' VTrep^vicrraTOV. 

8 — 10. ovT€..,Te cp. 6, 16 oiJT€ TrpoaKTjKOOTes (is elxe rrepl rQ)v 
Xlcjv, l86vT€S T€ GTpaTov kt\. ; ib. 30 ; ib. 92 AlyLvrirai 5e oiire awe- 
yLVihdKOVTO, rjcrav re avdadearepoL. 

10. dTT-q-yopeve jjii] crrparivio-Qai 'forbade them to go on an ex- 
pedition'. G. p. 308, § 6, cp. p. 60, 1. 20. 

II — 12. 01 8^ dXo"YTjcravT€S TJ...9vp,6s fc"yey€To 'but they because 
they despised his command or because they had a longing to see the 
war'. For two coordinate clauses one with a participle and the 
other with the indicative, see p. 27, 1. 17 elVe 5?) 6\piu nva ldi^v...eLTe 
Kal ii'dvfiLov lyhero. 9, 5 eiVe drj dedey/mivos xp'>7;Uara irapa Map- 
doviov, etre Kal ravrd ol rjpdave. 1, 19 etre drj avfi^ovXeiaavros rev, 
eifre Kal avT<$ ^5o^e. For Qv\i.cs 'wish', 'longing' cp. 1,1 (hvieaOai 
T(jjv (jyopriwu rwu ccpi rjv Oufxbs fxaXLCTTa. 


18. eirl Tov iropov That is, to the channel between Sestos and 

19. TTJo-i vT]vo-l ' on board the ships'. Herodotos seems certainly 
to mean the fleet which had been despatched immediately after the 
battle of Salamis, p. 57, 1. 21—22. And, if that is so, there is no 
ground for the remark of Trogus (Justin. 2, 13, lo) udi cum solu- 
turn pontem hibernis tempestatibus offendisset, piscatoria scapha 

20. ei/Terap-e'vas lit. 'tightly stretched'. The ships were lashed 
together with ropes to form a bridge. See 7, 34. 

i\. KarcxoK-evoi 'halting there', and so having leisure to eat, 
as they had not when eireLybiievoi (1. 18). Herodotos does not seem 

cxviii HERODOTOS. VIII. 173 

to use this passive or middle in this sense elsewhere; but cp. the use 
of Karaax'^^ ^^ 5> 19 ^"^ ?• 63, 1. 7. [Gebhardt wished to change 
it to Karaydfiepoi, and i\dyxo,vou to eXdfi^avov}. 

22. (Ttria T€...€\dYX*vov 'they began both to get more food 
than during their march'. For Xa7xai'et;' 'to obtain' with accusa- 
tive cp. I, 167 iXaxof avTcov TroXAy TrXeiovs. 7, 5.3 deoiai, ot Hepaida 
yrju 'Ke\6yxo-<Tt. 7, 144 ^fieWov Xd^eadai dpxv^^f ^Kao-ros 5^/ca 

ovScva Te-.-cjiTrnrXaiASvot 'and because they gorged themselves 
unrestrainedly', 'without any care or order'. The phrase oidiva 
Kdafjiov is always applied by Herodotos to military matters (see 9, 
59, 65, 69), here it seems to be used in opposition to the idea of 
an orderly distribution of rations. 

23. Kal vSttTtt p.6Tapd\\ovT€S. The Kal connects this closely 
with i/jLirinirXdfMevoi, the two main clauses being connected by re... re, 
'joined to the change in the water they had to drink'. One would 
have thought that the mere change of water (independently of any 
idea of excess) must have been for the better. 


I. aXXos 6'86 Xc-yos. The existence of such a widely different 65 
account among the Greeks, from whom Herodotos would get his in- 
formation, may explain the story in Acschylos quoted above in the 
notes to c. 115. And the fact that it professed to give intelligence 
of what happened on the Strymon points to some difficulty or delay 
which had taken place there. 

6. hrX ve6s...€'7n,pds 'having gone on board'. At p. 66, 1. 18 
we have iTn^TJvai iirl tt]v via because there the act of embarkation 
is the principal one, here the fact of his being on board as opposed 
to being on foot. 

8. Kv\Lari'r\v here 'tempestuous', 'raising billows'. In 2, iii 
applied to a river. Kal Sr\ ' and so'. For ^dp see p. 76, 1. 18. 

9. x,ci|xaCvecr0ai the infinitive in a subordinate clause of oratio 
obliqua, see p. 61, 1. 6. The word is here used impersonally, 'the 
storm grew worse and worse'. Cp. 7, 191 rjfiepa'i ydp d-q ix^lfxa^e 
Tpeis. But x^i-fxabeadai is translated by others 'it (t-^p vea) was 
tossed by the storm'. It is a very rare word. Pindar (P. 9, 57) 
uses it metaphorically (pd^c^ Kex^fJi-auTai <pphes. 

174 NOTES ON cxviii 

w(rT€ explains yeixoicri^ ' the ship beginning to fill, as might be 
expected with so many of the Persians accompanying Xerxes on 
deck'. For aj(rTe = a)s or dVe cp. 9, 37 6 5^ ei' roi^ry t^j KaKifi ex^/uej/os 
ware rpix'^v ""ept ri7S ^i;x')7S...ib. 70 ttoXX^J TrXiov elxov twv AaKedaL- 
fiovLcap ware ovk eincTaiJjev wv TeLXOfiax^eiv . 

II. €V0avTa 'thereupon', 'in these circumstances', Cp. 9, 26 
ivdavra ev ty dtard^t eyeuero Xbyiov iroXkos (bdLafJi,bs kt\. 

16. Tis 8ia86|dT(o...KT]86[i€vos 'let each of you show his care for 
the king' ; tis is here equivalent to e/cacrros, but more indefinite. 
diade^oLTOj is constructed like (pav-qTOj. [For such construction by 
analogy cp. Treidecrdai with gen. 6, 12.] For tls with imperative see 
also p. 59, 1. 24. 9, 98 /xvrjadTJvai riva xpV '^'t^- 6, 9 "Avdpes "Jooves, 
vvv TLS vfjikwu eS TTOiT^cras ^avrjTio top ^aaiXios oIkov. 

17. €V vfJiiv 'on you depends my safety', cp. 6, 109 ^v col vvv, 
KaWl/JLax^, i<rrl t} KaradovXaJcrac 'Adrjuas r] ktX. See also, p. 53, 
1. 26. 

18. irpocrKweoVTas ' salaaming'. See 7, 136; Plutarch Them. 
27 T^fuv iroXXojv vdfiojv Kai koXlov 6vT(av KoXKiaTO^ ovtos iart rifidv 
^aaiXea kuI irpocrKwelV ihs eUbva deov rod iravra aui^ovros. 

20. ovTw 8t] 'when this had been done', p. 12, 1. 25. 

21. COS 8i iKpTJvai see 1. 9 ; p. 61, 1. 6. 

23. <rT€<|)avi3 this feminine is rare for a 'crown'. In Aristoph. 
Eq, 968, where it is used, the words profess to be part of an oracle. 
The compounds a-T€^avr](p6pos (5, 102) which are used in Attic 
(Andoc. 29, II etc.), <XTe<pav^T\oKeiv (Arist. Thesm. 448) and others 
refer rather to ' garlands '. 


ovT€ aXXc«)s.,.ira9os 'neither in other respects nor in regard to 
what is said to have happened to the Persians*. So 4, 147 dXXcas 
' for other reasons '. 

27. ii "ydp 81] 'for if really', 'for if as is alleged'. 

I. ^K for {fird, frequent in Herodotos. See p. 62, 1. 26. 

Iv n.vp£T)o-t...dvTi|oov 'out often thousand opinions I don't think 
one would be for denying ' ; or, as we should say, ' not one man in 
ten thousand would deny'. dvT^^oos used in Ionic {or ivavrlos. Cp. 
6, 7 etc. 

a, (IT] ovK...TOi6v8c 'that the king would have acted as follows'. 


tor fxij ov after a verb expressing denial, especially when it is itself 
negatived, see p. 28, 1. 20; 6, 88 ovk^tl dvejSdXXopTo fxr) ov rb Trdv 
liriXO-^QO^o-adaL. G. § 283, 6 — 7. 

3. Tovs CK Tov KaTao-TpcojxaTos 'those on the deck', cp. p. 26, 
1. 21. 

4. Is ko^Xt^v v^a 'below deck', i.e. to the part of the ship 
occupied by the rowers. Observe the absence of the article, /cotXy; 
yaOs being a technical term. Cp. Xen. Hell, i, 6, 19 i^ airaawv 
tSv veCov Toi)S dpiarov^ ip^ras e/cX^^as Kal tovs eiri^aras els ko'lKtjv vavv 
/xera^i^daas. Thus vavs dKpa—'z. prow'. 

5. covTwv 4>oiviKa)V 'being mere Phoenikians', cp. p. 53, 1. 28. 
But in this case, as Rawlinson points out, skilled Phoenikian rowers 
would have been more valuable to the king than Persian nobles. 

6. 6k«s ovk av...t|6'Pa\€ the construction is varied, as so often 
in Herodotos, from the infinitive in apposition with KaTa^L^daai,, 
to the subordinate phrase S/cws ovk dv i^e^aXe dependent on /xlav 
yvuifjLTjv ovk ^x^ dvTl^oov. In this phrase 6Kws = cirt, ause confined to 
poetry in Attic. Cp. i, 37 rj \6yi^ dvairelaov okus jjjoi dfieivu) earl 
Tavra ovtu iroLeoixeva. 3, 115 oi) dvvafxai aKovcrai tovto fxcXeruiv 
8ko)s ddXaacrd iari rd iTr^Keiva 'EvpwTrrjs. Goodw. Af. and T. § 78. 

8. 68y...<rTpaTa) 'using a road along with the rest of the army' 
means 'by the same mode of conveyance as the rest of the army', 
i.e. marching on land to Sestos and thence by ship to Abydos. 


10. <j>a£v€Tai. . ." ApSi^pa 'for it is clear that he got as far as 
Abdera' i.e. and therefore could not have embarked at Eion which 
is much west of Abdera. ^€iv£T]v...<n)v6ep.€vos cp. 7, 116 ^eivirju re 
6 II4p<j7]s TolcTL 'AKavdioiCL vpodire Kal eowprjaard (r06as ladriTi 

12. uKivaKp a short straight sword, see 9, 80. 

13. Tn^pT] \pva-OTrd<rr(^ 'a tiara sprinkled with gold' {irdaao}). 
The tiara was a stiff cap or fez. That which Xerxes gave was ap- 
parently what Plutarch calls a Klrapis (Themist. 29) which was 
confined to the kings, — the tiara recta, stiffened and variously 
ornamented. See Rich, s.vv. Cidaris and tiara. 

17. irpos ToiJ 'EXXT^cnrovTow 'in the direction of the Helles- 
pont ', p. 44, 1. 18 ; p. 45, 1. 23. 

176 NOTES ON cxx 

i8. o0€v 8t]...<J)a(rt 'the place from which the framers of this 
story pretend that he went on board the ship'. St} emphasises 
Herodotos' incredulity, tirl n^v v4a ^the ship', i.e. the ship about 
which this story is told. For the case see on p. 65, 1. 6. 


20. 01 8€"Ea\t)vcs resuming the narrative from c. 112. 

21. llcXctv see p. 60, 1. 23. 

22. avTwv i.e. of the Karystians. For the jDlural pronoun 
following the name of a country cp. 5, 63 a-weKaX^ovro e/c 6e(r- 
craKlrj^ iinKovpirjv * eireirolrjTo ydp a(f>(. (rvfifiaxi-V irpos airovs. For 
the reverse, TaTUT-qv after the mention of the people of a country, 
p. 69, 1. 14; Soph. O. C. 942. 

24. €|€tXov 'they set apart'. Cp. 9, Sr deKari/jv i^eXdvres ti^ iu 
AeXcpoTat deep. ib. HavaavLrj de iravra Se/ca e^aipidt] re Koi idoOr), 

25. 'I(r9[ji,6v...2ovvtov on the former was a temple of Poseidon, 
on the latter of Athene. Stein quotes two instances of the dedica- 
tion of a captured ship from Thucydides 2, 84; 92. 

26. AiavTi see c. 6^ avrov 'on the spot', i.e. near the scene 
of the battle. 

27 — 8. 8i€8doravTo...d'ir€Tr€}x\|/av notice the force of the middle 
and active voices, 'they divided among themselves', 'they de- 
spatched '. 
67 I- civSpids sc. of Apollo, see Pausan. 10, 14, 3 dv^deaav 5^ Kal 
^AirdWcoua dirb ^pycov tQv iv rats vavalv iirt re ' AprefiLaiq} Kal iv 
llakap2vi. There seems also to have been at Olympia a statue of 
Salamis better answering to this description. See Pausan. 5, 11, 5 
SaXa/its ^Xovaa iv ry X'^'-P'- ''"^^ t'TTt rats vavcrlu aKpais iroLOVfievov 


3. *AX4|av8pos see c. 34. For his wealth derived from gold 
mines, see 5, 17. 


5. KOivfi 'jointly', i.e. in the name of all the Greeks, not of any 
particular State. 

8. rd dpicrrijia i.e. an offering on account of their having 
obtained the prize of valour, see c. 93. Plutarch Themist. 17. 

9. do-T^pas. These golden stars are presumed to represent the 
twin Dioskuri, the special patrons of sailors. Horace Od. i, 12, 27 

cxxiir HERODOTOS. VITI. 177 

quorum simul alba naziiis 
Stella refulsit, 
defluit ^axis agitatus hiimor^ 
concidunt venti fugiuntquc nubes, 
ct 7ninax, qttod sic voliicrc, ponio 
unda recumbit. 

They were believed to have appeared on board the Lakedae- 
monian ships at Aegospotami (Plutarch Lys. 12) and the Spartans 
accordingly dedicated some stars at Delphi after the battle (Cic. de 
div. I, 75). Some difficulty has been felt at the number of the stars 
(rptis 1. 10) : but the third is generally supposed to have represented 
'A7r6X\cj;' AeXcpivLOS. 

10. 4itI TTJs ■Yt«>vtT]S * in the corner of the Pronaus'. Kroisos 
sent two great bowls, one gold and the other silver, which were 
originally placed on the right and left of the entrance to the vaos, 
but after the fire the gold bowl was removed to the treasury, and 
the silver one placed iirl rod Trpovr]tov ttJs yojvirjs (i, 51). 


16. €Trl Tov Iloo-giSecovos tu Pco^jiw 'on the altar of Poseidon', 
that is, outside the temple of Poseidon, which stood near the stadium 
and the diolcos. The voting tickets were placed on the altar and 
taken from it by the voters, in order to add solemnity to their 
decision and to lay special obligation on them to vote honestly. 
Thus the ^ovXr} at Athens, when electing a commissioner to decide a 
case of special importance as to the custody of the shrine at Delos, 
did so dirb rod /SwyCcoO (pipovaa tt]v \pri<pov, Demosth. de Cor. § 134. 

17. KpCvovres 'intending to decide upon', 'with a view to 
decide upon'. The present participle is used of a purpose in the 
immediate future. 

18. evQavra 'thereupon', 'on this occasion', p. 28, 1. 12. 
€t£06to ti]v 4''n<j>ov 'gave his vote', 'placed it in the urn'. In 

legal language the juror was said <pipeiv \J/7}(pov, but we have also 
Lysias 24 § 23 yUT^Sa/xtDs ravTrj deade Tr]v xj/rj^ov. Ttdevai ^rjcpovi is 
used of calculating with pebbles Demosth. de Cor. § 229. 

20. ot TToXXol 'the majority'. Plutarch (Malig. Her. 40) says 
that the vote for the second place was unanimous. In the life of 
Tlitmistoklcs c. 17 he repeats the statement, and also affirms that 

H. Vill. 12 

178 NOTES ON cxxiii 

they actually gave the first prize to Themistokles {Kaiirep aKovres 
birb (pddvov). See on p. 49, 1. 8. 

21. e^JLOVvovvTO ' were each in a minority of one '. 


23. TavTtt KpCveiv 'to decide this point', i.e. who was to have 
the first prize. 

25. ctKpiTwv 'without having come to a decision', Plut. Malig. 
40 tAos t7]s Kpiaeivs ov Xa^ovarjs. This active or rather middle 
sense of aKpiros does not appear to occur elsewhere. Stein quotes 
the active use of dirlaTovs 'distrustful of in 9, 98. We may also cp. 
Anthol. 7, 439, 1 a/cpire Motpa 'Oh fate that dost make no distinc- 
tions!' and a/cpiTos rdX/xr] (Polyb. 3, 19, 9) ' undistinguishing bold- 
ness' i.e. rashness. 
68 !• iroWov 'EXXT]va)v o-o(|)c3TaTOS 'by far the cleverest man in 
Greece'. Obs. the absence of the article, in speaking of the Greek 
world generally. The cleverness or natural ability [crocpia) of 
Themistokles is what especially strikes Thucydides, though he 
does not use that word, but ohela ^Oveats, see i, 138. 

2. viKwv 'though successful in the ballot', 'though according to 
the votes he ought to have had the prize'. 

6. |Ji6v vt»v a frequent collocation in Herodotos. The fx^y 
belongs to dpiaTrfCa answered by aocpi-rjs 8^, the vvu to the whole 
sentence 'then' or 'so then'. 

dpio-TTJia Stein supposes the loss of some word such as dvdpayaOlrii 
to answer to (rotpirjs, quoting Plutarch Them. 1 7 AaKedaifxSvioi 5' ets 
TTjv 'LirdpTr}v avrbv Karayayovres Ei)pi;/3td577 /m^u dvdpeias, iKeivip 8^ 
(Tobias dpiareiov ^Soaav. But Herodotos, probably using dpiaTrji'a in 
the technical sense of ' first prize for valour ', did not think any 
further definition necessary, p. 61, 1. 13; p. 6, 1. 23. 

9. alveo-avTcs sc. the Lakedaemonians, and as the 300 youths 
represent the Lakedaemonians the construction is carried on, 
without change, p. 23, 1. 2 ol 8^ iK ttjs ^|w riirdpov, 'Adrjvdloi (ikv 
TTpbs Trdvras Toi>i dWovs irapexofJievoL via^ ktK. 

IT. ot uep lirirces KaX^ovrai. The three hundred picked youths 
in Sparta, selected by the 'nnrayp^TaL appointed by the Ephors. 
Though called ' horsemen ' they consisted both of cavalry and 
hoplites, and acted as a body guard to the kings, see Dionys. Hal. 

cxxvi HERODOTOS. VIII. 179 

2, 13 Trap' cKeivois (Aa/ceSaiyUoviots) ol yevvaLOTaroL tQv viwv rpia- 
KoaioL <f>TLi\aKes rjaav tuv /SaaiX^wv, oh exp^vTO Kara rods ttoXc/xovs 
TrapaairKTTais, linrevaL re ovai Kal Tre^ots. Miiller however seems to 
doubt whether they were iTrireh at all, as in the case of oi KareaTeQ- 
res TpiaKoaioL who were with Leonidas (7, ■205); and the expression 
of Herodotos here ot rep KoMovrai shows that they were not in the 
ordinary sense cavalry. Miiller's Dorians, vol. 2 p. 252. 

12. ovpcDv T<Sv T€Y€T]TiK<Sv i.e. to the frontier of Laconia 
and Arcadia, the road North leading through Tegea. |xouvov 8t] 
•absolutely the only man'. The Spartans were always chary 
of bestowing honours, and particularly averse frcra encouraging 
strangers in Sparta. See 9, 35. 


16. aXXws 8^ 'and besides', see p. 6^, 1. 26. Herodotos seems 
to mean that, besides being personally hostile to Themistokles, he 
had a class prejudice against him as of a social rank above his own. 
4'iri<j>av€kS nodz/es, cf. 7, 114 cTrroi Uepaiuv iraidas eovTUP iTri^aveuv 

17. 4)96va) KaTaixap-yewv 'stark mad with jealousy'. p.apyav is 
fairly common in the dramatists, but this compound is apparently 
OLTra^ X€7. We have viroixapyorepos in 3, 29; 6, 75. 

22. k^v BeXpivCxTjs that is, 'if I were the inhabitant of the most 
insignificant place in Greece', Belbina being a small island 10 miles 
off Sunium. In Plutarch Them. i8 the retort is made more telling 
by the reproach being addressed to him by an inhabitant of the 
little island of Seriphos, and thus giving Themistokles a handle for 
his reply aK-qdij Xiyets, d\\' ovt dv iyw ^epLcpios (2u eyepofirjv ivdo^oSf 
o\jT€ <Tv'Adr}vaios. Plato Rep. 329 has ^epitpios in his version of the 
story too. 


25. wv 1. 6. Is TOo-ovTo tyivtro 'amounted to what I have 
said', 'this was the upshot of these proceedings', p. 57, 1. 19. 

27. ^K T«v nXaTaiiKwv 'by his subsequent conduct at the 
battle of Plataea', — in which he showed great foresight, and con- 
trived to escape with a large body of men. See 9, 66, 89. 

12 — 2 

i8o NOTES ON cxxvi 

28. Tov assimilation of relative. G. § 153. 
69 !• irpoeirejxire 'was engaged in escorting'. 

2. Thus iikv p. 68, 1. 25 and bh 1, 26 express contemporaneous 
action. Cp. 6, 6 'Icriatos /x.^i' vvu...iTroi€vi> ravra, eirl 6^ MlXtjtou... 
vavTLKos rjv arparbs irpoaddKL/xo^. 

5. Ktti ouSev Ko) KaTciret-yovTOS 'and there being as yet no 
hurry'. The absolute participle of Kareireiyei used impersonally. 
Hippocr. de fract. 762 oid^v Kareird'yei, and perhaps Demosth. in 
Timocr. § 18 irepl (xiv ovbkv 'iaus vfxds KaTeweiyei vvv aKovcrai. Others 
make it agree with Mapdoviov 'and as he was not yet pressing him 
at all to join the rest of the army'. Herodotos nowhere else uses 
the active eirei-yeiv, though frequently the middle. 

6. ovK eSiKaiov 'he did not think proper', *he could not make 
up his mind'. Cp. 9, 19 ovk ediKuievf \cin€(x6ai. ttJs e^odov Aa/ceSai- 

7. |XT] OVK €|av8pa7ro8£(rao-9at cp. p. 28, 1. 20; p. 66, 1. 2. G. 
§ 283, 7. ... ediKaiov fir} ... e^audpaTodiaaadai, 

OVK „ ,, OVK „ ,, 

This usually takes place after a negatived verb containing itself 
some negative notion, such as forbidding or hindering, because it is 
after such verbs that firj with the infinitive usually occurs. 

8. iraptleXriXaKte 'had marched past them', i.e. on his return 

10. CK Tov ({>av£po{! 'openly'. 9, i /cat rare e/c rod (pavepov 
waprJKc MapduvLov eirl tt]v 'EXXdSa. 

11. us = ovTU}. Cp. 9, 18, 35. 


12. lv9avTa 8i] 'it was in these circumstances', p. 65, 1. 11. 

13. liroXkopKcc 'began the siege of. 

14. aTTio-TaorGat 'that the Olynthians were on the point of 
revolting', the present expresses the intention in the immediate 
future. See on 6, 53 rdde de Kara rd, \ey6fieva vir ''EWrjucop iyu) 
ypd<p(a. 6, 82 /xadeiv de avrbs ovtoo tt]v a.TpeKeLTjf on ovk alpeec to 
"Apyos, ' that he is not to take ', * that he will not take *. 

TOVTTjv SC. "OXvvdop understood from 'OXwdLovs above, cp. p. 66, 
1. 22. 

cxxviii HERODOTOS. VITL t8i 

i6. €|ava<rTavT€S 'having been turned out', used both of the 
country and the people. Cp. p. 22, 1. 24. 2, 171 e^avaa-rdcnji irdaris 
lieXoTTovvqcov virb iioipiiwv ...oijK i^avas^rdvTes'ApKddes dUffcoj^ov avTTjv 


17. KaT6<r<|)a|€...cs XCjivt]v 'took them out of the town to a 
marsh and killed them '. Cp. the action of the Aeginetan nobles in 
a similar massacre, when they took their victims to a lonely spot 
outside the town. 6, 91. 

20. ^crxov ' got possession of, implying that they still had it 
when Herodotos wrote. Notice XaXKiSe'es without the definite 
article, — 'Chalkidians', not Lottiaei who used to have it. 


■21. c^eXciv, p. 61, 1. 19. 

■22. evT£Tan€vws...irpo9vp,ws, notice the variation of the words, 
in sense nearly identical, to avoid harsh repetition. 

25. ov ^dp wv X^-ycrai 'for in fact it is not told'. 

26. 6K«s...'Ypd^€i'6 'whenever he wrote a letter'. See p. 26, 
1. II ; p. 63, 1. 17. 

28. Trapct TcLs "yXucliCSas ' close to the notched end '. y\v(pi5es is 
used for the whole butt-end of the arrow, and consequently Aeneas 
Tact. 31, 26 quoting this story says irepl ras yXv^idas eXi^apre^ rb 

I. irrcpcu'a-avTes 'having covered it with feathers'. The piece of 70 
biblus or bark was wound round the arrow and then covered with 
the feathers (probably fixed in a piece of leather), partly for con- 
cealment and partly for the ordinary purpose of steadying the 

8. irapTJv 8^...<rvji.jxax^CT) parenthetical, explaining the plural 
ffTpaTrjyois, ' now there were there allied troops from the other 
states in Pallene also'. For au/i/xaxt^ = o'i^MAicixof, the abstract for 
the concrete, cp. (pvyal for cpvydSe^ 3, 138; dovXeia for 5ovXoi 
Thucyd. 5, 23, 4; i) dpxh ^or ol dpxovres Lys. ix. § 16. 

10. tTTiXt^api^voio-i, cp. p. 12, 1. 2. 

II. \Lr\ KaTairXTJIai 'not to confound him with the charge of 
treason'. Herodotos does not use this word elsewhere, and two 
MSS. (R and S) have KarairX^^ai 'to involve in'. 

1 82 NOTES ON cxxix 


17. cYeYovtcrav 'had elapsed'. Cp. i, 113 (is hh rplrT] ^jxifyr} 
T(^ Traicicf} eKKetfiivu} iy^uero. 9, 39 rj/j-epaL di a<pL dvTLKaTrjineyoiai 
ijdT} iyeyoueaav oktu. 

ci|.nr&)Tis 'ebb', cf. 7, 198 eV t<^ afxiruTis /cat pvx^V ^^^ Trdaap 
rjfiepTjv yiv€Tai. 

18. yjpovov eirl ttoXXov 'lasting a long time'. For eirl see 
p. 26, 1. ^o. 

19. irapijiVav 'tried to pass it into Pallene'. The Persians 
were on the north of the town which stretched right across the neck 
of the Isthmus ; they tried to take advantage of the unusually low 
tide to get past the town so as to be able to attack it on its south 
and less defensible side (Thucyd. i, 64, 2). They would have to go 
somewhat far out to pass the end of a mole or breakwater (x^^^) 
which ran out into the sea (Thucyd. i, 63, i). 

20. TCLS Svio |X€v |xo£pas sc. bbov or tov revdyeos ' two-fifths of 
the way across the salt marsh '. 

22. ^o-ci) etvai 'so as to be on Pallene south of the town'. 
Plerodotos speaking as a Southern Greek means ' south ' by ^aco, 
as. So ^^w and et'co; IIi^XcDj' Demosth. de Cor. 304. 

24. TroXXttKis yivo\iivr\ ' though it (a ir\rjfji.fxvpls of some kind) 
takes place frequently '. The variations of tide in the Mediterranean 
are as a rule slight; but at particular places, such as the Euripus, 
the Straits of Messina, and others, the peculiar configuration of the 
shore produces currents which, acted on by the tides, cause a violent 
ebb and flow at certain times of the year and under the influence of 
certain winds. 

81] 'accordingly', continuing a narrative, cp. 6, 5 irepl SdpSis 
fxiv Stj iyivero rapaxV' 6, 26 ravra fxkv 5rj ovTd) eyivero. 
71 !• P^X^T opp. to afiiroiTLS in 2, 11: while irXrjfijJivpis indicates 
that it was not merely an ordinary flowing tide, but a high one, a 
flood tide. 

2. IIo(r€t8e'covos es tov vtiov. A temple of Poseidon was natu- 
rally erected on a narrow isthmus between two seas, just as in the 
case of the Isthmus of Corinth. 

3. ovToi...o^ TTcp, it was the very men in the Persian army that 
committed the impiety 'who also perished in the sea'. 

cxxx HERODOTOS. VIII. 183 


9. 6 vavTiKos sc. (TTparbs, cp. 7, 100 ej }ikv Toabvbe 6 puvtikos 
crparos dpTjTat. For the amission of arparbs cp. p. 72, 1. 7; 7, 
97 Tov 5e vavTiKov iaTparrjyeov ol'5e. 

10. a>s Trpo(r€}j.t|e 'when it had reached Asia'. Cp. 6, 96 ivel 
8L..Trpoa-4fjii^av ry Nct^y. 7, 168 At67is 5^ avaxG^vres wpoa^/j-i^av ry 

13. eirtXajuJ/avTos, p. 8, 1. 2. So i, 190 t6 devrepov iap vt4- 
XafXT€ 'began to appear'. 

irpwios 'early in the season', cp. Thucyd. 4, 6, i afia d^ Trp(p 
ia^aXbvTes Kal tov airov irt x^upoO Euros. 

14. Il€p(r6b)v...oi irXcvves kiri^dnvov 'most of the epibatae 
were Persians and Medes'. It is expressed very oddly: lit. 'but 
it was of Persians and Medes that the greater number went on 
board as marines '. 

17. d8€X4>i8eos 'brother's son'. 

20. ov8' e'TrT]vd'YKat€ 'nor did anyone try to make them do so'. 

23. €X€vio-£(r0ai. This future of ipxo/xai is Ionic. It was used 
in Attic poetry ; but rarely if ever in Attic prose of the classical 
period; the only exception is Lysias 22 § 11 Avhere Cobet reads 

25. orTa0|i€Tj|i€Voi oTi 'judging from the fact that'. Some 
word like rovrif} or rc^Se must be understood. Cp. 7, 214 tovto 
yap T(^5e XPV (TTad/xwaacrdaL otl oi tCjv 'EWtjvcjv TrvXaySpaL iireKripv^av 

26. d(r|i£voi diraXXao-o-ovTo ' were only too glad to get away 
from them'. Cp. 9, 52 icpevyof dcrfxevoi. tt]v 'lirirov. 

27. e(re-(0|jL€voi T^crav tw Ovfiw ' they had been cowed in 
spirit', cp. 9, 122 ecrcTwdivTes ttj yvu/xrj irpbs Kvpov. Thucyd. 4, 
37, I el TTios-.-eTTiKXacxdelev ry yvd}fJLr]...Kai ijacrrjdeUv tou Trapbvros 
SeivoO. 7, 71, 3 TTiv yvib/xrji' idovXovfTO. 

4. wTttKouo-Tcov 'they were trying to hear news', 'they listened 72 
anxiously for news'. Used of troops sent to reconnoitre in Xen. 
Cyr- 5, 3, 56. Cp. Demosth. de fals. Leg. § 288 irepLepxb/xeda... 
ihraKovcTovvTes rl to. tC)v ' ApKaduiv, rl to. tCov ' A.p.(f)LKTvbvojv . . .'So of a 
man sent into Syria to see whether things were favourable for the 

i84 NOTES ON cxxx 

attempt of Demetrius (hraKovcTTricroPTa Kal KaToirrevcrovTa rd ^.-ceZ 
(Tvix^aiPovTa Polyb. 31, 21, i. Cp. Poll. 2, 83 iKaXovvro 8^ rives 
tora Kal 6<p6a\fMol ^aac\eo}s...d7r6 re tQu Cotcjv roirwv ro (hraKovareiv 

OK-Q 7r€<r€€Tai,..'7rpTJ'y|xaTa 'whether Mardonius would be suc- 
cessful or no'. Cp. 7, 163 Kapa8oK7]aavTa ttjv fidx']^ V T^^^-ieTai. 


7. ovKw crweXe^eTO ' was not beginning to muster*. 

6 vavTiKos, p. 71, 1. 9. 

9. vayapxos, p. 22, 1. 9. The title is altogether a Spartan one; 
but when the Spartans first instituted the office is not known. 
From the beginning of the Peloponnesian war there seems to ha^ 
been a vaijapxos with a second in command, called e-n-icrToXevs, 
appointed every year, who was independent of the king. See 
Underbill on Xenoph. Hellen. i, 5, i. 

16. TT]S €Tc'pT|s oIkCt]?, of the junior royal family, the Eurypon- 
tidae. See Hist, and Geogr. Index, Herakleidac. 

19. eo-TpaTTJYce, notice this word used of a commander of a 
naval force. The Athenians had no separate establishment of naval 


21. 'Icovwv aY7£^-oi 'some lonians as envoys'. Stein remarks 
that 'Idjpuu is a partitive genitive. These messengers were not 
officially sent from the lonians, but were certain lonians who took 
upon themselves the task of attempting to get help for their 
country. The presence of the Persian fleet would probably prevent 
any open or public mission. 

25. ol {TTaoriwrai cr^Cari -yevojievot. 'who having made a con- 
spiracy with each other'. a(pi<n = e(s}VTo2(n = d\\'rj\oLS. i, 142 avral 
Be ai 7r6Xtes...o'0t(Ti ofiocpoJviovaL. 6, 12 ^Xe^av irpbs iwvrovs rdde. 
6, 42 avudrjKas acplai avrolcn roiysTcoj/as rjvdyKaae TrociecrdaL. 
73 3- c|€V€tKavTos 'having betrayed', 'made known'. Cp. 3, 74 
wiaTL Xa^oures Kal bpKLOLcn ^ /xh ^^etv irap ewur(^ jx-qb^ i^oiaeiv fi7]8evl 
dvdpiloirwv rr)v dirb acpiwv dirdr'qv is Uepcras yeyovvlav. 

4. ouTft) 8t] 'in these circumstances', or 'when this had taken 

cxxxii HERODOTOS. VIII. 185 

place'. See on 9, 15. tiirc^^o-xov 'remoyed secretly'. Cp. 6, 74 
dire^iax^ ^s QeacraXLrjv. 

5. Kttl 8t] Kttl t6t€ 'and so finally came at this time to Aegina'. 
p. 21, 1. 22; p. 56, 1. 13. 

7. ot 'they, however'. 

9. ovT€ TcSv ywpav €ov<ri lixireCpoiori, <rTpaTiTJs T6...€8oKe€ ctvat. 
For oih-e...T€ cp. 6, 16. For the change of subject {parataxis) cp. 
6, 30, 123. Everything beyond Delos, i.e. to the north and east of 
Delos, was an object of terror to the Greeks; for they were unac- 
quainted with the lie of the countries (i.e. the islands and the Asiatic 
coast), and they imagined eveiy place to be full of armed men. The 
Greek sailors were not at this period familiar with the navigation 
of the Aegean, with the exception perhaps of the Aeginetans, Corin- 
thians, Chalkidians, and possibly the Athenians, and this was a joint 
fleet. As far as Delos they were used to go for the yearly festival. 
Rawlinson thinks the idea of such ignorance on the part of the 
Greeks a gross exaggeration, and not accounted for by fifteen years' 
cessation of such voyages since the Ionian revolt. But though at this 
distance of time fifteen years seem insignificant, it is a considerable 
period in the lives of sailors, whose energies would have been 
engaged elsewhere; and we must remember that an appreciable 
part of the fleet consisted of ships sent from towns not used to such 
expeditions, and the movements of it were likely to be measured 
not by the boldness of the bravest, but by the fears of the most 
timid. Grote v. p. 298. 

11. TJirto-T^aro 'believed', p. 3, 1. 21. 86|t] 'as a matter of 

Kal 'HpaKXt'as o-riiXag 'were as far off as the Pillars of 
Herakles'. The Pillars of Herakles were the end of all things 
westward to the Greek iliv 6 irovTOfx^buiv iropcpvp^as Xifjivas vairais 
oiiKid' 68bv v€fji.€i 'where the Sea-lord of the purple main no further 
grants a pathway to sailors' Eurip. Hipp. 744); and Herodotos 
only seems to mean here that the Peloponnesians thought Samos 
an immense distance off, and the voyage to it too great to be 
undertaken ; he does not mean that they had any theory about the 
exact distances. 

12. orvveTrnrTt St toiouto ua-rt 'and by a coincidence it so 
happened that', p. 8, 1. 18. 

15. TO jit'<rov...(r<|>c(i)v 'all lliat lay between them'. 

1 86 NOTES ON 



17. Si], resuming the narrative from 1. 8 fibyi^ P-^XP'- AiJXou 
Cp. p. 76, 1. 28. 

19. evOcvTcv 6p}JL€o|JL6vos, p. 61, 1. 30. Kara rd xP'HtrTTJpia 'to 
the various oracles', 'from oracle to oracle', i, 30 Trepirjyov rbv 
^b\(ava. Kara rods drjaavpoOs (Ab.). 

20. EvpcDirea, of the town Europos in Karia. 

21. T«v, referring to xRV^^'^VP^oiat, understood after xPW^P'^vov 
'to consult the oracles', though in this sense xpacr^ai is often used 
absolutely without being followed by any case, old t€, for the 
suffix re see on p. 10, 1. 9. 

22. d-TroireipTJo-ao-Gai, p. 34, 1. 27. 
24. ov "ydp tSv XtY^Ttti, p. 69, 1. 25. 


27. <{>a£veTai diriKoiitvos 'notoriously arrived at Lebedaea'. 
74 I. KarapTJvai irapd Tpo<|>wviov 'to descend into the cavern of 
Trophonius'. Cp. Arist. Nub. 507 ws didoiK iyci) \ etaio Kara^alvuv 
wavep els Tpocpojviov. See Biographical Index. 

2. Kal S-q^.ttirfKCTo 'and above all on arriving at Thebes, 
which he did first'. For another similar consultation of Greek 
oracles, see i, 46. 

3 — 5. TovTO \ikv...rovTO 8J, p. 40, 1. 5. 

4. ^(TTt 8^...xpTi<rTT)pid^6cr0ai 'now it is allowed, as at Olympia, 
to consult the oracle there by means of burnt sacrifices', i.e. in 
contradistinction to the method at Delphi and other places, where 
the inquirer entered the shrine and received the answers from the 
7rpo<p'i^T7js, here on the other hand the oracle was declared by 
inspection of the victims offered on the altar. Cp. Pind. Olymp. 
13, 2 IVa fJ-avTies dpdpes i/jiTrrjpoLS TeK/,epoi. TrapaireipwvTat Alos 
dpxtKepaiJvov. To this TrvpofiavreLa Sophokles refers O. T. 21 eV 
'Icr/xrjvov re fxavreiq. airoSq). 

6. KaT€KOLp,Tio-€ Is *A|i<j>Ldp€CiD ' causcd him to pass the night in 
the temple of Amphiaraos'. Cp. 9, 93. For the practice of passing 
the night in a temple see i, 31; Aristoph. Plut. 669 — 671. The 
object in this case was to obtain an oracle by a dream, Paus. i, 3, 

cxxxv HERODOTOS. VIII. 187 

5 Kpibp 6v(TavT€S Kal to 8ep/xa vTroaTpwa&jxevoL KaOevSovffiu avajxhovre^ 
brjkwcLv dvelparos. The dream is given in Plut. Arist. 19. For the 
pregnant use of ^s cp. id. 41 1 KaraK\ivei.v ainbv d$ 'Act/cXt^ttiou | Kpa- 
TLarbv iffTi. This temple of Amphiaraos, according to Rawlinson, 
was not at Thebes but near Oropos. He quotes Pausan. i, 34, 2. 
Livy 45, 27 inde Oropu?n Atticac ventum est ubi pro deo vates 
Arnphilochiis colilur. But the former only says that there was a 
temple of Amphiaraos, i^ miles from Oropos, and that the Oropians 
were the first to regard Amphiaraos as a god {Q(.hv 8^ ^Afxcpidpaov 
irpuiTOis ' Qpumois KaTearrj vofii^civ, varepov 8^ Kal oi irdures "EWrjues 
^yr]VTai). And Livy says no more, even if Amphilochtis is altered 
to Amphiaraus. 

8. 8id \\py\<TTr\^iuiv 7roi€v(X€vos 'by means of an oracle', 'speak- 
ing in an oracular response'. Cf. 6, 4 /xerd 5^ 'Itrrtaios 8C dyyiXov 
iroi€v/j.€vos..JTr€fnre /3tj8Xt'a. 

9. oKOTcpa, cp. devTtpa, p. 67, 1. 20. old re p. 73, 1. 21. 


13. 6(S|id fiot fJL^YKTTOv "ycv^orGat Xiyirai 'a thing is related by 
the Thebans to have happened which is a matter of the greatest 
surprise to me'. dQ/xd fioL = d OavjxaaTov iarl fioi. 

14. IXBeiv a pa 'for (they say) that Mys came'. For &pa 
introducing the words of another, cf. Aeschin. in Ctes. § 137 roX/xq, 
X^yeiv pX^TTiov els irpdaioTra rd v/xirepa, ujs dpa Qrj^aioi 7r)v avfi/xaxLCLV 
iffxiv eiroi-qaavTo ktX. Herodotos often prefaces an anecdote with 
this word, see p. 4, 1. 27. 

15. 'ir€piorTpa)(i)wn6vov...xp'nCT'TT]pia 'in ihe course of his series 
of visits to all the oracles'. 

16. TO W(Ji€vos, see p. 20, 1. 17. It is here used for the temple 
and inclosure. 

17. 'ia-rx. 0T]pa£wv 'belongs to the Thebans', i.e. is in the 
Theban territory. 

18. vir^p.. ovp€i 'East of the lake Copais and close to the 
mountain', i.e. Mt. Ptoum. 

21. diro Tou Koivov 'representing the (Theban) State'. 5, 109 
rj/x4as dir^TTefxyf/e rd KOivbv tCiv 'Iwpoiu. 

22. diro7pa\}/o|i^vovs 'for the purpose of taking notes of '. For 
diroypdcfieiv and diroypdcpecdai see 7, 100. The middle is used here 

i88 NOTES ON cxxxv 

because Herodotos is thinking not of their actually writing down 
the words, but of their purpose in coming to the temple. 

€|X€\X€ sc. 6 dtbs. irpoKare 'forthwith', i, iii. 

24. ?x^(r6ai, p. 16, 1. 20. ovh\ ^x^tv...T7piiY^aTt 'and did not 
know what to do about it', i.e. they could not take down the 
words, as they had been sent to do, as they did not understand 
them. For PapPdp^ see p. 11, 1. 3. 

27. Tt^v e^se'povTo 'which they were carrying', 'which they had 
in their hands'. 

29. <|)dvai 8^ Kap^T[|.,.'YXco(ro-T] XP^** 'that he was giving his 
answer in the Karian language'. The Karians were ^ap^apdcpwvoi, 
Hom. II. 2, 867. What Herodotos is surprised at is that the 
promantis should be able to speak Karian. It is possible that some 
Karian sentence had been prepared on purpose to prevent the 
Theban commissioners from knowing what the answer was, in 
order that the medizing Thebans might not afterwards lay the 
blame of their medizing on the oracle. Or, if the sentence of the 
oracle contained any reference to the projected alliance of Athens 
with the Persians (cc. 136, 141), it might be prudent that the 
Thebans should be kept in the dark about it. Thirlwall 2, p. 323. 
Grote 5' P- 4- 


75 !• liriXe^diACvos, p. 70, 1. 10. o ti 81] X^YOvra ifv 'what the 
oracles said, whatever it was '. Herodotos does not know what 
the oracles were, but he connects with them the step Mardonius 
next took of trying to win over Athens. See last note. 

4. irpocTKTiSees 'relations by marriage'. Cp. KrjdeaTrjs, Krj8oi 
(7, 189). ^ 

8. Tw Sr\ 'to whom, as is well known'. For 87] referring to 
known facts, cp. 6, 44, 45. 

9. djia 8^.,.Tru06|X€vos 'and at the same time because Mardonius 
was informed'. The causal participle answers to the ci/j(,a /x^v 6'ri 
...rjffav in 1. 4. 

10. Trpo^civos. Individuals were ^hoL to each other; when the 
connexion was between a State and an individual he was called 
irpS^evoSy and the relationship irpo^eda. Cp. 9, 85. tvfp-ytTTjs, 
p. 45, 1. 2. 

cxxxvii HERODOTOS. VIII. 189 

12. CLpa, p. 74, 1. 15. 

15. €iTC<rTaTo. For the irregularity of a verb connected by re 
with a participle (dKovojv) cp. p. 45, 1. 13; p. 73, 1. 11. For 
cirCo-TaTo see p. 3, 1. 21 ; p. 13, 1. 22; p. 46, 1. 19- 

TovTwv 8^ irpo<rYevo|i4vwv *but if they joined him', — if he could 
get the Athenian fleet on his side. 

KaT7]XTrit€ ' he quite expected ', Kara- intensive. 

18. KaTvirepGe ot rd •irpT]'Yp.aTa...Tcov 'EW-qviKaJv sc. TrpriyfxdTCou 
'that his power would be superior to that of the Greeks'. For 
irprjyfMara 'power' cp. 6, 13 KaTe(paiveT6 a<pt elvai ddOvara rd 
jSaatX^os TTpTjy/xaTa virep^aXiadai. 

19. ra\o. 8' dv-.-irpoXtYoi 'and it may perhaps be the case 
that the oracles also gave him a forewarning of this'. An 
expression used in i, 70 of a similar tentative and doubtful 
explanation. Herodotos generally uses the present optative in 
such contingent statements, even though referring to past events. 
Cp. 5, 59 Tavra tjXikLtjv hv etrj Kara Adcov top Aa^daKov. 

21. iroL^eo-Oat, notice the middle — 'to secure as his ally', toio-i 
Sr\ trciOojicvos 'in obedience to which it was that he sent him'. 
5^ marks the clause as representing the thought of Mardonius, not 
the writer, see 9, 11, 59. 


23. ^p8o|xos, see Biogr. Index, s. vv. Alexander, Perdikkas. 
Thucyd. 2, 99, 100; 5, 80. 

3, €S TT]V avw MaKcSovC-qv, cp. 7, 128 Ma/ce56j'wj' rwv Karvirepde 76 
olK7]fM€uojv, i.e. Makedonia north of Pindus. 

4. ^0T]T€vov 'acted as labourers'. The drjres are not 5ov\ol 
but hirelings, for originally slaves, properly so called, were said not 
to have existed in Greece, see 6, 137. 

6. rd Xeirrd t«v irpopdrcDV 'the smaller cattle', i.e. sheep and 
goats. Cp. I, 133. For the use of irpd^ara for cattle generally 
cp. 2, 41 rds /SoQs rds drjX^as d^ovrat irpo^druv irdvTwv /jLaXiara. 
4, 61 dvovai Kal T&XXa irpb^ara koI 'iirirovs fidXiara. [wpd^aTOP any 
animal that walks — i.e. does not fly or swim.] 

9. r\ Sk ■yvvT] Tov PaciXeos, cp. the description of the Princess 
Nausikaa in the Odyss, 6, §7 sqq. going to the river to wash 

I90 NOTES ON cxxxvii 

the clothes: and the harvest scene in the shield of Achilles (II. i8, 


oX Se yvuaTKei 

deiTTPOV epidoiaiv Xeiic dXcpLra iroXXd, irdXvvov. 

'itrifra-i 'used to knead'. 

10. oKws 81 oTTTWTo 'and whenever the loaf vi^as being baked': 
for the frequentative optative with 6'/caJs see p. 26, I. 11 ; p. 63, 1. 
17; p. 69, 1. 26. 

11. 8i'n'\'»^(rios...avTis Iwvtov 'twice as great', i, 203 rrj 
evpvrdTT] iarl avrr] icovTrjs. p. 45, 1. 12. 

13. €(rT]X0€ 'it occurred to'. Cp. 7, 46 ea7]\de //e Xoyicd/nevov 
KUTOiKTeipaL. 6, 125 Ibbvra de rbv Kpo7crov 7AWS icrrjXde. Kal <|>£pok 
€s |JL€"Ya Tt 'and had some important significance'. Cp. 4, 90 is 
aKeaiv (pipovra, 6, 42 is v€?kos (pipov. i, 120 is tI v/jup raura 
(paiverai (pipetu ; 

17. ouTG), i.e. when they had received their pay. For ourcj 
expressing the completion of an action previously expressed, cp. p. 
12, 1. 25; p. 65, 1. 20. 

18- Kara ti]V KaTrvoSoKiiv 'by the smoke-vent'; apparently 
not like our chimney, but an aperture in the centre of the roof, — by 
which Philokleon endeavours to escape in the 'Wasps', Arist. Vesp. 
139 — 143. See 4, 103; Becker's C/iancks, p. 271; Gal/us, p. 279. 
For yap anticipatory, see p. 3, 1. 10. 

'^v...ecr€X,wv 'was making its way in', cp. 2, 11 koXttos daXdffarjs 
icix'^^ ^s T7JV 'Apa^irju x^PV^ ix ^V^ 'l^pvdpijs daXd<ra"rjs. 

19. 6€opXaPi]S 'under an infatuation sent from heaven'. Cp. 
I, 127 uj(TT€ deo^Xa^TjS. The notion contained in the sentence quern 
deus vult perdere prius dementat is often expressed by Greek writers. 
See Lycurg. in Leocr. 92 ol yap deoi o{/8^u irpbrepov woiovcni' 77 tQv 
irovqpCov dvdpdoirwv rrjv didvoLav irapdyovcfLv. Demosth. 3 Phil. 54; 
Aeschin. in Ctes. § 117; Polyb. 23, lo. 

24. ScKojitGa, cp. p. 63, 1. II. 

25. t6v TJ'Xiov, i.e. the circle of sunlight admitted by the round 

27. Tov i]XCov, partitive gen. 'a draught of the sunshine'. By 
this Perdikkas meant first to take possession of the hearth, and 
secondly of the whole land, the lordship of the Sun being symbolical 
of his claim. The German editors compare some German customs 
of taking possession of property by a symbolic reception from God 


and the Sun {Sonnenlehen). * On entering into possession the new 
lord rode forth in the morning in armour and with drawn sword 
towards the East, and as soon as the sun rose waved his sword 
three times crosswise in the air'. Stein. 


28. 01 yXv 81^, the usual formula of Herodotos in dismissing a 
portion of a story and continuing, p. 77, 1. 20 etc. 

29. Tis T«v irap^Spwv ' one of his council', olov ti xP^K*"* ' ^^^^ 
significance of the action of the boy'. 

30. (Tvv v6<{» 'deliberately', avec intention : in p. 45, 1. 9 it means 
certa ratione ' on deliberate plan '. 

1. T(5 0uov(ri. For sacrifice to rivers see 6, 76 (to the Erasinos 77 
in Argos); 7, 113 (to the Strymon). 
5. oVovs T€, p. 10, 1. 9. 

9. v'ir€p<|)c'povTa twv aXXtov. The genitive follows this verb on 
the analogy of all verbs implying comparison of excess or defect. 
In p. 81, 1. 14 virepcp^pw is used without a case. 

10. TJ'Xo) 'was caught by the country people sleeping in the 

12. viro x.€i|J^wvos 'owing to the effects of winter', cp. p. i, 1. 3. 
5, ro viro to6t(jov (fxeXtaaQv) oiiK etvai dceXdeuf rb Trpoaur^pct). 

13. Kal T-qv dW-qv MaKcSovCtiv 'the rest of Makedonia also', 
i.e. the country which, besides what he has already called 'upper 
Makedonia', was called generally Makedonia in the time of 
Herodotos, extending eastwards as far as the Strymon and south 
to the borders of Thessaly. 


15. }iict£t]pli 'I remit', 'I forgive', 6, 59 rbv irpo(To<f)€i\6iJ.evou 
<f>6pov jxerUi b ^acCKev^. 

26. TOVTO Jl^V...TOVTO 8^, p. 4O, 1. 5. 

Ti\v yfiv <r<})t...€9<'Xw(ri. This offer was long remembered. See 
Dem. de Cor. 202 koI irapb. too UepaQv BacriXe'ws fxtTO. ttoXX^j 

192 NOTES ON cxL 

XdptTOs TovT* dv d(Xfx4vo}s idodr) ry iroXei, on /Soi^Xerai Xa^ovay Kal 
TO. iavTTJs €XOTL'<Tr] rb KeXevofievov voieiv Kal idu ere pop tCiv 'EWrjucju 

28. €6vT€s avTovo|xoi, that is, without having a tyrannus im- 
posed upon them by Persian influence, or being included in a 
Satrapy under a Persian governor. 

ipd. On the destruction of the temples at Athens, see c. 53. 
78 I- rovTtav 86 dirfYjxcvwv 'such being the orders received by me 
from the king'. 

2. TO v|i€Tepov 'your action', almost = u/xeis, cp. 3, 155 Tjdrj (Su 
rjv fiTj tCov adv derjcrri aipeo/iiev Ba^vXCJva. 

3. vw tC p.aiv£(r8€; So Stein punctuates. Other editions have 
Xiyct} rdSe vvv tL pialvecde kt\. Stein's arrangement seems the 
better. He quotes i, 120; 5, 106. 

5. dv vireppaXoicrde, p. 13, 1. 18. 

7. Kal rd '^pYa 'and the great things w^hich it did'. Cp. prol. 
e'p7a fieydXa re Kal duvfxaord rd [ikv "EXXifjaL rd 5e pap^dpoicri 

Ti. 'irapio-oti|j.evoi PaanXei 'setting up to be equal to the king'. 
Cp. 4, 166 6 bk 'ApvdvdTjs rrjs Alyvwrov iiirapxos virb Ka/A/SiJtrea) 
Kareareus varipi^ XP^^V Trct.pi-o^o6fji.evos Aapeiqp 5i€(p6dp7]. 

12. Geeiv 8€...avTcov 'and continually risking your own safety'. 
See p. 38, 1. 26. 

13. Trapi\iei = irdpeari p. 5, 1. i. 

14. Pa<rtX€os TavTTi iop[jiT](i.evov 'the king being inclined in this 
direction'. Cp. 1, 158 oi Kv/xaloi 6pfj,caTo cKdidouai HaKT^irju Ileparjai.' 
opfieofJLivov 8k raiir-ig rod TrXrjdeos ktX. 

15. 6\uiiwiCr\v = <xvfxfiaxiv^ 7, 145. <rvv0€|i.€vot p. 66, 1. 12. 
dvcu T^ 86X0V Kal diraTT^s, a regular treaty clause, see i, 69 ; 9, 7 ; 
Thucyd. 5, 18, 4; 5, 47, 2. 

19. €| €[X€v. For e/c with the genitive of the agent see p. .62, 1. 
26; 6, 13 rd yivofxeva e/c tcov 'Iwfwy. 9, 16 6'ri del yeviadon iK rov 

21. lvop€a>...oi3K oVoktC tc Ictoijlcvoio-i 'I see in you that you 
will not be able'. The construction is very loose and may be 
explained as an instance of a participle taking the place of accusa- 
tive and infinitive, or better with Stein by regarding hopiio as 
equivalent to c{ivoL5a and taking its construction as in 9, 60 avvolba,- 
(JL€V bh vfuv iiTTo rbv irapeovra rbvde iroXe/xoy ioOcyi iroXXbi' irpoQv- 


/jLOTOiTOKTi. So Ilcrud. constructs ireideadai with genitive on the 
analogy of viraKovtiu (6, 12), StaSe^drw on that of (pai/i^Tco (p. 65, 
1. 16). 

25. x.'tp {nr€p[X7JKT,s 'a very long arm'. Cp. the English 
proverb 'Justice has a long arm'; and the Scriptural phrase 
'with a stretched out arm'. Cp. 4, 155 r^cp dvfd/xeL, Koirj x^'P^> 
Abicht quotes Ovid Heroid. 17, 16 an nescis longas regihis esse 

26. (JLC'ydXa TrporcivovTwv 'when they (the Persians) offer 
liberal terms '. 

27. €v TpiPu) T€ [JidXi(rTa otKTi[i.6'vwv T(3v <rv(j,|Jidx«>v irdvTwv 
'seeing that you most of all the allied states lie right in the way'. 
Alexander seems to mean that Athens lies directly in the path of 
Mardonius on his march to the Peloponnesus ; which is not wholly 
true: though it was true that the Athenians were likely to be at- 
tacked again first, before Mardonius ventured to proceed Southward. 

29. e^aCp€TOV...€KTTi|x^v«v 'the land you possess being one 
specially marked out for a fighting ground ' ' to be the scene of 
the contest between the two parties'. /xeraixfJ-i-ov is properly 'a 
space between two armies', see 6, 77, 112. That Attica was not 
a good ground for actual fighting, especially for cavalry, Mardonius 
soon discovered, see 9, 13. 

30. dXXd TvdQtcrQi, cp. p. 31, 1. l6 dW i/xoi ireideo. 


5. Twv Xo"yCwv. For these oracles see 5, 90 ^rt re rrpos toijtqkti 79 
iv-ijybv a(p€as ol xPWI^o^ Xiyovres iroXXd re /cat dvapcna ^aeadai 
avTocffi i^ ' Adrjvaliov, tujv wpdrepov p.kv TJaav dSaies, t6t€ d^ KXeo- 
/xiptos KOfxicjavTOS i% XTrapTrjv €^€/J.a6ou. 

10. (rvviirnm (oVtc, p. 8, 1. 18 ; p. 73, 1. 12. 

11. njv Kardo-rao-iv 'their audience' before the people. 
Cp. 9, I. 3, 46 KaTaarduTes iirl roi/s dpxovTai. 

l'n'av^|Jicivav...8iaTpCpovT€S 'for the Athenians had purposely 
delayed because they expected them to come'. The participle 
represents the main sentence. Cp. p. 57, 1. 17. 

14. iir' ofioXo-yC-Q 'with a proposal for a composition', or, 

H. VIII. 13 

194 NOTES ON cxu 

' with a view to making a composition'. Cp. Dem. 293 k-nl (ruTrjplq. 
vavra irpdrTHv. 

15. ^iriTTjSes «v €Troi€vv 'they did this (i.e. waited) therefore 
purposely '. 


18. SiaSe^djJtcvot sc. rbv \6you 'taking up the discourse in their 

19. i](Ji6as 8i. Notice the emphatic position of -^/x^as 'us (as 
opposed to Alexander) the Spartans sent'. The speech is intro- 
duced by d^ because of this reference to the speech of Alexander. 
For a similar use of dk cp. p. 35, 1. 8; p. 76, 1. 20; 5, 33. 

20. Kard Ttjv 'EXXdSa ' in Greece'. 

22. K6<r(i,ov <j)€'pov, p. 29, 1. 23. 

23. vjitv 8c 8t] emphatic dr] 'but to you especially'. 

24. Kal 8id TrdvTwv 'and above all others', p. 19, 1. 25 ; p. 36, 


25. ii'Y€ipaT€...v|j.6is. The Spartans mean to refer the origin of 
the war to the help given by Athens to the lonians. Cp. 5, 97 
aurai 8^ al vhs dpxv KaKtov ey^yoPTo"^\\r]ai re Kal ^ap^dpoi<n. The 
Spartans had refused to help the lonians, 5, 49. 

26. irepl TT]S vjJ.€T€'pT]s dpxTJs...e"Y6'v€To 'and it was in behalf of 
your own dominion that the contest arose '. This can hardly mean 
to refer to any claim of Athens to supremacy in Greece ; for such a 
notion would have been absurd at this period. Nor does it mend 
matters to read dpxw with Schaefifer, which could hardly mean 'in 
defence of your territory'. We must suppose either that the 
Spartans mean to imply that the ships sent by Athens to Ionia were 
sent on the ground of some shadowy claim of the Athenians to a 
primacy among the lonians ; or, with Abicht, that the reference is 
to the attempts of the Persians to force the Athenians to recall the 
Peisistratids (5, 96). 

80 !• ^^^'pci Kal cs. Cp. p. 76, 1. 14. 

1. a\X«s Tc 'and besides', 'on other grounds', p. 65, 1. 26. 

4. Kal t6 irdXai 'from time immemorial'. The reference is to 
mythical or heroic times. See Isocrates Panegyr. §§ 55, 56 (the 
ilerakleidae and Adrastos). Cp. §§ 64 — 67. 

6. KapiTwv...8i|wv ■qSr] 'of what was now two harvests'. The 

cxLiii HERODOTOS. VIII. 195 

harvest of B.C. 480 had been destroyed by the Persians (c. 50) ; and 
after Salamis probably the sowing for the next harvest had been 
partial and late, and was afterwards much damaged in the spring of 
B.C. 479 by Mardonius (9, 13). 

7. olKo<J)e6pTio-0€ 'ye have lost your property', or, 'have had 
your property destroyed', i, 196 eUures iKaKdodrjaav Kal oUocpdo- 
p-iqd7}<Tav. 5, 29 uip^bv a(peas deivCjs olKocpdoprjin^uovs. oIkos includes 
all a man's estate, not merely his house {oIkltj), cp. 7, 224 tou oIkov 
wavTa Thv ecovrov iiriduKe. 

9. Td...olKCT€«v kxp\i.(va 'whatever you have pertaining to 
your families unfit for war'. For oUeTai cp. p. 56, 1. 26. For 
ix6fJ.€Pa cp. I, 120 TO, TUP dveipdrojv €x6fj.eua 'things i-n the way of 
dreams'. 3, 25 ra (titIoju ex^p-eua elxov 'what they had in the way 
of food '. 5, 49 xpuaoO exofJ-evov ovdiv. 

10. €m0p€xj/£iv 'that they will provide for their support', just 
as the Troezenians did in the previous year, see on c. 41. 

11. jia-r av...<rvv6<rTi]Kt) *as long as the war lasts'. Cp. 7, 
225 TovTo (this struggle) avpear-f^Kee fi^xpi- oS ol c^v 'ETrtaXTi; 
irapeyevovTO. i, 74 r^s naxv^ ffvus(XTeu}aT]S ttji' ijfji^prjv e^amprjs 
vvKTa yev^adai. 

12. dvayvwo-Tj, p. 28, 1. 23. Xctivas 'by his softened version 
of the message of Mardonius'. Cp. 7, 9 kinXe^uas riju Bip^e<a 


14. Tvpavvos 7dp laJv. The kings of Makedonia are not called 
* tyrants', but ^aaiXds. The term is used here ad invidiam. 

16. PapPdpoio-i. The Spartans at home called all other people 
whether Hellenic or barbarian ^upoi (9, n) ; but here, speaking to 
Athenians, they adopt an Hellenic attitude and employ the customary 


19. Kal a^Tol 'we as well as you'. The author of the reply 
was Ansteides, according to Plutarch Arist. c. lo. 

22. 6v6i8Ct6iv 'to throw that in our teeth', 'to bring it up in a 
hostile spirit'. 7Xix6fi€vos {yUnxpo^ 'sticky') 'eager for', 'clinging 
to . A rare word in Attic, but several times used by Herodotos in 
three constructions: (i) with Trepi, 2, 102 5«.cDs y\,xoi^,po, -^epl 


X96 NOTES ON cxt.iti 

TTjs iXevOepirjs — though here Van Herwerden omits ire pi. (■2) with 
gen. as here, cp. 3, 72 tov airov yXix^/xeda. {3) with ws and a 
verb, 7, 161 Jjs (TTpaTTjyrjaeis avrr}^ yXlxeai. 

24. iretpci) dvair€{0€iv. For the threefold construction of Trei- 
pciffBai in Herodotos, see on p. 57, 1. i8. 

26. ^(TT av...^px€Tat 'as long as the sun traverses the same 
path by which he now goes'. Cp. Soph. Phil, 1329 

/cat irai/Xa;/ Lcr6i rrjade /jltj ttot evTvx^^v 
pocrov ^apeias, ws ai' avrbs tjXlos 
TavTTj [xkv atpy, ryde 5' ad dvvrj ttoXiv. 

Plut. Arist. 10 rots 5e Trapa 'M.apbovlov tov rjXiov deltas — "Axpis h.v 
OTTO'S, S(pV^ TavTrjv irope^/rjrat t7]v Tcopelau, 'Adrjvaioi TroXefirjaovai 
H^pcrais virkp rrjS 8e8r]OJ/xivr]s x^P^^ ^^^^ ri<xefi'i)pL^v(j}v /cat /cara/ce/cau- 
fiivwv iepCjv. And the Scriptural 'as long as the sun and moon 
81 I. d|j.vvo}X€voi 'wreaking vengeance for'. Valknaer proposed 
the future participle dfxvvedfxeuoL. But the present participle is 
used of repeated or continuous action whatever may be the tense 
of the main verb. For the Persian destruction of the temples see 

c- 53- 

2. Twy-.-oiriv 'feeling no reverence for whom', see on 9, 57 

ovT€ daiixouoip oijre deCou brnv 'ixovras, and the note there on this 
poetical word. 

3. ToO XoiTTov 'on any future occasion', genitive of the time 
within which, p. 37, 1. 25 and Index. 

6. ouSev axcipi- 'any severity', 6, 9; but there is also an 
idea conveyed in it of ingratitude or breach of former ties, cp. i, 
108; 7, 52. 

7. irpo^eivov, p. 75, 1. 10. 


II. alorxp««8TJ<raL 'but you appear to your shame, 
though thoroughly knowing the Athenian spirit, to entertain a fear'. 
Cp. 9, 7 vjxeh 8k is iraaav dppuSlrjv t6t€ dirtKOfxevoi firj ofioXoyrjaiv/xev 
T(fJ mpa-Q, iweiTe i^e/xadere rb -q/JL^Tepop (ppoprj/xa aacpius, 6ti ovSa/xd. 
vpo8ihaoixev rTjv'EXXciSa, kt\. 

14. TO(rovrTOs...Toi...*A relative in the neuter may refer to a 
number of inanimate antecedents, even when they are all mas- 


culine or feminine': cp. Isocr. Panath. 217 raOra eTirof ov vpbs 
TT)V evai^eiav ovbe trphs ttjv 8(,Kaiocr6v7]v ovd^ irphs rriv (f)p6vTi<nv oltto- 
j5\^i/'a$ a ffi) 5Lr]\6es. Mad v. G. G. 97. jic'-ya = oi/rw fjL^ya from the 
influence of tocovtos, which like tolovtos is sometimes followed by 
an explanatory simple relative instead of the more precise ohs or 
fitros. dpcTTJ 'excellence' 'fertility', see 4, 198; 7,5. v'ir€p<j>€povo-a, 
see p. 77, 1. 9. 

15. Td...'E\Xd8a 'on receiving which we shall be willing to 
enslave Greece by joining the Persians '. 

17. SiaKttfXvovTa |ii]. See on p. 66, I. 2. And cp. p. 60, 1. 20 
irrel rk a<f>L airibo^e /jirjT ewidtwKeLv kt\. 

18. (iTiS* TJv 'even if, the negative arises from the previous fi-q. 

21. es TO, |i€"yio-Ta ' to the uttermost of our power', cp. -rrpos to, 
fiAyiara p. 1 1, 1. 7. 

22. TO 'EXXi]vtK6v.,.6nd'YX«wrcrov 'another motive is Greece, 
allied as she is in blood and language'. It is difficult to express in 
a word all that is implied in t^ "EtWtfviKbv, — the feeling of a common 
tie, in spite of much difference and hostility, which after all 
distinguishes everything Greek from everything barbarian. 

24. iljGcd T€ ofiorpoira 'community of habits'. The best 
commentary perhaps to these words will be furnished by Thu- 
cydides i, 6. The distinguishing features common to all Greeks 
are here mentioned, — blood, language, religious worship, customs. 

25. ovK dv cv tyjoi 'it cannot be right', 'it will never be right'. 
'Adr]vaiovs, notice the absence of the definite article 'that Athenians 
(of all people in the world) should betray'. 

28. v\Uii)V dyai\LiQa ti]v irpovoiav 'we thank you for your 
foresight on our behalf. There is a slight irony in the words. 

3. oiK^ras, p. 80, 1. 10. Kttl v(JLiv...€K'7reirXT]pft)Tai 'and for 82 
your part indeed you have done all that you are bound to do': 
i.e. 'any service you owe us has been fully paid by this generous 

4. XiirapTJ(ro|i€v ovtcd okws dv '^\«(i.€v 'we will hold out as 
best we may'. Cp. 9, 45 Xiirap^ere fiivouTCi. 5, 19 /xTjde XLirdpee 
Tjj TTocrt. For okws = u>s cp. 5, 89. 

5. vvv hk 'but as to our present duty', tus ovtco (.\6vr<av 
'seeing that things are as we say', referring to their declared inten- 
tion of maintaining their resistance. 

7. ouK sKas xpovov 'at no distant date'. Ilerodotos every- 


where else uses ^^as of space. For its use in regard to time cp. 
Aesch. Ag. 1638 ela 5r? ^'CKoi \oylTa.i, roiipyou ovx e/fas roSe. For 
the genitive XP^^°^ ^P- the analogous construction of irp6a<a r^s 
vvKTOs 2, 121. 

II. Tineas 'we' i.e. you and ourselves. irpoPwOiio-at 'should 
advance to oppose him'. They afterwards found fault with the 
Lakedaemonians Srt irepieWov e/j-jSaXopra tov ^ap^apov es ttjv 'Attik7)v 
ctXX' 01; fxeTo. ff(f)€(ii}v rjuTiaaav es rV BontiTlrju 'that they tamely 
allowed the Barbarian to invade Attica, instead of accompany them 
into Boeotia to resist him there' (9, 6). 


Abae, cc. 27, 33, 134. 

A city of Phokis on the frontier of Boeotia situated upon one of 
the tributaries of the Kephisos. It contained a rich temple and 
oracle of Apollo, and had been inhabited by a Thrakian tribe who 
afterwards passed over to Euboea. It appears to have recovered 
from the damage done by the Persians, for it is mentioned as the 
only town in Phokis that did not share in the Sacred War (B.C. 
357 — 346) and offered a refuge for fugitives : for which however it 
suffered by the burning of its temple [Paus. 10, 35, 2]. 

Abdera, c. 120. 

A city on the coast of Thrakia some ten miles east of the river 
Nestos, colonized first from Klazomenae and afterwards by the 
Teians [i, 168]. It was the birthplace of several famous men, 
Hekataeos the historian, and Protagoras, Demokritos and Anaxar- 
chos the philosophers. 

Abronichos, c. 21. 

An Athenian, son of Lysikles, employed by Leonidas to watch 
the fleet at Artemisium, and bring news of the result of the battle. 

Abydos, cc. 117, 130. 

In Mysia, situated on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, opposite 
Sestos, at the narrowest point in the strait. The head of Xerxes' 
bridge was at a point somewhat to the north of it, where the breadth 
of the strait is 7 stades (less than a mile): see 7, 34. It was 
founded by a colony from Miletos. 

ACHAIA, c. 36. 
ACHAIANS, CC. 47, 73. 

The inhabitants of Achaia, the northern district of the Pelopon- 
nese. The Achaioi in the time of Homer inhabited Argolis, Lako- 
nia, and Messenia, but at some period subsequent to that they were 
expelled by the Dorians and driven into the northern district, from 


which they expelled the Ionian inhabitants, and which afterwards 
retained their name. They were a confederacy of twelve chief cities, 
ten of which were on the sea coast [i, 145], The name was also 
preserved in Northern Greece in the district of Achaea Phthiotis 
round Mt Orthrys [7, 132]. 

Acheron, c. 47. 

A small river in Epeiros, which falls into the Ionian Sea at 
a place called the Sweet Haven \^\vkx)% Xi/xijv], Port Faiiari. 

Adeimantos, cc. 5, 59, 61, 94. 

A Corinthian, son of Okytos, commanding the Corinthian con- 
tingent in the allied fleet. He is accused of having played the 
coward at Salamis. 

Aeakidae, cc. 64, 83 — 4. Aeakos, c. 64. 

The descendants of Aeakos, son of Zeus and Aegina. Gaining 
great reputation for his justice as ruler of Aegina, Aeakos became 
one of the three judges in Hades. His descendants were the national 
heroes of Aegina, Thcssaly and Salamis : 


Peleus Telamon Phokos 

(of Phthia (of Salamis) 

in Thessaly) 

Ajax Teukros 

(of Salamis in Kypros) 

The myth was that Peleus and Telamon joined in killing Phokos, 
and that therefore Peleus was driven to exile in Phthia, Telamon in 
Salamis. See 5, 80. 

Aegaleos, c. 90. 

A mountain chain in Attica extending from Parnes to the east of 
the bay of Eleusis. Its southern slope overlooks the gulf and 
island of Salamis. 

Aegina, cc. 41, 60, 63, 79, 81, 83—4, 131, 133. 

Aeginetans, the, cc. i, 45, 74, 84, 86, 91 — 3, 122. 

An island in the Saronic gulf, about eight miles due south of 
Salamis and about double that distance east of the coast of Argolis. 
At the time of the Persian invasion it was an independent state, 
though it had formerly been subject to the people of the opposite 
Dorian town of Epidauros, from which the island had been peopled 


[Sj 83 ; 8, 46]. The Aeginetans had however long ago thrown off 
the control of Epidauros, and had become possessed of a power- 
ful navy and considerable wealth. They had from very ancient 
times been at enmity with Athens, which is described by Herodotos 
[5, 82 sq,] as beginning with an attempt on the part of the latter to 
carry oft the olive-wood images of the national heroes of Aegina, 
the Aeakidae. But a more likely account is that which represents 
the Aeginetans as making frequent attacks upon the Attic coast, and 
using their power at sea, on which they were supreme before B.C. 
500, to annoy and injure Athenian commerce. The quarrel was 
further embittered by help given to the Boeotians against Athens a 
few years earlier [5, <Si], and when Darius about 493 — 2 B.C. sent 
round to the Greek states for earth and water, Aegina was one of 
the states which complied, actuated perhaps as much by jealousy 
of Athens as by fear of Persia. This led to a formal complaint 
against them by Athens to Sparta. The Spartans took hostages for 
their fidelity whom they entrusted to the Athenians, and whom 
the Athenians before and after Marathon refused to return. The 
war which followed continued after B.C. 489 [7, 144], to carry out 
which Themistokles persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet. The 
threatened invasion of Xerxes however forced Athens and Aegina to 
make peace, and thus Aeginetan ships served at Salamis, and next 
year their soldiers served at Plataea. Aegina finally became entirely 
subject to Athens during the administration of Perikles, who always 
regarded its independence as a standing menace to Athens and was 
wont to call it 'the eyesore of the Peiraeus' [Plut. Peric. 8]. And 
in B.C. 431 the Athenians expelled the Dorian inhabitants and 
placed Attic settlers in their room [Thucyd. 2, 27; 7, 57]. 

Aeolidae, the, c. 35. 

The inhabitants of a town and district at the foot of Parnassos in 
Phokis. The exact site seems uncertain. 


(i) c. 137. 

An Argive, one of the brothers of Perdikkas the ancestor of the 
kings of Makedonia. 

(2) c. 139. 

A descendant of Perdikkas, and father of Alketas. 


An Athenian, father of Lykomedes. 

Aetolians, the, c. 73. 

According to one myth Aetolos, king of Elis, son of Endymion, 
having slain Apis fled to the district of the Achelous which was 
called Aetolia after him. According to another the Aetolians helped 
to convoy the Dorian invaders from Anlirrhium to Rhium in the 


Peloponnese, and received the district of Elis as their reward [Pans. 
5j 3' 5]- The Aetolians living north of the Corinthian Gulf were a 
peculiar people little known in the rest of Hellas. They lived in 
open towns or hamlets and used only light armour; but were warlike 
and brave. In B.C. 426 the Athenian general Demosthenes invaded 
Aetolia, but was defeated by a combined army of all the Aetolian 
states [Thucyd. 3, 94 — 8]. The Aetolians showed the same determi- 
nation in resisting the Gallic invasion B.C. 279; and the Aetolian 
League from about B.C. 220 was the rival of the Achaean League in 
Greece, until reduced by the Romans in B.C. 189. 

Aglauros, c. 53. 

Daughter of Kekrops. She had a temple, or rather sacred 
grotto on the north side of the Acropolis, from which tradition said 
that she had cast herself, as a sacrifice for her country. 

AjAX, c. 63. 

Son of Telamon, and one of the heroes of Salamis. See 
Aeakidae. In the Iliad he is the greatest warrior next to Achilles, 
but has no special authority in council. 

Akeratos, c. 37. 

The prophet in the temple of Apollo at Delphi. 

Alabanda, c. 136. 

A town in Karia, mod. Arah-Hissar on the Marsyas [Tchinar 
Aksa), about 20 miles S. of Tralles. It was afterwards in Roman 
times a place of great wealth, the seat of a district court, and the 
birthplace of many famous orators. 

Alexander, cc. 34, 121, 126 — 7, 136—7, 139 — 143. 

Alexander, son of Amyntas I., king of Lower Makedonia, the 
chief cities of which were Edessa and Pella. His family claimed to 
be Greek as descended from an Argive named Temenus [Her. 8, 
137; Thucyd. 2, 90], whose grandson Perdikkas first established 
the dynasty. Alexander, though he appears as acting with Xerxes 
under compulsion, had thirty years before shown that he was 
a man of courage and address. At that time (B.C. 510) the Per- 
sian general Megabazus, who had been commissioned by Darius, 
after his unfortunate Scythian expedition, to obtain the submission 
of Makedonia, sent seven ambassadors of high rank to the court 
of Amyntas. They obtained the symbols of submission from the 
aged king and were royally entertained by him, but an insult offered 
by them to some ladies of the court so enraged the young Prince 
Alexander, that he had them assassinated, and all their rich equip- 
ments dispersed [5, 19 — 21]. Though when king he had been 
unable to resist submitting to Xerxes, he had still shown his interest 
in the Greek cause by taking the trouble to send envoys to the 


army despatched to guard tlie pass between Ossa and Olympus 
urging them not to attempt to hold so dangerous a position [Her. 7, 
173]; and in the following year he showed, by coming to warn 
the Greeks before Plataea, on which side his wishes really lay 
[9, 45]. He had great wealth derived from the product of gold and 
silver mines [5, 17], which he commemorated by presenting a gold 
statue or statuette of himself to the god at Delphi. He was 
succeeded by his son Perdikkas H. some time before 432 B.C. 
[Thucyd. i, 57] and after B.C. 463 [Plut. Cim. 14]. His Argive 
descent was admitted by the managers of the Olympic games, who 
allowed him to enter for the foot-race [5, 22]. 

Alketas, c. 139. 

One of the early kings of Makedonia, father of Amyntas. 

Alkibiades, c. 17. 

The father of Kleinias, and grandfather of the great Alkibiades. 
He was the head of one of the richest and noblest families at Athens, 
which traced its descent from Eurysakes, son of Ajax. 

Alyattes, c. 35. 

King of Lydia, and father of Kroisos, In his i-eign [B.C. 625 — 
560] the Kimmerians, a horde of Scythian barbarians who had forced 
their way into Asia, were expelled from Lydia; and the encroach- 
ment upon Karia and Ephesos was begun which was consummated 
by his son Kroisos (q. v.). 

Ambrakiots, the, c. 45. 

Ambrakia was a town and district on the river Arachthos, seven 
miles from the shore of the Ambrakian gulf. It was a colony from 
Korinthos [Thucyd. 2, 80], and though it only contributed the mode- 
rate contingent of 500 men to the Greek army of defence, it played 
an important part afterwards in the Peloponnesian war on the side 
of the Peloponnesians; and in the time of Pyrrhus (circ. B.C. 290) 
was the capital of Epeiros. 

Ameinias, cc. 84, 93. 

An Athenian, of the deme Pallene. 

Amphiaraos, c. 134. 

According to some legends a son of Apollo and Hypermnestra, 
according to others of Oikles and Hypermnestra, and descended from 
the seer Melampus. He was joint king of Argos with Adrastos, was 
one of the heroesengaged in the expedition of the Argo, the Kalydonian 
boar-hunt, and the expedition of the Seven against Thebes. In the 
last, as he fled from Periklymenos, the earth opened and swallowed 
him up, and he was made immortal by Zeus. Besides sanctuaries at 
Argos and Sparta, he had a temple and oracle near Oropos [r, 46]. 


Amphikaia, c. 33. 

A town of Phokis in the valley of the Kephisos. Pausanias says 
[Qj 33j 9] that its right name, as evidenced by the decree of the 
Amphiktyonic Council for its destruction, was Amphikleia. There 
was a story connected with it exactly like that of Bethgellert, in 
which the child is defended from a wolf, not by a dog, but by a 
serpent, which was accordingly worshipped, and the town called 
by some 'O0tTe/a [o0ts]. 

AmPHISSA, C. 3'2. 

A town in the territory of the Ozolian Lokrians, situated on 
the heights above the Krissean plain (mod. Salona). It was after- 
wards destroyed by order of the Amphiktyonic Council for culti- 
vating the parts of the territory of Krissa, which had been consecrated, 
and for levying severe tolls upon the worshippers coming from Sicily 
and Italy to the shrine of Delphi, but was afterwards restored [Strab. 
9) 3j 4]- The people of Amphissa reckoned themselves to be 
Aetolians (q. v.) not Lokrians. 


(i) cc. 136, 139—140. 

King of Makedonia, son of Alketas and father of Alexander 
(q. v.). He was an aged man in B.C. 510, and much terrified by 
the ambition and aggressiveness of Darius, to whose envoys he 
gave the required symbols of submission. When his son Alexander 
planned his bloody revenge against these envoys the old king was 
first induced to retire, in spite of his alarm at his son's evident 
anger and dangerous temper [5, 17 — 20]. He was on terms 
of friendship with the Peisistratids, and offered Hippias the town of 
Anthemos when he was expelled from Athens [5, 94]. Besides 
his son Alexander, he had a daughter Gygaea married to a Persian 
named Bubares [8, 136]. 

(2) c. 136. 

A son of the Persian Bubares and Gygaea sister of Alexander of 
Makedon. He is called 'Amyntas of Asia', to distinguish him from 
the father of Alexander. 

Anagyrasios, c. 93. 

Of the deme Anagyros, which was on the coast of Attica between 
the Piraeus and Suniurn. 

Anaxandridas, c. 71. 

Son of Leon, king of Sparta of the elder house. He died 
shortly before B.C. 502. Herodotos [5, 39 — 41] tells us that his 
first wife, who was also his niece, had no children ; and that there- 
fore the Ephors urged him to put her away and marry another. 


He refused to do so from love to his wife. The Ephors accordingly, 
as a compromise, suggested that without divorcing his first wife he 
should take another. He accordingly — a thing hitherto unheard of 
at Sparta — married a second wife, a daughter of Prinetadas, and 
had by her a son Kleomenes. Soon afterwards his first wife, to the 
surprise of all, became the mother of three sons in quick succession, 
Dorieus, Leonidas, Kleombrotos. Kleomenes succeeded his father 
and died leaving only a daughter, Gorgo, about 495 B.C. Dorieus 
had meanwhile, after an adventurous life, died in Sicily [7, 205], 
and Leonidas succeeded. Kleombrotos was the father of Pausanias 

Andrians, the, c. 66. Andros, cc. 108, in, 112, 121. 

Andros was the most northern and, next to Naxos, the largest 
of the Cyclades, being 21m. long by 8 m. broad. It was fertile 
and rich in vines; but its inhabitants pleaded poverty when 
Themistokles demanded a contribution in B.C. 480 after the battle 
of Salamis [8, iii]. 'The Athenians', said Themistokles, 'have 
brought two strong gods, Persuasion and Necessity'. 'But we', 
answered the Andrians, 'have two unprofitable gods who never quit 
our island, Poverty and Helplessness'. 

Andromadas, c. 85. 

A Samian, father of Theomestor (q. v.). 


A native of Lemnos. 

Antikyra, c. 21. 

There were two towns of this name, one in Phokis on the gulf 
of Corinth ; the other in Malis. The latter seems to be the one 
referred to here [and in 7, 198]. It was near the modem town of 
Zittini. Both towns were noted for the cultivation of hellebore. 

Aphetae, cc. 4, 7, 8, II, 12, 14. 

A town and roadstead on the coast of Magnesia in the Pagasaean 
gulf. Strabo says that it was so named as the place from which 
the Argo started, just as Pagasae was called as the place at which 
the Argo was built [Trifivvixi). He says that Aphetae was near 
{irX-qaiov) Pagasae; but this cannot be taken very literally. Pagasae 
is at the very head of the gulf, and the whole story shows that the 
Persian fleet could not have been so far removed from Artemisium 
[Strab. 9, 5, 15]. 

Aphidnaios, c. 125. 

Of Aphidna, a fortified town in Attica, some few miles beyond 
Dekeleia on the road from Athens to Oropos. It was a very 


ancient town, one of the original twelve which Theseus was believed 
to have united into one Athenian State. It was celebrated in 
mythology as the place in which Theseus concealed Helen, when he 
carried her off as a child of seven years old; and accordingly her 
brothers Castor and Pollux took the town when they invaded 
Attica in search of her. Aphidna also was the birthplace of the 
poet Tyrtaeos, and of the tyrannicides Harmodios and Aristogeiton. 
Its exact site seems uncertain, but it has been supposed that some 
remains of fortifications on a hill now called Kotroni mark its 

Apollo, c. 134. See Ismenios and Pious. 

Areiopagos, the, c. 52. 

A hill at Athens, sacred to Ares, and separated from the 
western side of the Akropolis by a depression of some few yards 
breadth. It was chiefly noted for being the place at which the 
Council met in the open air for trials in cases of murder and sacri- 

Ares, c. 77. 

God of war, son of Zeus and Here. 

Argaios, c. 139. 

Son of Perdikkas the first Greek sovereign of Makedonia (q. v.). 

Argives, the, c. 73. Argos, cc. 137—8. 

Argos was the chief town of Argolis, the north-eastern province 
of Peloponnese. The dispute of the Argives with Sparta for pos- 
session of the narrow district along the coast immediately south 
of Argos, called Kynuria, had kept them in constant hostility with 
the Spartans. And their sufferings from the invasion of the Spartan 
king Kleomenes in B.C. 495 — 3, and the consequent rebellion of 
their own slaves [6, 72 — 83], had not only crippled them, but 
made them more than indifferent, positively hostile to the cause of 
the Greeks against the Persians ; they are said to have even sent to 
Persia inviting the invasion [7, 150 — 2], and certainly took no 
part in resisting it. In the following year they showed their friend- 
ship by warning Mardonius of the approach of the army of the 
Peloponnese [9, 12]. This alliance with Persia was maintained for 
many years afterwards [7, 151; Thucyd. 2, 67]. 

Ariabignes, c. 89. 

A son of Darius, and brother of Xerxes. He was commander in 
chief of the Persian fleet [7, 97]. 

Ariaramnes, c. 90. 

A Persian. His friendship to the lonians had probably been 
conceived during some official employment in Asia Minor. 
Ariphkon, c. 131. Father of Xanthippos (q.v.) 


Aristeides, cc. 79, 91, 95. 

The son of Lysimachos, of the deme Alopekae. In his youth he 
had been a friend of the reformer Kleisthenes, and when in after 
years he came to hold various offices in the state he so distinguished 
himself for his strict integrity, that he received by general consent 
the title of the Just. He was one of the ten Strategi at Marathon, 
and, after the battle, was left with the men of his tribe to guard the 
captives and collect the spoil, while the rest of the army hurried 
back to Athens to confront the Persians who had sailed thither 
round Sunium. His great rival, Themistokles, who had also been 
one of the Strategi at Marathon, rose to great power and influence 
during the ten years from B.C. 490 to B.C. 480, owing principally to 
his energetic measures in inducing the Athenians to equip a powerful 
fleet for the prosecution of the Aeginetan war, which ships, as 
Herodotos says, 'saved Hellas' by crushing the invasion of Xerxes 
at Salamis. Tlie political rivalry between the two statesmen had 
been stopped in the way peculiar to Athens by a vote of ostracism, 
in which the majority voted against Aristeides [b.c. 483] ; but when 
the invasion of Xerxes was actually approaching, the Athenians re- 
called Aristeides, and he joined the fleet at Salamis. After Sala-* 
mis, though the reputation of Themistokles was enormous, the confi- 
dence of the peojjle seems to have rested most upon Aristeides. He 
was elected sole commander {aTparrjybs avTOKparup) of the 8000 
hoplites sent to join the Greek army against Mardonius; and in the 
period which followed he was almost continually in command in the 
Aegean. It was his high character which induced the allies, irri- 
tated by the folly and arrogance of Pausanias, to transfer the com- 
mand of the allied fleet to Athens; and it was he who organised the 
Confederacy of Delos [b.c. 477 — 6], and arranged the assessment 
of the 06pos on a footing of equity always looked back upon by 
the allies themselves with satisfaction. As a statesman he had 
been connected with the more aristocratic party in opposition 
to Themistokles. But after 479 B.C. their positions seem to have 
been reversed to some extent. It was Aristeides who carried a 
measure throwing open to all citizens the archonship formerly con- 
fined to the pentacosiomedimni^ the richest class of citizens accord- 
ing to the assessment of Solon ; while his frequent absence in com- 
mand of the fleet separated him from the reactionary party at 
home, and kept him in sympathy with the class of citizens engaged 
in foreign service, who were observed to be more distinctly demo- 
cratic than those who remained at home. The year of his death is 
variously stated as B.C. 469 — 8; and the place according to some 
was Pontus, according to others, Athens. But all agree that he 
retained the affection and respect of his fellow-citizens to the last ; 
and that he showed by the smallness of the means which he left 
behind him, that he had made no personal gains in the public service. 
His tomb was long shown at Phalerum, and his daughters were por- 
tioned at the public cost, while his son Lysimachos had a grant of 
Imd and a pension. 

Life by Plutarch. 


Arkadia, c. 26. Akkadians, the, cc. 72 — 3. 

The central district of the Peloponnese. Its natural strength, 
being walled in on every side by considerable mountain ranges, 
preserved it from invasion, and its Pelasgan inhabitants therefore 
were not displaced by the Dorians who overran and settled most 
of the rest of the Peloponnese, This fact is to be remembered in 
studying Peloponnesian politics. Its mountainous scenery, and the 
antiquity of its inhabitants, caused it to be regarded as the natural 
home of primitive simplicity and pastoral life. It consisted of a 
num])er of independent townships, the most notable of which were 
Tegea and Mantinea, the only Arkadian towns mentioned as fur- 
nishing troops at Plataea [vid. 9, 27 — 8]. 

Artabanos, c. 26. 

vSon of llystaspes, brother of Darius, and uncle of Xerxes. He 

had dissuaded Xerxes from his expedition against Greece [7, 10 — 17], 

had warned him of the insecurity of the loyalty of the lonians 

[7, 46 — 52], and had been sent to Susa in charge of the kingdom 

' when Xerxes was starting [7, 52 — 3]. 

Artabazos, cc. 126, 128 — 9. 

Artabazos, son of Pharnaces, commanded the Parthians and 
Chorasmians [Her. 7, 6], and was held in high estimation among the 
Persians. He escorted king Xerxes back to the Hellespont after 
Salamis, at the head of 60,000 picked troops, and spent the winter of 
489 — 8 in trying to reduce the towns of Potidaea and Olynthos. He 
killed all the inhabitants of the latter city and handed it over to 
certain Chalkidian settlers in the neighbourhood. But he was not 
so successful with Potidaea. The citizens of this town offered a 
stout resistance for three months : and finally he lost a large number 
of his men in trying to enter the town at an ebb tide round the break- 
water, or mole, which protected the harbour [x^/Xt? Thucyd. i, 63]. 
Artabazos then raised the siege, retired to join Mardonius in Make- 
donia, ^nd marched with him southward in the spring. Plis force 
howevfir was now reduced to 40,000 men, with which he escaped 
after Vlataea, and with part of which at any rate he arrived safely 
in Asia ; where he still retained the confidence of the king, who 
sent him in B.C. 478 — 7 as Satrap to Sardis, in place of Megabates, 
wheii Pausanias offered to negotiate with the Persian monarch 
[Thucvd. I, 129]. From that time we hear no more of him. 

Artach'aeos, c. 130. 

A Per''^ian, father of Artayntes. 

Artaynt^es, c. 130. 

A Pers|i3.n left by Xerxes in command of his fleet, and conquered 
in the folkWing year at Mykale {9, 102, 107). 


Artemis, c. 77. 

The virgin Goddess, daughter of Zeus and Leto. 

Artemisia, cc. (s6 — 8, 68 — 9, 93, loi, 107. 

Queen of Halikarnassos in Karia, daughter of Lygdamis. She 
was married to the king of Halikarnassos, and on his death 
succeeded to the royal power, though she had a grown-up son, 
PisindeHs, who was the fatlier of another Lygdamis, king of Hali- 
karnassos at the time that Herodotos left his native city. Be- 
sides Halikarnassos her dominions included Kos, Nisyros and 
Kalydna. She furnished five triremes to the fleet of Xerxes [7, 99] ; 
and was so much trusted by him, that, when he retreated after 
Salamis to the Hellespont, he committed his children to her care to 
convey to Ephesos [8, loi — 2]. Photios \_Biblioth. 492] says that 
she committed suicide by throwing herself off the LeupccKan rofk 
('the lover's leap') in remorse for having put->G«it thfe' evqS'K^F' a 
youth called Dardanos of Abydos, whom she,'had l^y^d in vain. 
Her portrait was among the paintings on the Q^'^rfeian Stoa' in the 
agora of Sparta [Pausan. 3»,afe,3l/ ; • ^V**^^ 

Artemisium, cc. 4, 6, 8, 1^|L^5 — 5, 66, 76, 81. 

A name applied to the line of coast on the north of Euboea. 
It was so called from a temple of Artemis situated on the extreme 
point of the island. The name was also especially applied to the 
extreme northern promontory of Euboea, and probably to the town 
which had gathered round the haven. But of this town we know 
nothing. The name is common to other places, as for instance 
a promontory in Karia. 

Asia, cc. 109, 118 — 9, 130, 136. 

Herodotos knew somewhat less than a third of Asia, that part, 
namely, which was included in the Persian Empire. Earlier still 
the name was sometimes used merely of the district afterwards 
called Lydia [Homer, II. 2, 461]. 

AsiNE, c. 73. 

A town in Messenia on the west coast of the Koronaean gulf 
{Sinus Alesseniacus), on the opposite coast of which stood Karda- 
myle. It is called 'near Kardamyle' to distinguish it from Asine 
in Argos, from which the Dryopians (q. v.) had come, when ex- 
pelled by the Argives from their three towns of Hermione, Asine, 
and Halice. 

Atarneus, c. 106. 

A tract of Mysia opposite Lesbos [r, 160], near the river Kaikos 
(6, 28) ; it had been given up to the Chians by the Persians in 
return for the surrender of the Lydian tyrant Pactyas, who had 
taken refuge at Mytilene, after his revolt against Kyros. 

H. Mil. 14 


AxHENife, cc. 55, 104. Athenk Pronaia, cc. 37 — 9. Athene 
Skiras, c. 94. 

The goddess Athene was fabled to have sprung fully armed 
from the head of Zeus. She was guardian deity of Athens, which 
was named after her. The most venerable temple on the Acropolis 
was hers ; her sacred bird was stamped on the Attic coins ; and 
in every respect she represented the Athenian nationality. 

The temple of Athene Pronaia at Delphi abutted on the 
road from Phokis, and was the last of four temples standing thus 
at the entrance of the town. Pronaia means 'living in front', i.e. at 
the entrance of the town: but Pausanias (10, 8, 6) calls it the temple 
'A6r]V7}s Upovoias 'of Athene the goddess of forethought'. 

The position of the temple of Athen£: Skiras in Salamis is 
doubtful. It has generally been believed to be near the northern 
promontory the Skiradion ; but Stein places it in the South close 
to the old town of Salamis [quoting Plut. Solon 10]. The objec- 
tion to this is that it supposes the Korinthians to be escaping round 
the S. of the Island, which seems unlikely. The title Skiras is 
connected with two temples of Athene in Attica, and from it the 
month Skirophorion and the festival Skirophoria were named. 

Athenians, the, cc. i, 2, 5, 10, 17 — 8, 21 — 2, 40 — 2, 44, 51 — 5, 68, 
7o> 74— 5j 84, 86, 91, 93—4, 109— III, 136, 140— 4. 

Athens, cc. 34, 46, 48, 50, 56, 66 — 8, 102, 106, 118, 125, 136, 141. 

During the summer of B.C. 480 Athens was in the hands of the 
Persians, and though the inhabitants partially returned after the 
battle of Salamis, they quitted the town again in the spring of 
479 B.C. at the approach of Mardonios, and were for the most part 
housed in the island of Salamis, while Athens itself was for a time 
again occupied by Mardonios. The Athenians were all along the 
life and soul of the resistance to Persia. They, with the help of 
1000 Plataeans only, had conquered at Marathon in B.C. 490 ; they 
had organized the confederacy of the southern states formed in 
B.C. 481 — 480 to repel Xerxes ; at Artemisium and at Salamis their 
ships numbered nearly as many as those of all the other allies 
together ; and though at Plataea it was the Spartans and Tegeans 
who alone were engaged with the Persians, the Athenians were 
meanwhile employed in what was probably a more serious encounter 
with the Boeotians ; and in the consequent attack upon the Persian 
fortified camp the Spartans could not succeed without their help. 
It was her patriotism and valour in this war which among other 
causes led to the subsequent supremacy of Athens in Hellas. Until 
after the Persian wars Athens was practically an open town ; the 
Acropolis had been fortified by a wall constructed by Pelasgan 
builders, but any other defences it may have possessed must have 
been of the very slightest. After the Persian wars the Acropolis 


was devoted to sacred buildings, while the town itself was defended 
by a ring wall of about 7 miles in circumference. 

Attica, cc. 10, 40, 49, 51, 60, 65, 96, 144. 

Thucydides (i, 2) observes that Attica, partly because it lay out 
of the road from the north to southern Greece, and partly because 
its soil was not very fruitful, had in former times seldom been 
invaded, and therefore had not undergone those frequent changes 
of inhabitants which had befallen the rest of Greece. The people 
therefore re(;arded themselves as Autochthonous, or native to the 
soil. It is a peninsula of which the greatest length is 50 miles and 
breadth 30 miles; its whole contents 700 square miles. Its geolo- 
gical formation is primitive limestone ; and it is so mountainous that 
only half its square contents is available for cultivation. The hills 
are generally bare and rugged, giving a meagre sustenance to sheep 
and goats, and but scantily sprinkled with pines, dwarf-oaks, lentisk, 
arbutus and bay trees. The plains in the country, and there is none 
of importance except that of Athens itself, have but a light soil 
thinly covering the rock, not generally fitted for corn-growing, and 
not fruitful in anything except olives and vines. It is badly supplied 
with water ; its streams are mountain torrents nearly dry in the 
summer, and there is no lake or natural reservoir. The name has 
been generally derived from 6.KTr], 'headland' or 'coastland', but 
Curtius suggests that it is rather dari-KTi from a<XTV. 


One of the deified men or heroes worshipped at Delphi. 
Bagaeos, c. 130. 

The father of Mardontes (q. v.). 

Bakis, cc. 20, 77, 96. 

Nothing is known of this personage beyond the fact that a 
number of oracles were extant, the collection of which was attributed 
to him. These were consulted by individuals and states in times of 
danger and uncertainty: Herodotos quotes them in 9, 43; and Aristo- 
phanes parodied the style of these prophecies in the Equites and 
elsewhere [see Eq. 123 sq., Av. 8^9, Pax 1009]; which does not 
at all prove that he was wholly incredulous in respect to them. 
We are told that there were three prophets of this name (which 
means 'the Speaker', cp. ^d^eiu), one of Boeotia, who is the one 
quoted by Herodotos, another of Attica, and a third of Kaphyae in 

Bak'ikians, c. 113. 

Inhabitants of Baktria {Balk) separated from Ariana and from 
the Sakae by Mt Paromisos {Hindu-Kush) on the south and east, 
and from Sogdiana on the north-east by the river Oxus, and from 
Morgiana {^Khorassdn) on the west. Their contingent in the grand 

14 — 2 


army under Sisamnes carried bows of cane [7, 64 — 6], some on foot 
and some on horseback [ib. ^6]. They were included in the twelfth 
Satrapy by Darius [3, 92]. 

Basileides, c. 132. 

The father of an Herodotos, an Ionian, who is supposed by 
some to have been a relation of our historian. 

Belbine, c. 125. 

An island in the Saronic gulf, not far from Sunium, mod. 
Island of St George. There was however another place of the same 
name in Lakonia, on the borders of Arkadia, which may possibly be 
meant here [Steph. Byz., Pausan. 8, 35, 3]. 

Bermios, c. 138. 

The range of mountains in lower Makedonia extending north to 
the R. Lydias and south to the R. Haliakmon, and enclosing large 
plains between it and the sea. 

BiSALTAE, c. 116. 

A Thrakian people inhabiting a district west of the Strymon, in 
which were the Andrian colonies of Argilus and Arethusa [7, ri5]. 
They were a warlike race, who, though afterwards conquered by the 
Makedonians, long retained their name and nationality. 

BOEOTIA, cc. 45, 144. 

Boeotia was the district immediately to the north of Attica, 
bounded on the south-west by that part of the Corinthian Gulf 
called the mare Alkyonium, on the north and north-east by the 
territory of the Opuntian Lokrians and the Euripos, and on the west 
by Phokis. Between it and Attica lay the mountain range of 
Kithaeron and Parnes, which was crossed by two passes, one called 
Dryoskephalae leading from Eleusis by Eleutherae and Hysiae to 
Plataea, and another from Athens by Phyle (on Mt Parnes) into the 
valley of the Asopos and direct to Thebes. Extending from sea to 
sea it barred the way into Attica and the Peloponnese, and being 
also suited by its plains for military evolutions was often the scene 
of campaigns. It is divided geographically into two districts, the 
northern one containing two wide plains, those of Orchomenos 
and Thebes, but completely surrounded by mountains; the other, or 
southern Boeotia, containing the long and sometimes wide valley of 
the Asopos. Politically Boeotia was a somewhat loose confederacy 
of free towns, which varied in number at different times. Nine 
towns are known as belonging to the confederacy, viz. Thebes, 
Orchomenos, Lebadea, Coronea, Copae, Haliartos, Thespiae, Ta- 
nagra, Anthedon. Of these Orchomenos in H[omeric times seems 
to have been far the most important, but for a long while before the 
Persian war Thebes had been the leading state* These states were 


free, according to the Hellenic custom, but for certain purposes they 
were under the control of deputies or Boeotarchs elected by each 
state, who were again controlled by consultative senates. 

Boeotians, the, cc. 34, 38, 50, dd, 113. 

The Boeotians were a mixed race. Aeolian Hellenes had emi- 
grated from Thessaly and settled there, partly absorbing the earlier 
Pelasgic inhabitants; and in Thebes there had also been a Phoenikian 
colony called Kadmeians, whose name still survived in the citadel of 
Thebes, the Kadmeia. Not only, therefore, were they divided in race 
from the people of Attica and the Peloponnese, but against the 
former they were embittered by the feuds which always sprung up 
between conterminous Greek states, the especial object of contest 
in their case being generally the possession of Oropos, which com- 
manded the eastern and easiest road from Attica to the north, as 
well as Oenoe and Hysiae commanding the pass of Dryoskephalae. 
They and the Chalkidians of Euboea had in B.C. 506 joined Kleomenes 
of Sparta in ravaging Attica, in the interest of the expelled Hippias 
[Her. 5, 74] ; and had subsequently helped to protect the Chalkidians 
against the consequent Athenian vengeance [ib. 77]; and this enmity 
to Athens in a great measure accounted for the eagerness with which 
they as a nation medized. Yet there seems to have been a consider- 
able party of loyalists even at Thebes ; and at Thermopylae there 
were 700 Thespians and 400 Thebans serving in the army of Leonidas, 
though the latter soon deserted [7, 202]. 

BOTTIAEI, c. 127. 

Originally the inhabitants of the district between the rivers 
Haliakmon and Axius, the original seat of the Makedonian kingdom, 
and containing Pella, which was afterwards the capital of the 
kingdom [7, 123]. The Bottiaei were afterwards driven by the 
Makedonians eastward to the neighbourhood of Pallene [Thucyd. 
2, 99]. 

BUBARES, C. 136. 

A Persian who married Gygaea sister of Alexander of Makedon. 
He had been despatched to investigate the fate of the Persian 
ambassadors who had been assassinated at the Makedonian court in 
B.C. 510, but had apparently been induced by a bribe of money, and 
the hand of Gygaea, to hush the matter up [5, 21]. 

Chalkidians, the, cc. i, 44 — 5. 

The inhabitants of Chalkis in Euboea. Chalkis (mod. Egripo) 
on the Euripos, where the channel is divided by a rock— which 
now forms a central pier for the bridge uniting Euboea with the 
continent, — was a flourishing commercial town which had sent 
colonies in very ancient times to Sicily and Italy and the north of 
Greece. The oldest Hellenic colony in Italy, Kumae, was from 
Chalkis (perhaps in conjunction with the Asiatic Kymaeans), and 


the Chalkidian colonies in Sicily, Naxos and Zancle (Messina), had 
in their turn been the source of four other flourishing Sicilian towns. 
It was early a rival and opponent of Athens : and in B.C. 506, after 
it had taken part in the confederacy formed by Kleomenes against 
Athens, the Athenians conquered it and divided part of its territory 
among 4000 lot-holders or kleruchs [5, 77]. 


Father of Gorgos, king of Salamis in Kypros (q. v.). He was 
the son of Siromos s. of Euelthon, and appears to have been a 
Phoenikian. See 5, 104. 

Chersonesos, c. 130. 

The Thrakian Chersonese [mod. Peninsula of Gallipolt\ forms 
the northern shore of the Hellespont. It was fertile, and contained 
eleven or twelve cities, of which the most important were Kardia, 
Elaeos, Sestos, Pactya, and Madytos [7, 33 ; Xen. Hell. 3, 2, 10]. 
Its length is about 50 miles, and the breadth of the Isthmus about 
5. It had formerly been under the government of Miltiades, but all 
its cities except Kardia were taken at the end of the Ionian revolt, 
by the Phoenikians in the interest of Persia [6, 33]. 

Chios, cc. 105 — 6, 132. 

The island of Chios [mod. Scid\ lies about 5 miles from the 
coast of Lydia, its length being about 32 miles, and its width 
varying from 8 to 18 miles. It is a rocky (TraiTraXo^cj-o-a) island, and 
chiefly productive of wine and gum-mastic from the lentiscus grow- 
ing in it. Settlers from Krete, Euboea, and Karia had replaced or 
amalgamated with its ancient inhabitants who were Leleges with a 
mixture of Pelasgians from Thessaly. Its inhabitants were very 
wealthy [Thucyd. 8, 24, 3 — 4]. 

Damasithymos, c. 87. 

Son of Candaules, and king of the Kalyndians (q. v.) in Karia. 

Darius, c. 89. 

Darius of the clan of the Achaemenidae, the son of Hystaspes. 
He served under Kambyses in Egypt in B.C. 525 [3, 39]; after 
whose death he joined the other nobles in a plot to kill the Magus 
who pretended to be Smerdis son of Kyros [3, 70], and when this man 
was killed he secured the throne for himself [3, 84 — 7] : the other 
Persians submitting on condition that he should marry Atossa the 
daughter of Kyros. He was the organiser of the huge dominions 
thus acquired ; dividing them into twenty satrapies, and appointing 
to each the amount of tribute to be paid by it to the royal exchequer. 
In his reign (from B.C. 521 to 485) occurred the Ionian revolt, and, 
arising from the help rendered by Athens to the rebels, the 
expedition led by Dates and Artaphernes which failed at Marathon. 


He was making preparations for a renewal of the struggle when he 

Daulii, the, c. 35. 

The inhabitants of Daulis a town of Phokis. The town was 
destroyed during the Sacred War [b.c. 357 — 346], but seems to 
have revived, and was remarkable for the size and courage of its 
inhabitants, as well as for the abundance and density of its forests 
[Pans. 10, 41]. See Drymos. 

Delos, cc 132 — 3. 

The Cyclades were so called because they were regarded as 
being in a circle (ifuvXos) round Delos, which was familiar to all 
Greeks from the fame and sanctity of its temple of Apollo, for a 
long time the meeting-place of the Ionian Congress. This had 
been removed since about B.C. 530 — 20 by Polykrates of Samos to 
Ephesos ; but its yearly festival was still largely attended, and the 
Ionian cities sent splendid decopiai to do honour to the god. Hence 
the voyage as far as Delos was, as we leani here, familiar to the 
Greek sailors, though all beyond was strange a.nd alarming. It is 
the smallest of the Cyclades, lying close to the larger island 
Rheneia, which was properly the place of residence of the Delians, 
Delos itself being reserved for sacred purposes. 

Delphi, cc. 27, 35, 81, 114, lai — 2. 
Delphians, the, cc. 37—9. 

Delphi, the seat of the famous oracle of Apollo, was in a religious 
sense the centre of Greece. To it men from all parts of Greece, and 
indeed of the known world, came to consult the Oracle on every 
imaginable difficulty, great or small. The answers of the Pythian 
priestess were regarded with the greatest respect, and often decided 
the policy of a state, and the question of peace or war. The care 
of the temple was the joint business of the Phokian league, and 
the claim of the Delphians to the exclusive custody of it, supported 
as they were in that claim by Sparta, led to a war in which the 
Athenians finally restored the privilege to the Phokian league 
[Thucyd. i, 112]. This was about B.C. 449 : but more than a hun- 
dred years before (b.c. 595 — 585) there had been a more serious 
'Sacred War' brought on by the greed of the people of Kirrha, the 
port of Delphi, in levying heavy exactions on visitors to the shrine, 
and which ended in the destruction of Kirrha [Plut. Sol. xi.]. So 
important did the Greeks consider free access to this sacred place. 
Its freedom and inviolability was the special business of the Ani- 
phiktyonic League which met there and at Thermopylae alter- 
nately. The splendid temple standing at the time of the Persian 
invasion was a comparatively recent erection ; the more ancient 
building, which yet was the fourth that had been built, was burnt 
in B.C. 54S, and the new one was built by the Alkmaeonidae, 


who went beyond their contract in facing the pronaos with Parian 
marble. The town of Delphi stood in a kind of natural amphi- 
theatre to the S. of the sloping foot of a precipitous two-headed 
cliff which terminates the range of Parnassos. The valley is 
watered by the river Pleistos flowing to the S.W. into the Krissaean 
gulf. The name of the town in the Homeric poem is Pytho (Ilu^ci), 
hence the 'Pythian games', and the 'Pythia', i.e. the priestess who 
delivered the oracles. 

Demaratos, c. 65. 

Son of Ariston, whom he succeeded as king of Sparta. He 
incurred the enmity of the other king Kleomenes by thwarting him 
in his attack upon Athens [5, 75]; and in Aegina [6, 59 sq.]. Ac- 
cordingly Kleomenes resolved to get rid of him, and the Delphian 
oracle was induced to declare that he was not the true son of Ariston. 
After a while he was deposed and went into exile. He lived in 
various places in Greece, finally crossing over to Persia where Darius 
received him with honour. He accompanied Xerxes in his expe- 
dition into Greece ; though he had evinced the remains of patriotic 
feelings by previously warning his countrymen of the coming danger 
[7, 239]. For his conversations with Xerxes see 7, loi — 4, 109. 
His family long occupied the places in Asia which were given him 
as a reward [Xen. Hell. 3, r, 6J. 

Demokritos, c. 65. 

A commander of a trireme of Naxos, who according to Plutarch 
(de malig. Her. 36) greatly distinguished himself in the battle of 
Salamis, taking five of the enemy's ships, and rescuing a Greek 
vessel that had been captured. 

DiKAEUS, c. 65. An Athenian evile in the Persian army. 

Dorians, the, cc. 31, 43, 45, 66, 73, 141. 

The Dorians, according to the myth, were descended from 
Doros the eldest son of Hellen, and gradually migrated step by step 
southward, under different appellations, until they finally settled in 
the Peloponnesos [i, 56]. The main fact, that the Dorians were 
a migration from the North, pushed away by the encroachments of 
northern barbarians, may be regarded as historical. They occupied 
Korinthos, Lakonia, Argos and Messenia ; and presently sent out a 
considerable number of colonies ; the principal of which were in 
Korkyra and Sicily to the west, and in Karia in the east. 

Doris, cc. 31 — 2, 43. 

A small district between the Mounts Octa and Parnassos, con- 
sisting of the valley of the Pindos. The Lakedaemonians re- 
garded this place as their metropolis, and in B.C. 456 sent an 
expedition to assist the inhabitants against an attack of the Phokians 
[Thucyd. i, 107, 2]. 


Drymos, C.32. 

A town of Phokis in the valley of the Kephisos. There was a 
town of the same name, which means an ' Oak forest ', in Euboea. 
For the woody nature of the district, see under Daulii. Pausaiiias 
calls it Apvjxaia [10, 3, 2], and tells us of an ancient temple of 
Demeter Thesmophoros existing there [10, 39, 12]. 

Dryopians, cc. 46, 73. 

Dryopis, cc. 31, 43. 

Dryopis bordered on Malis, extending from the Sperkheios to 
some way beyond Mt Oeta. The Dry opes were probably a 
Pelasgic race, and when expelled from their native country scat- 
tered in various directions ; into Argolis, where they built the towns 
of Hermione, Asine and Eion ; into Euboea, where they had Styra 
and Karystos ; and into the islands of Kythnos, Mykonos, and 
Kypros. See under Asine. Muller's Dorians^ vol. i. p. 45 — 7. 
Her. I, 56, 146. 

Egyptians, the, cc. 17, 68, 

The Eg)'ptians, whose civil, religious, and military organisation 
was the most ancient of any known to the Greeks, and from whom 
many of the institutions of Greece were traced, had been conquered 
by the Persians under Kambyses B.C. 525 [3, 10 sq.]; had rebelled 
against the Persians in the reign of Darius B.C. 486 [7, i — 19], and 
had thus prevented him from renewing his attack upon Greece. 
Being again subdued by Xerxes they, like the rest of the subject 
states, furnished a contingent to the Grand Army [7, 25, 89], and 
their 200 ships did conspicuous service at Artemisium. 

EiON, cc. 1 18, 120. 

A Thrakian town on the mouth of the Strymon, serving as the 
harbour town of Amphipolis, from which it was about 3 miles 
distant. It was at this time under the command of a Persian 
named Boges [7, 113], and remained in Persian hands till B.C. 476 
when it was captured by Kimon son of Miltiades [Thucyd, i, 98]. 

Elateia, c. 3.',. 

The largest and, next to Delphi, most important city of Phokis. 
It stood on a gentle elevation in the midst of a large plain in the 
valley of the Kephisos. The Elateians professed to be of Arkadian 
[i.e. Pelasgic] origin ; and long remained a powerful state, holding 
out successfully against Kassander the Makedonian, and later on 
against Mithridates. For this latter exploit they were made a irec 
city by the Romans [Paus. 10, 34, i — 6 J. 

Eleans, the, c. 72. Elis, cc. 27, 73. 

Elis was the north-western province of the Peloponnesos. The 


Eleans, who were of kin to the Aetolians, are chiefly prominent in 
Greek history from the fact of their having the management of the 
Olympic games, held within their borders in the valley of the 

ElEUSIS, CO. 65, 85. 

Eleusis, situated on a bay called by the same name, was about 
1 1 miles from Athens, from which it was approached by the Sacred 
Way. It is opposite Salamis and at the mouth of the western 
branch of the Attic Kephisos. It was famous throughout Greece, 
and a place of especial sanctity in the eyes of the Athenians, from 
the celebration of the mysteries in its great temple of Demeter, to 
which the citizens of Athens yearly went in solemn procession, and 
which were attended by the pious from all parts of Greece, » 

Ellopia, c. 23, 

A district in the N. -West angle of Euboea lying round Mt 
Telethinos. It formed a part of a district called Oria ('fip/a or 
'Qpeia) belonging to the town of Histiaea. Some time after the 
battle of Leuktra (r.C. 371) the Ellopians were removed to Histiaea, 
which by that time had come to be called Oreos. The mythological 
derivation of Ellopia was from Ellops son of Ion ; which means that 
the Ellopians were lonians. Herodotos calls it fioipa 'an allotment ', 
Strabo xcoptoj/ 'a small district' [Strab. 10, i, 3]. 

Ephesos, cc. 103, 105, 107. 

A town on the coast of Asia at the mouth of the Kaystei", with a 
harbour called Panormos which is now silted up. It was one of the 
tM^elve Ionian towns [i, j^2, 148], and in the time of Polykrates was 
regarded as religiously the centre of the lonians, their yearly festival 
being called the Ephesia [Thucyd. 3, 104]. It was now in the hands 
of the Persians, who apparently guarded it carefully, so that it had 
taken no part in the Ionian revolt. The reason of this was that 
it was the starting-point of the great road through Sardis into 
central Asia. Hence we find in this book that Xerxes sends his 
children to Ephesos, that they may go safely up the country. And 
hence it is that Panionios sends the unfortunate boys for sale to 
Ephesos and to Sardis [c. 105]. It was said to have been founded 
by Androklos, son of the Athenian Kodros. 

Epidaurians, the, cc. i, 43, 72. 

Epidauros, c. 46. 

Epidauros was a town on the coast of Argolis, opposite the 
island of Aegina, which it had originally colonised and retained 
more closely under its power than was usually the case with colonies 
[Her. 5, 83]. The inhabitants were Dorians, and it was noted for 
its temple and worship of Aesculapios, and for the celebration of 


certain orgies or mysteries of which Herodotos says * it Is not lawful 
to speak'. 

Erechtheus, cc. 44, 55. 

A mythical king of Athens, son of Hephaestos and Atthis d. of 
Kranaos. To him were attributed the establishment at Athens 
(i) of the worship of Athene, {2) the Panathenaea, {3) the building of 
the temple of Athene Polias, which in historical times formed part 
of the Erechtheum. Herodotos calls him earth-born [7777e»'Tjs] as 
his mother 'Ard/is is an earth-nymph, 'Ar^is Vr]. Cp. Hom. II. 2, 

ot 5' <Xp' 'Adrjvas eTxov, ivKri/xepov TTToKUdpov, 
drjuov 'Epex^?70S fieyaXi^TOpos, 6v ttot 'AdrjvTj 
dpe\pe Aios dvydrTjp — r^/ce 5^ ^eidwpos dpovpa — 
Ka8 5' iu 'A6^i^r]S elcrev, €(^ evl ttIovl vrji^. 

Eretrians, the, cc. i, 46. 

The inhabitants of Eretria in Euboea. They had assisted Miletos 
in the Ionic revolt [B.C. 501] with 5 triremes, in return for assistance 
received from Miletos in some quarrel with Chalkis [Her. 5, 99}: 
for this they were made a special object of attack by Dates and 
Artaphernes in B.C. 490. They took the town and carried off all 
the inhabitants they could catch to Susa; where they were received 
kindly by Darius and settled in a district called Ardericca, about 
35 miles from Susa, where they remained for some generations. 
But though the town was thus depopulated, a considerable number 
of the inhabitants escaped falling into the hands of the Persians by 
taking refuge in the mountains in the centre of Euboea [id. 6, 
100 — 120]. These people must have returned after the defeat of 
the Persians at Marathon, and have restored the prosperity of their 
town; for they supplied 600 hoplites at Plataea, besides sending 
these seven triremes to Artemisium and Salamis [id. 9, 21]. 

Erineos, c. 43. 

A town of Doris on the R. Pindos, a tributary of the Kephisos. 
It was one of the four cities — the Tetrapolis — which were regarded 
as the original home of the Dorians. [Strab. 914, 10.] 

Etrochus, c. 33. 

A town in Phokis. It appears not to have been an important 
place, and remained a mere open village after the destructive attack 
of the Persians [Paus. 10, 3, 2]. 

Euboea, cc. 8, 13, 20, 68—9, 86. 

EuBOEANS, the, cc. 5, 6, 7, 13, 19, 20. 

Euboea is a long narrow island extending from the Malian gulf 
as far south as about half the length 01 Attica. Where it 


approaches nearest the coast of the mainland it was believed to 
have been separated by an earthquake. The channel (the Euripos) 
is narrow enough to admit of a bridge, which was first made by the 
Boeotians in B.C. 410. Its natural formation divides it in three; 
each part being marked by a range of mountains, Mt Telethios in 
the north, Mt Dorphys in the centre, Mt Ocha in the south. The 
chief towns in these divisions were, Histiaea (Oreos) in the north, 
Chalkis and Eretria in the centre, Styra and Karystos in the south ; 
and these three divisions were also mainly inhabited by three dif- 
ferent races respectively, Ellopians (lonians), Abantes (see Abae)y 
Dryopians (q. v.). For the interference of Athens in Euboea see ■ 

EUMENES, C. 93. 

An Athenian of the deme Anagyros, who distinguished himself 
at Salamis. 

EURlPOS, c. 15. 

The channel between Euboea and the mainland — whence the 
modern name of Negropont [i.e. Egripo (Euripos) Ponte = bridge]. 
It was the natural course for ships to take coming from the north, 
and has been called by some historians the sea-Thermopylae, being 
the key to the south of Greece by sea, as Thermopylae by land : at 
its narrowest point opposite Chalkis it is only 40 yards across. 

Europe, cc. 51, 97, 108, 109. 

Herodotos conceived of Europe as a large continent of un- 
known extent towards the west and north, no man being able to say 
whether the sea bounded it in those two directions. The whole 
world was divided into Asia and Europe; in Asia was included 
Libya as far as the valley of the Nile, which bounded Europe in one 
direction while the Kolchian Phasis bounded it on the other [4, 45]. 

EUROPIAN, cc. 133, 135. 

An inhabitant of the Karian town Europus, or as some write it 
Euromus [see Steph. Byz. s. vv. Eil/jojywos, Ei)/)U7rds]. There were other 
towns of the same name in Makedonia and Syria. That the Karian 
one is meant here is shown by the story in c. 135, and by Pausanias 
9, 23, 6, who recounts this same anecdote. Its site seems uncertain ; 
Colonel Leake placed it near the modern lakli. 

EURYBIADES, CC 2, 42, 48, 57, 59, 60, 62 — 3, 74, 79, I08, 1 24. 

Son of Eurykleides, the commander of the Spartan ships, and 
therefore of the combined fleet. Though the account of his proceed- 
ings does not give a very lively idea of firmness or capacity, his 
countrymen honoured him with the prize for valour after Salamis, 
while they gave the prize for wisdom to Themistokles [8, 124]. 


EURYKLEIDES, CC. 2, 42, 62. 

A Spartan, father of Eurybiades. 

Gauanes, c. 137. 

One of the Argive youths, descendants of Temenos, who fled 
froni Argos to Illyria and thence to upper Makedonia ; the younger 
of the three, Perdikkas, founding the dynasty of Makedonia. He 
appears not to be mentioned elsewhere. 

Geraistos, c. 7. 

A town and promontory ( Cape Mandili) at the extreme south of 
Euboea. It possessed a great temple of Poseidon. The town does 
not seem to have been important except as a place of call for ships 
sailing from Attica to the Islands or Asia Minor. See Hom. Odyss. 

3, 177 es re Vepaiarhv ivvvx^o-^ ko-toc^ovto (in Nestor's account of the 
Greek return from Troy). 

GORDIAS, c. 138. 

Father of Midas (q. v.). He is called Gordi^j by Aelian, V. H. 

4, 17, and by Strabo (12, 5, 3), who places his home in Phrygia on 
the river Sangarios. 

GORGOS, c. I r . 

King of Salamis in Kypros. He had been shut out of his own 
town by a trick of his brother Onesilos, because he refused to join the 
Ionian revolt from Persia : but flying for safety to the Persians he 
had been reinstated [5, 104, 1 15]. 

Gygaea, c. 136. 

A sister of Alexander of Makedonia (q. v.) married, as a peace- 
offering, to a Persian named Bubares [5, 21]. 

Halikarnassos, c. 104. 

Though his own birthplace, Herodotos says very little of 
Halikarnassos. He tells us that it was u;ie of the Dorian Hexa- 
polis in Asia Minor, of which the other members were Lindos, 
Telysos and Kamisos in Rhodes, and Kos and Knidos on the 
mainland, but was expelled from the Union, which thus became a 
Pentapolis [i, 144]. Halikarnassos, thus separated from the other 
Dorian states, appears to have become very rapidly lonicised. It 
was the largest and strongest city in Karia, a colony from Troczen in 
Argolis, standing on the slope of a precipitous rock and an isthmus 
called Zephyrium. It shared the fate of the other Asiatic Greek 
cities in becoming subject to Persia ; and, like the others, fell under 
the rule of a dynasty of tyrants founded by Lygdamis, who remaining 
loyal to the Persians gradually became lords of all Karia. It continued 
to be important until its destruction by Alexander the Great, from 
which it never entirely recovered [Diod. xvii. 23. Curtius 2, 9]. 


Hellas, cc. 3, 4, 18, 22, 44, 57, 60 § i, 62, ^^, 68 § i, 76, 

100 — I, 108—9, ^H — 5' ^4^' ^44- 
Hellenes, cc. 4—11, 14—18, 23, 30, 44, 46, 56, 65, 68 § 2, 70, 

72, 75 — 6, 80, 82 — 4, 87, 89, 94, 96 — 8, 102, 107 — 8, no — 2, 

121— 2, 124, 130—3, 142. 

Hellenic, cc. 6, 17, 81, 85, 87, 144. 

Hellas and Hellenes are in the widest sense ; the latter inckiding 
all united by a common descent from Hellen, common language, and, 
in the main, common religion ; and the former indicating all lands 
inhabited by them. It is also used in the more restricted sense of 
continental and island Greece. 

Hellespontos, cc. 51, 87, 97, 107 — no, 1-15, 117 — 8, 120. 

The narrow strait (varying from i to 3 miles in breadth) between 
the Thrakian Chersonese and Asia. There were numerous Greek 
colonies on its shores attracted there by the trade, especially in corn, 
with the peoples round the Black Sea [6, 26, 33]. 

Hephaestos, c. 98. 

The god of fire, and of the metallic arts which required fire. In 
the Iliad he is represented as lame [/cuXXottoS/wj' 18, 37], but as a 
skilful artificer [II. i, 571 kXvtot^xvv^, 15, 311 x^'^'^'^'^j], and the 
maker of the brazen starry palace in which he lived [II. 18, 370]. 
Herodotos found his worship well known in Egypt [2, 2, 3, 99, loi]. 
At Athens the Lampadephoriae were held in his honour, but also in 
honour of Pan [6, 105]. 

Herakleidae, cc. 114, 131. 

The 'Herakleidae of Sparta' are the two royal families of Sparta, 
the representatives of which both claimed descent from Herakles. 
They were not Dorians [5, 72], but were supposed to have returned 
under Hyllos son of Herakles to the Peloponnese with the Dorian 
invaders, from which they bad been expelled by Eurystheus. The 
two families branched off from Aristodemos fourth in descent from 
Herakles [see c. 131]. 


Eurystheus Prokles 

I I 

Agis Siris 

(hence the Agidae). | 

Euryphon or Eurypon 
(hence the Eurypontidae). 

Herakles, cc. 43, 131. 

The worship of Herakles, according to the common legend son 


of Zeus and Alkmena, was the most widely spread in Greece of 
any god. Herodotos found a deity worshipped in Egypt under the 
same name [2, 43, 145], at Tyre [2, 44], and in Skythia [4, 59]; 
though the Greek legends concerning him were unknown to the 
Egyptians [2, 43]. The peculiarity of the worship of Herakles was 
that it combined the two kinds, that paid to a hero and that to a 
God [2, 44]. He is the mythical ancestor of the royal families of 
Sparta and of Lydia [i, 7 ; 7, 204], and his temples were found in in- 
numerable places. He represented to the Greek mind the highest 
idea of human strength and triumphant manhood, to which heaven 
itself was open. 

Hermione, c. 73. Hermonians, the, cc. 43, 72. 

A town on the S. E. coast of Argolis, on a gulf to which it gives 
a name. It was one of the three Argive towns (the others being 
Halice and Asine) inhabited by Dryopians (q. v.). 

Hermotimos, cc. 104, 106. 

One of the eunuchs in the service of Xerxes, a native of 
Pedasus (q. v.). 

Herodotos, c. 132. 

A son of Basileides (q. v.) and perhaps a relation of the historian ; 
he appears to have been a native of Chios. 

Histiaea, cc. 23, 25, 66, 85. 

A town on the north of Euboea. It was afterwards called Oreos, 
from the general name of the district in which it stood. After the 
Persian war it was subject to Athens and revolting in B.C. 445 was 
taken by Perikles, its inhabitants removed, and Athenian citizens 
put in [Thuc. i, 114]. See Ellopia. 

Hollows of Euboea, the, c. 13. 

By rd koTko. ttjs EvfSoirjs was meant, says Strabo, all the part 
between Aulis and the district ol" Geraestos; for the shore there 
bends into a deep bay, but towards Chalkis approaches the main- 
land again [Strab. 10, i, 15]. The Persian ships therefore had 
rounded Geraestos when they were caught by the storm. This 
was a dangerous coast from its broken and abrupt nature and its 
variety of currents. Cp. Livy 31, 47 est sinus Euboicus, quem 
Coe/a vocant, suspectus nautis. And Eurip. I'road. 84 irXijaov bk 
v€KpQv KoiXov Ev^oias fxvxop. This last quotation is in favour of 
the geographical description given above ; for it refers to the return 
of the Greeks from Troy, the natural course being that which they 
took when going out, viz. by Aulis and the Euripos, in which case 
they would necessarily pass througli the sinus Euboicus, but not 
past Cape Kaphareos, between which and Geraestos some would 
place 'the Hollows'. 


Hyampeia, c. 39. 

One of the two peaks of Pamassos immediately above the 
fountain of Kastalia at Delphi. 

Hyampolis, c. 34. 

A city in Phokis on the Kephisos and a short distance north 
of Abae (q. v.), on the road leading from the latter town to Opos. 
The town was said to have been colonised by natives of Thebes 
driven out by Kadmos. It was again destroyed by Philip of 
Makedon; but many of its ancient buildings were standing in the 
time of Pausanias (2nd cent, a.d.) and Hadrian built a covered 
walk {(sro6}j there [Paus. 10, 35, 4]. 

Hydarnes, cc. 113, ir8. 

Son of the Hydarnes who was one of the assassins of the false 
Smerdis [3, 70]. He was the leader of the Immortals, the 10,000 
picked men of the Persian army [7, 83, 211]. His descendants 
became kings in Armenia [Strabo ir, 14, 15]. 

Illyrians, c. 137. 

The inhabitants of the country including the modern Dalmatia, 
Herzegovina, Montenegro, with parts of Croatia, Bosnia, and Albania. 
Herodotos appears to have known little about them ; and only men- 
tions one tribe by name, the Eneti, who are probably the ancestors of 
the V eneti of Italy [i, 196]. 

Indi, c. 113. 

For the Indians serving in the army of Xerxes see 7, 65; q, 31. 
They were the inhabitants of Punjaub and the valley of the Indus, 
beyond which Herodotos' knowledge of India did not go [3, 98 ; 4, 
40]. They had been partially subdued by Darius [4, 44]. 

Ion, c. 44. 

Ion, son of Xuthos, son of Ilellen, the mythical ancesLor of the 

Ionia, cc. 109, 132. 

loNiANS, the, cc. 10, 19, 22, 46, 48, 85, 90 [f. Jas, 130], 132. 

Those of the Hellenic settlers in Greece who according to the 
myth were descended from Ion, son of Xuthos, the third son of 
Hellen. They appear first to have settled in the northern district 
of the Peloponnese, afterwards called Achaia [Her. 7, 94] and in 
Attica and Euboea. Athens was regarded (though without any 
certain historical basis) as the /xriTpoTroXis of the Ionian states es- 
tablished in various parts of Greece. The most numerous and 
flourishing were those in Asia Minor, such as Ephesos and Miletos, 
and when Herodotos speaks of 'the lonians' he usually means 


these Asiatic states between the river Hermos on the noith and 
the district of Miletos on the south. They consisted of twelve 
states, viz. Miletos, Myos, Priene, in Caria; Ephesos, Kolophon, 
Lebedos, Teos, Klazomenae, Phokaea, Erythra, in Lydia; and 
two islands, vSamos and Chios. These states signalised their con- 
nexion by a yearly meeting at the Pan-Ionium, near the temple of 
Poseidon on the promontory of Mykale, or at a later period at 
Ephesos [see Her. i, 142; Thucyd. 3, 104]. 

ISCHENEOS, c. 91. 

A man of Aegina, father of Pytheas (q. v.). 

ISMENIOS, c. 134. 

Ismenian Apollo means the temple of Apollo at Thebes, built on 
a hill, at the foot of which flowed the river Ismenos [i, 52, 92 ; 5, 
60 — I ; Pausanias 9, 10, 2]. 

Isthmus, the, cc. +0, 49, 56 — 7, 60, 71 — 4, 79, 121, 123. 

The Isthmus of Corinth is called the Isthmus by Herodotos 
and Thucydides; when any other is meant it is distinguished by 
some explanatory word as YlaKKr)V7)s, Xepcrov^crov, or the like. At 
the time of the Persian war the Greeks of the Peloponnese looked 
to the Isthmus as their chief protection, because it could be passed 
only by two difficult roads, and admitted of being effectually 
blocked by artificial means. 

Italia, c. 62. 

By Italy Herodotos seems to mean what was afterwards Lucania, 
and especinlly the Greek colonies planted on its coast [see note ad 
loc.]. Calabria he calls lapygia [3, 138; 4, 99], and it does not seem 
clear whether Tarentum is conceived as being in Italy proper [i, 24; 
3» 138; 7, 170]. The most northerly Greek towns on the W. coast 
mentioned by him are Velia and Posidonium, the former of which is 
said to be in Oenotria [i, 167]. He seems to have known nothing 
of central Italy ; but the Tyrrhenians on the N. of the Tiber are 
mentioned several times [i, 163, 166 — 7; 6, 17, 22]; and he seems 
to have some confused notion of the Kelts living north of Umbria: 
though he appears to place both further west than Italy, while he 
thinks that 'Alpis' is the name of a river [4, 49]. 


A Persian commander, nephew of Artayntes. Both shared in 
the defeat at Mykale, but escaped with their lives [9, 102]. 

Kalliades, c 51. 

Archon Eponymos at Athens for the year b.g 4S0— 479. 
li. Vill. 15 


Kalyndians, the, c. 87 — 8. 

The inhabitants of Kalynda a town in Karia on the borders of 

Kaphareos, c. 7. 

The northern of the promontories at the southern extremity of 
Euboea (mod. Xylohpago). 

Kardamyle, c. 73. 

A town of Messenia on the eastern shore of the Simts Alesseniacus^ 
subject from ancient times to the Lakedaemonians ; though in Homer 
(II. 9, 150) it is spoken of as belonging to Agamemnon. 

Karians, the, cc. 19, 12. Karia, c. 135. 

The inhabitants of Karia, a district to the S.-West of Asia Minor. 
Herodotos, who was born in Hahkarnassos an Hellenic town in 
Karia, asserts that the Karians came thither from the Islands, and 
that, while in the Islands, they were called Leleges, a sister people 
of the Pelasgians. Thucydides also says that the occupation of the 
islands by Karians was proved by the tombs opened by the Athenians 
in B.C. 425, in order to purify the island by removing the corpses. 
His theory is that, being great smugglers, they were driven from the 
Islands by Minos of Crete [Thucyd. i, 8; 3, 104]. Their language 
though not Hellenic had a large admixture of Hellenic words (Her. 
I, 171], and when Homer (II. 2, 867) calls them l3ap^apo(p(Zi'oi he 
may be indicating (as Rawlinson remarks) not so much their separa- 
tion from the Greeks, as the fact that they attempted an intercourse 
from which others shrank. 

Karneia, the, c. 72. 

A national festival held at Sparta (as also in other cities of the 
Peloponnese, as well as Dorian cities elsewhere) in honour of Apollo 
Karneios. It lasted nine days, beginning on the 7th day of the 
Spartan month Karneios [August]. 

Karystians, the, c. 66. Karystos, 112, 121. 

The inhabitants of Karystos in the S. of Euboea near Mt Ocha. 
The neighbourhood was celebrated for its marble quarries. The 
people were Dryopes (q. v.). 

Kastalia, c. 39. 

A fountain at Delphi at the foot of Parnassos, at the entrance of 
the ravine which separates the two peaks. It is identified with a 
spring of remarkably pure water now called A 10 Jdnni. 

Keians, cc. I, 46. 

The inhabitants 01 Keos, an island lying off the promontory of 
Sunium, 12 m. long by 8 broad. They were a colony from Athens. 


Kekropidae, the, c. 44. 

Kekrops, cc. 44, 53. 

Kekrops, father of Erechtheus (q. v.), the mythical first king of 
Athens : hence the Athenians are called in poetry Kekropidae 
[compare RomiiUdaey Aejieadae as.the name for Romans]. Herodotos 
seems to assert that it was once a real national appellation. 

Keos, c. 76. 

Some have thought that the Island of Keos opposite the pro- 
montory of Sunium is meaat: but the distance is too great from 
Phalerum to allow us to suppose that the Persian left would rest on 
the Island of Keos. It appears possible that both Keos and 
Kynosoura are places (though unknown) on the coast of Attica 
between Phalerum and Sunium. This is the view of Grote : but 
Col. Leake places them in Salamis, and with him other com- 
mentators agree — Rawlinson, Abicht; while Stein seems to think 
that both names Keos and Kynosoura belong to the narrow tongue of 
land in Salamis opposite Psyttaleia, and that Keos was the ordinary 
name of it, Kynosoura a less known one. 

Kephisos, c. 33. 

The only considerable river in Central Greece. It rises in the 
range of Oeta, and flows through Doris, Phokis, and Boeotia into 
the Kopaic lake, a reservoir which is relieved by subterranean channels. 
It receives a considerable number of affluents on both sides in its 
course. There is another river of the same name in Attica. 

KiLiKiA, cc. 14, 100. 

KiLiKiANS, the, c. 68. 

Kilikia is the south-eastern district of Asia Minor bordering on 
the Mare Internum opposite Kypros. On the east it is bounded by 
Mt Amanos, though Herodotos extends it to the Euphrates [50, 52]; 
and on the north it is separated from Kappadokia and Lykaonia by 
the range of Taurus. It was an important province, because of the 
length of its seaboard, the fertility of its soil, and its position in 
regard to Syria. 

Kleinias, c, 17. 

The father of the great Alkibiades, and a son of a man also 
named Alkibiades (q. v.). He was killed at the battle of Koroneia, 
in the war between Athens and the Boeotians B.C. 447 [Plutarch, 
Alkibiad. i]. 

Kleombrotos, c. 71. 

Kleombrotos, the father of Pausanias, was son of Anaxandridas 
and twin brother of Leonidas. When Leonidas fell at Thermopylae 



leaving one son Pleistarchos, a minor, Kleombrotos became regent, 
but died in the autumn of 479 or spring of 478, and was succeeded 
in the regency by his son Pausanias. 

KOLIAS, c. 96 [KwXtds a/fpa]. 

The name of a promontory in Attica about 'i\ miles from 
Phalerum [Pausan. i, 1,5], modern Cape St Kosmas. There was a 
temple of Aphrodite in it [Arist. Nub. 52]. 

KoPAis, c. 134. 

A lake in Boeotia surrounded by mountains, from which it 
received abundant drainage. The water thus collected found its 
way out by hidden passages in the limestone rock called now 
KafavSthrae, principally at the east end (Mt Ptoum) ; besides some 
artificial tunnels constructed to prevent the * waters flooding the 
district. Though large it is shallow, except at the east end. In 
summer it nearly dries up, in the winter it covers an area of about 
90 miles. Attempts are now being made to drain it off altogether. 
In the Iliad (5, 709) it is called Kr)^L<xis. 

KORINTHOS, cc. 45, 94. 

KoRiNTHiANS, the, CC I, 5, 21, 43, 59, 61, 72, 79. 

The territory of Korinthos was separated from the Megarid on the 
north by the range of Geraneia, and from Argolis on the south by 
that of Oneiiin, 'the Ass's back'. The isthmus averages about 
3^ miles in breadth, and very little of it is fertile. Korinthos itself 
consisted of an acropolis, the Acrokorinthos {1900 ft), with a town 
round it enclosed with walls, and joined to its harbour on the 
western coast, Lechaeum, by long walls, like those of Athens, 
extending a little more than a mile. Its port on the east coast, 
Kenchreae, was more than eight miles distant. The position of 
Korinthos made it naturally the seat of commerce from early times, 
and in it the art of building ships of war or triremes was first 
practised. Holding also the pass between northern Greece and the 
Peloponnese, it had a greater influence in Hellenic politics than the 
character of its rich and luxuriant citizens seems to warrant. The 
prevailing element in its population was Dorian, and its inclination 
was therefore generally to side with Sparta rather than Athens. In 
the Persian war it did not play a very dignified or conspicuous part. 
At Salamis its ships were said, perhaps untruly (see Introduction), 
to have been turned to flight (8, 94), and at Plataea its soldiers 
were among those who retreated to the Heraeum and returned too 
late for the battle (9, 69). Its ships and men however did some 
good service at Mykale (9, 102). The wall which the Peloponne- 
sians built across the isthmus, about eight miles east of the town, 
was often reconstructed afterwards, and remains of one of uncertain 
date can still be traced. Korinthos w^as the mother city of many 
flourishing colonies, Syracuse, Korkyra, Potidaea and others. 


KoRYKiAN Cave, the, c. 36. 

This cave is at a considerable elevation in Mt Parnassos, 
above the broad upland plain lying high above the modern village 
of Delphi. It is a wide chamber 300 feet long by 200 feet broad, 
with fine stalactites hanging from the top : from this a narrow 
passage leads into another chamber 100 feet long. It is an excellent 
place of refuge, and was used for that ]^urpose in the last Greek 
revolutionary war. It was dedicated to Pan and the Nymphs. 

Koi5/577, y], c. di^. 

'The daughter', that is Persephone, daughter of Demeter. It 
was a name under which she was specially worshipped in Attica. 
See Elcusis. 

Kranaoi, the, c. 44. 

An ancient Pelasgic name for the inhabitants of Attica, M'hich 
seems to mean the 'craggy', i.e. the inhabitants of the craggy land. 
As usual however it was derived from Kranaos a king of Attica. 

Krestonike, c. 116. 

The country of Krestonia, a district in Makedonia (originally 
Thrakia) with a town called Kreston, north of Mygdonia, inhabited 
for the most part by Pelasgi [i, 57; 7, 127. Thucyd. 4, 109]. 

Krios, c. 92. 

An Aeginetan, father of Polykritcs. He was a man of influence 
at Aegina, and resisted the action of the Spartan king there in 
demanding hostages from the Aeginetans [6, 50, 73]. He was 
known as an athlete [Arist. Nubes 1356]. 

Kritobulos, c. 127. 

A man of Torone appointed governor of Olynthos by Artabazos. 

Kroisos, cc. 35, 122. 

King of Lydia from B.C. 560 to n.c 546. He completed the 
conquest of the Asiatic Greeks begun by his father Alyatles (q. v.). 
When the Persians under Kyros were threatening to subdue all 
Asia he tried to strengthen himself by alliances with the Babylonian 
Belshazzar, with Amasis of Egypt, and with Sparta (r, 69). He 
consulted also all the Greek oracles he could hear of and made 
magnificent offerings to Delphi [i, 51 — 3]; and thus strengthened 
he advanced to meet Kyros near Sinope. The battle was not 
decisive, but Kroisos returning home with a view of renewing 
the war in the following year, and disbanding his army, was sur- 
prised by a rapid movement of Kyros, his capital Sardis taken, and 
himself made prisoner [i, 76 sq.]. The romantic story of his 
preservation when on the point ot being burnt will be found in 
I, 86 sq. 


Kronides, c. 77. 

Son of Kronos, i.e. Zeus. 

Krotonians, the, c. 47. 

The inhabitants of a Greek town — Krotona — in Briittium in the 
south of Italy. It was a colony of Achaians established in B.C. 
710, and at this time was very powerful. The chief events in 
its history up to this time had been the establishment of Pythagoras 
and his School there about B.C. 540, and its destruction of Sybaris 

B.C. 510. 

KyxME, c. 130. 

A town in Aeolis, sometimes called Kyme Phrikonis [i, 149], 
and Amazonia, from a supposed foundress Kyme, an Amazon, was 
situated N. of the River Hermos near a place now called Sanderli. 
In conjunction with the Chalkidians of Euboea it is said by some to 
have founded the colony of Cumae in Italy [Strabo 5, 4, 4]. 

Kynosoura, cc. 76 — 7. 

'The dog's tail' was the name of a long strip of land near 
Marathon, but this cannot be the place meant here. In all proba- 
bility it means a long tongue of land in Salamis. See Keos. 

Kynurii, the, c. 73. 

The inhabitants of a district to south-east of Argolis. It was the 
possession of this strip of territory lying between Lakonia and the 
Mare Myrtoum that was the cause of the constant enmity between 
the Argives and Spartans. See Argos. The same (prae-Hellenic) 
people are also found in the west of Arkadia, where their principal 
city is Gortys. 

Kyprians, the, cc. 6%^ 100. 

The inhabitants of Kypros, an island opposite the coast of 
Kilikia. It was especially valuable as connecting Asia Minor with 
Syria, and especially with the Phoenikian navy. It had been 
under the power of Amasis of Egypt (-2, 182), but had been with 
the rest of Asia and Egypt made tributary to Persia {3, 91): and 
though it had joined in the Ionic revolt it was reduced by the 
Persian arms (5, 116). The island was inhabited by a mixed race; 
some cities having been colonised from Salamis and Athens, some 
from Arkadia and Kynthos, and others by Phoenikians and Aethio- 
pians [7, 90], the earliest settlers being Phoenikians. The island is 
1 50 miles long, and its greatest breadth is about 40 miles. 

Kythnos, c. 67. Kythnians, the, c. 46. 

One of the Cyclades, between Keos and Seriphos, mod. l^hermia. 
Its inhabitants were Dryopian (q. v.) and the island was at one 
time called Dryopis. 


Lakedaemon, cc. 48, 124, 125. 

Lakedaemonians, the, cc. i, 2, 25, 43, 72, 85, 114, 124—5, 14^1 

The inhabitants of the whole district, Lakedaemon or Lakonia, 
over which the city of Sparta (which contained 8000 men, Her. 7, 
234) was supreme. Sometimes the word is used as equivalent 
to 'Spartans'; sometimes the two are distinguished; and sometimes 
it is applied to other than the full Spartan citizens, as to the 
Perioekoi in 9, 11; sometimes to all the inhabitants or soldiers of 
Lakonia. The Lakedaemonians exercised supreme influence in the 
Peloponnese, though not actual government except in Lakonia and 
Messenia ; and though they were not as yet powerful at sea, the 
habit of regarding them as the natural leaders of a joint ex- 
pedition prevailed even against the claims of Athens, which were 
founded on her superior fleet. 

Lebadeia, c. 134. 

A town on the \\ estern frontier of Boeotia, between Mt Helicon 
and Chaeroneia, the seat of the oracle of Trophonios [i, 46]. 
Mod. Livadhia. 

Lebaia, c. 137. 

This town in Upper Makedonia is not mentioned by any other 
writer. It appears to have been the seat of the old kingdom of 

Lemnos, cc. II, 81. Lemnians, the, c. 73. 

Lemnos (mod. Stali7nene=-d^ rkv Aij/xvou) is off the coast of 
Thrakia about half way between Athos and the Hellespont. It is a 
rocky island with many signs of volcanic action and possessing two 
towns Hephaestia and Murina. Its inhabitants were said to have 
been first a Thrakian tribe, the Sinties, who were expelled by the 
Minyae, the descendants of the Argonauts; these were succeeded by 
Pelasgians, who in their turn became Atticised, and the island was 
in the power of Athens from about 15. c. 500. For the stories 
connected with this event, see 6, 137 — 140. 

Leonidas, cc. 15, 21, 71. 

King of Sparta from B.C. 491 to B.C. 480. He was a younger 
son of Anaxandridas and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of 
his brother Kleomenes, whose daughter Gorgo he married, and 
by whom when he fell at Thermopylae he left a young son, Pleistar- 
chos, under the guardianship of his brother Kleombrotos. Kleom- 
brotos died in the same year and was succeeded in the regency and 
guardianship of Pleistarchos by his son Pausanias (q. v.). Leonidas 
seems to have been fully aware of the hopelessness of his position 
at Thermopylae, and to liave done his best to prevent more Greeks 
JDeing involved in his disaster than could be helped; this unselfish- 


ness, joined to his singular gallantry, has secured liim the first rank 
among the patriots of Greece [Her. 7. 204 — 222]. 

Leukadians, the, cc. 45, 47. 

The inhabitants of Leukadia [Santa Mazira), a considerable island 
off the coast of Akarnania, about 20 miles long. Its chief town 
was Leukas, a colony from Corinth, at the extreme north of the 
island, separated from the mainland by a narrow strait. 

Leutychides, c. 131. 

A king of Sparta and commander of the joint fleet in B.C. 479. 


There were two districts called Lokris, (i) that of the Opimtian 
Lokrians, (2) that of the Ozolian Lokrians. 

(i) Opuntian Lokrians, cc. r, 66. 

They inhabited the eastern half of a district lying on the coast of 
the Malian Gulf separated from Thessaly by the range of Mt Oeta. 
Their principal town was Opus. They had given earth and water 
to the Persian emissaries [7, 132] but were now serving the Persians 
mi willingly, having taken the Greek side at Thermopylae [7, 23]. 

(2) Ozolian Lokrians, the, c. 32. 

They inhabited a narrow district on the coast of the Gulf of 
Korinth, bounded on the north by Aetolia and on the east by 
Phokis. It was a mountainous and unproductive country and never 
played a great part in Hellenic history. The only towns of im- 
portance in it were Amphissa {Salina) and Naupaktos [Lepanto). 

Lykomedes, c. ir. 

A brave Athenian, son of Aeschreas, who gained the prize of 
valour at Artemisium. 

Lysimachos, cc. 79, 95. 

An Athenian, father of Aristeides (q. v.), of the deme Alopek^. 
He seems to have been a man of small fortune, although Plutarch 
(Arist. i) says that there was some doubt as to his having had 
absolutely nothing to leave his son. 

MaKcSvov ^0vos, c. 43. 

The 'Makedni' was the name which according to Herodotos 
(r, 56) was borne by the Dorians (q. v.) when settled in Pindos, i.e. 
Doris. According to the myth Makednos is a grandson of Pelasgos, 
and son of Lykaon of Arkadia. Thus by this term Herodotos seems 
to trace a connexion between the old Makedonians and the prae- 
Hellenic inhabitants of the Peloponnese. 

MaKT]SovCa, •x\ <Xvw, c. 137. 

Makedonians, the, cc. 34, 126 — 7, 138, J42. 

Makedonia, the most northern district of Greece, was separated 


from Thessaly by the Cambunian range of mountains, and was di- 
vided from Il.'yricum and Epirus on the west by Mts Scardus and 
Lingon. Though it afterwards, under Philip and his son Alexander, 
became supreme over Greece, it possessed no influence there at 
present, and was scarcely regarded as Hellenic at all. It was in a 
semi-barbaric state, and was being slowly organised by its kings, 
who were, or claimed to be, of Argive descent (see Alexander). 
They had been reduced to subjection to Persia in B.C. 493 — 2 [Hex-. 
6, 44]. 

Mardonios, cc. 26, 67 — 8, 97, 99 — 102, 107, 113 — 5, 126, 129, 136, 
140 — 2. 

Son of Gobryas by a sister of Darius, whose daughter Artazostra 
he married. He first appears in Greek history as the agent of 
Darius in B.C. 493 in carrying out a new policy in regard to the 
Ionian states. The Persian government had iiisisted on the main- 
tenance of the Tyrants in these cities, but Mardonios now established 
democracies in them, apparently with the idea of conciliating Greek 
feeling in favour of the Persian supremacy, — a policy so unlike that 
which had generally been pursued by Persia, that Herodotos seems 
to expect that bis assertion will be disbelieved [6, 43]. Mardonios, 
however, while pushing on his conquests into Europe, sustained 
reverses at the hands of the Thrakians and was removed from his 
command [6, 45, 94]. We next hear of him as urging the reluctant 
Xerxes to his great expedition against Greece [7, 5, 9], in which he 
was one of two commanders-in-chief of the land forces [7, 82]. 
After Salamis he persuaded Xerxes to return home, and was left 
behind with 300.000 men to complete the subjugation of Greece. 
He fell next year at Plataea. 

Mardontes, c. 130. 

Son of Bagacos, leader of the contingents in the Persian anny 
that came from the islands in the Erythraean Sea [7, 80]. He fell 
at Mycale in B.C. 479 [9, 102]. 

Medes, the, cc. 3f, 40, 43-4. 67, 87, 113—4, 141— 3- 

The Mcdes were an Aryan people [Ilcr. 7, 62], who when first 
heard of inhabited a district south of the Caspian, now called 
Khorassan. Thence they emigrated, and by the middle of the 
7th century B.C. were settled in the country known as Media 
Magna. For a while they were partially or wholly subject to the 
Assyrian monarchy, but after a time they shook off this subjection 
and became the dominant power in Asia, a Median monarchy being 
probably first established about B.C. 635 — 630 by Kyaxares. This 
monarch, about B.C. 624, attacked and took Nineveh. From this 
period the great Assyrian monarchy is divided into two independent 
kingdoms — Medes and Babylonians. The Medes. under Kyaxares, 
subdued the part of Asia ' beyond the river Halys' [Her. r, 103], and 


even threatened Asia Minor. The successor of Kyaxares, Astyages, 
was conquered by Kyros at the head of the mountain tribe of the 
Persians. The result was a new combination, and a new monarchy 
overrunning the whole of Asia, conquering Babylon and Lydia. 
This is sometimes called the Persian empire, sometimes the Medo- 
Persian. We read in Daniel of the 'laws of the Medes and Persians', 
as though that were the official designation ; and the Greeks spoke 
of their great enemies as 'Medes' or 'Persians' indifferently, and of 
those Greeks who joined them as 'medizing'; but Herodotos clearly 
distinguished the two peoples, giving the palm of valour to the 

Megara, c. 6o. The Megarians, cc. 43, 46, 48, ^^, 

Megara stood on the Saronic G.ulf, a mile inland, with a harbour 
town of Nisaea, to which it was joined by long walls. It was on the 
road from Athens and Eleusis to the Peloponnese through the 
isthmus, and its friendship or neutrality was therefore of great im- 
portance to Athens and to the Peloponnesians. The district belong- 
ing to it — the Megarid — extended right across the N. of the isthmus 
and contained a port on the Corinthian Gulf called Pagae. The 
Megarians were lonians, but had been at one time under the do- 
minion of the Dorians of Korinthos. At this time however Megara 
was independent. Geographically it belongs rather to Attica, for 
the range of Gereneia shuts it off from Korinthos and was crossed by 
three difficult passes, whereas it was open towards Attica; and in- 
deed the greater part of it seems once to have been united with 
Attica politically [fier. 5, 76]. 

Melians, the [Mr^Xteis], cc. 43, ()^. Melis, c. 31 [Malis]. 

The inhabitants of Malis [Melis], a district of Thessaly between 
the R. Spercheios and Mt Oeta. They had given earth and water 
to the Persian king [Her. 7, 132], and were now serving in the army 
of Mardonios. Malis was surrounded by mountains, but contained 
wide plains, in which the Persian cavalry had been matched success- 
fully with the Thessalian [id. 7, 196 — 8]. 

Melians, the [Mt^Xioi], cc. 46, 48. 

The inhabitants of the island of Melos, one of the Cyclades, 
south of Siphnos. It is about 15 miles by 8. It was inhabited 
by Dorians from Sparta, who displaced the earlier Phoenikian 
settlers: these in their turn were displaced by Athenians in B.C. 

MiJTtjp, x\, c. 65. 

'The Mother', that is, Demeter, the most venerable of the 
goddesses; daughter of Kronos. She represented mystically the 
secret powers of nature, and it was in her name that the most 
solemn mysteries were celebrated, especially at Eleusis. See Eleusis^ 
and Kdpri. 


Midas, c. 138. 

King of Phrygia [r, 14], notorious for his wealth and eflfeminacy. 
According to one legend he was originally king of the Briges in 
Makedonia, whence he migrated to Phrygia. It was in this Make- 
donian kingdom that the ' gardens ' here mentioned were supposed 
to be, near Mt Bromion. 

Mnesiphilos, cc. 57 — 8. 

A philosophic statesman of the same deme (Phrearroi) as 
Themistokles, and one whom Themistokles is said by some to have 
especially imitated [Plut. Themist. 2], as Mnesiphilos himself imi- 
tated Solon. 

MousAios, c. 96. 

A number of oracular poems were current under the name of 
Mousaios, who is often coupled with Orpheus, as early as B.C. 520. 
Both his country and age were uncertain, but he seems to have 
written in connexion with the Mysteries. His poems were said 
to have been edited by Onomakritos of Athens, who foisted in 
various verses. These poems were also said to contain a clear 
prophecy of the battle of Salamis [8, 96; 9, 43]. 

MUNYCHIA, c. 76. 

A lofty elevation on the east of the peninsula of the Peiraeus. 
It had on the summit a sacred enclosure called Bendideion round a 
temple of the Thrakian Artemis. 

Mys, cc. 133—5. 

A Karian of Europus serving in the army of Mardonios. 

Mysia, c. 106. 

A district in Asia Minor extending from the shores of the 
Propontis to Lydia. At this time it included part of the country 
afterwards reckoned in Bithynia^ see 6, 122. It had formerly been 
conquered by Kroisos [i, 28], and was afterwards included in the 
Persian empire, being ranked in the 2nd Satrapy by Darius [3, 90]. 

Naxians, the, c. 46. 

The inhabitants of the island of Naxos one of the Cyclades; of 
which it was the largest and most wealthy [5, 28]. They had re- 
sisted the attempt of Aristagoras to force back the exiled oligarchs, 
which gave rise to the Ionian revolt [5, 30 sq,]; and were after- 
wards subdued by the Persians and treated with great cruelty [6, 96]. 
The inhabitants were lonians, and in B.C. 466 were made subject to 
Athens [Thucyd. i, 98]. 

Neokles, c. 1 10. 

The father of Themistokles [q. v. J. 


Neon, cc. 32 — 3. 

A town in Phokis at the foot of a peak of Parnassos called 
Tithorea. Pausanias says that in the verses of Bakis the inhabitants 
are called Tithoreis, and he supposes that the latter name supplanted 
the former in course of time [Pans. 10, 32, 9]. 

Oenone, c. 46. 

An ancient name of the island Aegina (q. v.). 

Okytos, cc. 5, 59. 

A Corinthian, father of Adelmantos (q. v.). 

Olympia, the, cc. 26, 72. 

The Olympic festival held every fifth year at Olympia in Elis. 
At this festival every Hellene had a right to take part in the sacrifice 
to Zeus Olympios, and to compete in the various contests. While 
they were going on, the Eleans as managers sent notice to the 
various Greeks that a truce was to be observed, and a state violating 
this truce would be excluded from the sacrifice and the games [see 
Thucyd. 5, 49]. 

Olynthus, Olynthians, c. 127. 

A town at the head of the Toronaic Gulf, between the two 
peninsulas of Pallene and Sithonia, which afterwards became the 
chief town of the Chalkidic Greeks [Thucyd. 458], and was very 
prominent in the controversies of the Athenians and Makedonians. It 
had been visited by the Persian fleet on its way down south, and 
like other towns had been forced to supply a quota of men and ships 
[7, 122]: at this time it was inhabited by Bottiaei (q. v.). 

Orchomenians, the, c. 34. 

The inhabitants at Orchomenos in Boeotia. Orchomenos was 
once the largest and most important town in Boeotia. In the cata- 
logue of ships in the 2nd Iliad 29 towns of Boeotia are mentioned 
as supplying 50 ships in all, of which Orchomenos sends 30. But in 
historical times it was surpassed and supplanted by Thebes. It was 
twice destroyed by Thebes, in B.C. 368 and 346, and though restored 
by the Makedonians never recovered its former importance. It 
stands in a rich and fertile plain, and was inhabited by the Minyae, 
whence it is often called the 'Minyan Orchomenos' to distinguish 
it from the towns of the same name in Arkadia, Euboea, and Thes- 
saly. Its modern name is Skripa. 

Orneates, the, c. 73. 

A general name tor the perioekoi — ^unenfranchised farmers — of 
Argos. The name arose from the inhabitants of Orneae, probably 
Achaeans, who about B.C. 580 were conquered by Argos and re- 


duced to this position, just as were the perioekoi of Sparta. Compare 
lor the title given to a class from a particular town the Italian Cae- 
rites, and perhaps the Spartan Helots (q. v.) from Hclos, which was 
the derivation accepted by some. In B.C. 418 we find the Orneatae 
serving in the Argive army (Thucyd. 5, 72), but in B.C. 416 the 
Spartans seem to have established at Orneae a settlement of men 
hostile to the Argive government, and in retaliation the Argives 
utterly destroyed the town (Thucyd. 6, 7). 

Orneae was north-west of Argos on the frontier of Mantincia. 

Paeonia, c. 115. 

A district in the centre of upper and lower Makedonia. Its 
inhabitants were of different blood from the surrounding Make- 
donians, and claimed to be descended from the Teukri [5, 13, 
24, 98]. 

Pallene, cc. 126 — 9. 

The westernmost of three projecting headlands of the Chalkidic 
peninsula, mod. Kassdndhra. On the narrowest part of it stood the 
town of Potidaea. 

Palleneus, c. 84. 0f ^ ^J^ 

A man of the deme Pallene in Attica, of the tj^^ Anfiochis. 

A' y • '^ 
Pamphylians, the, c. 68. » *f/,'rJ4^ 

Pamphylia was a narrow tract'^m^l^untry bordering on the Mare 
Lykium, immediately west o^Kilikia, and bounded on the north by 
Pisidia. Its chief towns were Attalia and Perga. 

Panaetios, c. 82. 

A man of the island of Tenos (q. v.). 

Panionios, cc. 105 — 6. 
A slave-dealer of Chios. 

Panopeis or Panope, cc. 34 — 5. 

This town, which was afterwards called Phanoteus, was on the 
frontier between Boeotia and Phokis in the valley of the Kephisos, 
on the right bank of the river, about two miles from Chaeroneia. 
It was a mere collection of mountain huts without agora or public 
buildings. [Pans. 10, 4, i.] 

Parapotamii, or Parapotamia (Steph. Byz.), cc. 33 — 4. 

A town in the fertile part of the valley of the Kephisos. 
Pausanias seems to think that the name belonged rather to a district 
than a 7r6Xts ; and at any rate the town was not restored after the 
destruction by the Persians. 


Parians, the, c. 67. Paros, c. 112. 

The inhabitants of the island of Paros, the third largest of the 
Cyclades. The Parians seem to have been a people much respected 
by other Greek communities [5, 28], and to have been of a peculiarly 
cautious nature, as evinced in their conduct here recorded, and in 
their readiness (to avoid farther committing themselves) to pay a 
sum of money on the demand of Themistokles (8, 112). The only 
remarkable event in their history up to this time had been the 
unprovoked and unsuccessful attack upon them by Miltiades [6, 
132 — 8] in the year after the battle of Marathon. The island was 
celebrated for its marble, and for its figs. 

Parnassos, cc. 27, 32, 35, 37. 

A range of mountains in Phokis, rising at its highest point 
(Lykorea) 8000 feet. The range terminates in a double peak above 

Paroreatae, c. 73. 

* Dwellers by the mountains', a term applied by Herodotos to 
the inhabitants of a district of Elis south of the Alphaeos. They 
were according to him descendants of the Minyae who were ex- 
pelled from Lemnos by the Spartans [4, loi]. 

Pausanias, c. 3. 

Pausanias, the Spartan commander in the campaign of 479 B.C. 
and commander-in-chief of the Greek forces at Plataea, was of the 
elder royal family — that is of the branch which was descended 
from the elder son of Aristodemos, who was fourth in descent from 
Herakles [see Herakles\ — and was a cousin of Leonidas, as will be 
seen from the accompanying pedigree [Her. 5, 39 — 41; 7, 204; 9, 

Leon, ob. B.C. 502. 

(his niece) = Anaxandridas = a d. of Prinetidos. 

r ^ -1 

I. Kleomenes, ob. B.C. 495. 

I ' 1 


I 1 1 

2. Dorieus, 3. Leon IDAS = Gorgo, 4. Kleombrotos, 

ob. before B.C. 495. ob. B.C. 480. ob. 479 B.C. 

I — ' — I ( ' 1 I ' 1 

Euryanax (?). Pleistarchos. Pausanias, 

ob. B.C. 467 — 6. 

Upon his death at Thermopylae Leonidas was succeeded by his 
son Pleistarchos, a minor, and his brother Kleombrotos became 
guardian of the young king and regent. Kleombrotos died early in 
the year 479 B.C. , and his son Pausanias then became regent in his 


place and guardian of Pleistarchos. This was his position when the 
Peloponnesian army collected to oppose Mardonios. We have no 
particulars of the life of Pausanias before this date, and his sub- 
sequent history is only casually alluded to by Herodotos [5, 32; 8, 
3]. But fuller details are given by Thucydides [r, 94, sq.] and by 
Diodorus Siculus [11, 44 — 6], and Cornelius Nepos has written a life 
of him founded on what he found in Thucydides. 

The event in his life referred to in the text was his conduct in 
B.C. 478 when in command of the allied fleet at Byzantium. His 
haughty and violent conduct caused many complaints to be sent home 
to Sparta, and he was recalled, and superseded by Dorkis. He 
was subsequently convicted of treasonable correspondence with 
Persia and starved to death in the temple of Athene, in which he 
had taken sanctuary. 

Pedieis, the, cc. 35, 102. 

A town in Phokis, in the valley of the Kephisos. 

Peisistratidae, c. 52. 

The descendants of Peisistratos, who was tyrannus in Athens 
from B.C. 560 to 527 with intervals of banishment. His son Hippias 
was expelled in B.C. 510: and after living for a time in the Troad, had 
been received at the Persian court (5, 96), and had accompanied the 
Persian forces at Marathon (6, 107). At the time of the battle of 
Salamis Hippias was dead, but his descendants and their partizans 
still seem to have been with the Persian king. 

Pelasgi, the, c. 44. 

The ancient inhabitants of Greece, who, like the Hellenic immi- 
grations which superseded or absorbed them, were an Aryan race. 
Herodotos imagines that they spoke a barbarous (non- Hellenic) 
language, but we have no certain means of deciding whether this 
be so. They were great builders and reclaimers of land, and settled 
especially in the rich plains of Thessaly and Argos [i, 57; 2, 51; 
6, 137 — 140]. A reminiscence of their building at Athens was the 
' Pelasgic wall ' of the Akropolis, and the place called t6 lIeXa(j-7t- 
Khv beneath it [5, 64; Thucyd. 2, 16; Paus. i, 2S, 2. C.I.G. 2374]. 

Pelion, c. 12. 

A long ridge of mountains in Thessaly, extending from Ossa 
to the promontory of Sepias. For a considerable distance it de- 
scends precipitously to the sea, and prevents any inlet or harbours 
for ships. 

Peloponnese, the, cc. 40, 43, 49, 50, 57, 60, 65, 68, 70 — 2, 100 — 
I, 141. 

Peloponnesians, the, Peloponnesia, c. 70. 

The Peloponnese (' Island of Pelops ') is not a name known in 


Homeric times. In the Iliad the only name given to the whole 
seems to be Argos, for Ephyra in Ehs is spoken of as being in Ati'X^J 
"ApYeos iTTTTo/Sdroto II. 6, 152; cf. Odyss. 4, 173 where 'Argos' 
refers to Laconia, and 3, 251 where the Peloponnese is called ''Ap7os 
'Axau/coj/. And, finally, some have regarded o.-Ki-r] in //. i, 269, 'the 
distant land ', as a territorial name for the Peloponnese. The name 
Peloponnese was certainly subsequent to the settlement of the Dorians 
and was referred by the Greeks to the wealth and power of Pelops, 
son of Tantalos. It contains about 1780 square miles, and at the 
time of the Persian war was divided into six provinces, Elis, Messenia, 
Lakonia, Argolis, Achaia, Arkadia — of which the two last were 
much less Hellenised than the others. Achaia, as its name imports, 
having served as a place of retreat for the ancient Achaean inhabit- 
ants before the invading Dorians, and Arkadia from its strong 
mountain barriers having been able almost entirely to resist their 
attack, retained its Pelasgic inhabitants. 

Perdikkas, cc. 137 — 8. 

Founder of the Makedonian dynasty, which lasted until the death 
of Alexander III., son of Alexander the Great [B.C. 311]. The 
descent of Perdikkas from Temenos of Argos [whence the family 
was called Temenidae, q. v.] is given also by Thucydides [2, 99; 
5, 80]. But the legend varied, some writers counting two kings of 
Makedonia before Perdikkas, Karanos and Kaenos; and although 
the Hellenic descent of these kings was admitted by the managers 
of the Olympic games, Demosthenes [3 Phil. § 40] denied it. 

Persians, the, cc. ro, 15—6, 24, 27, 31, 33, 38—42, 45, 51, 58— 
di, 68, 70 — I, 82, 95 — 8, 100 — I, T06 — 8, 113, 116 — 9, 126, 
129, 141. 

The Persians, an Aryan race like the Medes, were a mountain 
tribe led down about B.C. 550 by Kyros against the Median king 
Astyages in his capital Ecbatana. The overthrow of Astyages was 
followed in B.C. 546 by the conquest of Lydia, and by that of 
Babylon in B.C. 538. From the overthrow of Astyages the Median 
Empire became the Empire of the Medes and Persians ; but the 
royal family were Persian, and the Persians still were a distinct 
race, and in the opinion of Herodotos [9, 68] the best soldiers, and 
indeed the centre and mainstay of the royal army. A very distinct 
character of the Persians may be traced in Herodotos; he represents 
them as 'brave, lively, spirited, capable of witty and keen repartees' 
[i, 127, 141 ; 6, I J 8, 81], 'but vain, weak, impulsive, and hopelessly 
servile to their lords' [3, 25; 7, 56, 223; 9, 113]. Rawl. 

Phalerum, cc. 66—7, 92 — 3, 108. 

A town on the eastern point of the Bay of Phalerum, of which 
the Peiraeus forms the western point. Before, and at the time of, the 
Persian war it was the principal harbour of Athens. After that time 


though joined by a wall to Athens it was superseded by the much 
safer harbour on the west of the Peiraeus. 

Pharnaces, c. 126. 

A Persian, father of Artabazos [7, (i(>\. 

PlIAYLLOS, c. 47. 

A famous athlete of Krotona, who won the Pentathlum twice 
and the long race once at the Pythian games [Pans. 10, 9, -2]. He 
is referred to in Aristophanes [Acharn. 215; Vesp. 1206] as a kind 
of type of speed. The Scholiast on the former passage seems to 
confound him with another Phayllos who won a victory at Olympia 
(in leaping and running in armour), which Pausanias says expressly 
this Phayllos did not do. 

Philaon, c. u. 

A brother of Gorgos, king of Salamis, in Kypro:, (q. v.). 

Phliasians, the, c. 72. 

The inhabitants of Phlios, a town and small territory to the 
N. of Argolis and S. of Sikyonia. The people were Dorians and 
generally in close alliance with Sparta. The territory consisted 
of a high valley surrounded by mountains. Phlios sent 200 men to 
Thermopylae [7, 202]. 

Philippos, c. 139. ■ 

A Makedonian king, son of Argaeos, and grandson of Perdikkas 
[q. V.]. 

Phoenikians, the, cc. 85, 90, 97, 100, 118 — 9, i2r. 

The Phoenikians inhabited the north of Palestine, from which 
they had sent out numerous colonies to Kypros, Africa, and Europe. 
Herodotos says that they came to Palestine from the borders of the 
Red Sea (i, i). They had been from very ancient times a great sea- 
faring people, and had had the great bulk of the mercantile business 
of the Mediterranean. It was they who supplied the greater and 
most powerful part of the fleet of Xerxes (7, 89), it was they who 
constructed the bridge of ships across the Hellespont {7, 34), and 
were the most skilful engineers of the canal across Athos (7, 23). See 
Tyre and Si don. 

Phokis, cc. 31 — 2, 35. 

Phokians, the, cc. ■27—33, U4' 

Phokis was a considerable district bounded on the S. by the 
Gulf of Corinth, and by Doris and eastern Lokris on the N. It con- 
tained the range of Pamassos and the sacred city of Delphi, which 
however was inhabited by a different race, — probably Dorians. 

H. VIII. \<o 


Phokis politically was a confederacy of towns mostly situated in the 
valley of the Kephisos, and the Phokians were looked upon as a 
people of Aeolian or Achaean race. They were almost perpetually 
at enmity with the Thessalians and indeed had built a wall across 
the pass of Thermopylae to check their raids [7, 176]; and, according 
to Herodotos, their chief motive for not joining the Persians earlier 
was hatred of the Thessalians. Even when some of them did in 
the following year join Mardonios, a large number refused, and 
mustering round Parnassos assisted the Greeks [9, 31]. 

Phrygia, c. 136. 


(i) c. 39. 

One of the national heroes of Delphi. His phantom is said to 
have again appeared to protect the Delphians when in B.C. 280 the 
Gauls under Brennus were attacking Delphi [Paus. 10, 23, 3]. 

(2) c. 85. 
A man of Samos, son of Histiaeos. 

PiNDOS, c. 43. 

A town in Doris, on a river of the same name running into the 
Kephisos. It was one of the Doric tetrapolis, see Eri7teos. 

Plataea, c. 50. 

Plataeans, the, cc. i, 44, 50, 66\ ro. nXaraiiKd, c. 126. 

The territory of Plataea was separated from Attica on the S. 
by Kithaeron, — Eleutherae which came between having voluntarily 
enrolled itself with Attica [Paus. i, 38, 8], — and from the territory 
of Thebes on the N. by the river Asopos. Toward the east, along 
the valley of the Asopos, it was limited by the village of Hysiae. 
The town stood 'on the steep and rugged slopes which fall from the 
heights of Kithaeron into the valley on the north. In this lower 
ground, and near the walls of the city, two small rivers take their 
rise, and flow in opposite directions' — Oeroe flowing west to the 
Corinthian Gulf, Asopos to the east into the Euboic Gulf. Plataea 
is 7 miles from Thespiae, 6J miles from Thebes. The Plataeans had 
long been disinclined to share the policy of the Boeotian league, 
and having been accordingly persecuted by the Thebans they had 
put themselves under the protection of Athens about B.C. 501 [3, 
108, Thucyd. 3, 68]. This union had been cemented by the fact 
of the 1000 men sent by Plataea alone of the Greek states to help 
the Athenians at Marathon. The subsequent history of the town 
includes its siege and destruction by the Thebans in B.C. 429 — 7, 
its partial restoration in B.C. 387, a second destruction by the 
Thebans in B.C. 374, and its final restoration in B.C. 338. At its 
destruction in B.C. 427 the bulk of its inhabitants were adm.itted to 
Athenian citizenship. 


POGON, C. 42. 

The harbour of Troezen, in Argolis ; so named from the shape of 
the bay, ' the Beard '. 

POLYAS, c. 21. 

A man of Antikyra (q. v. ) employed as an outlook man on the 
coast of Trachis. 

POLYKRITOS, CC. 92 — 3. 

Son of Krios, one of the chief men of Aegina [6, 73]. 

Poseidon, cc. 55, 123, 129. 

Son of Kronos, brother of Zeus, and God of the Sen. 

POTIDAEA, cc. 127 — 9. 

A city placed in the isthmus which joined Pallene to the 
mainland. It was a colony from Korinthos [Thucyd. i, 56], and had 
already submitted to the Persians [7, 123]. After the repulse of 
Artabazos narrated in this book it sent a contingent to the Greek 
army which fought at Plataea [9, 28, 31]. In B.C. 432 Potidaea 
broke off from the Athenian alliance formed after the Persian wars, 
and was consequently besieged and after a long resistance taken by 
the Athenians [Thucyd. 2, 70]. After various vicissitudes it was 
taken and its inhabitants destroyed and removed by Philip of 
Makedon [b.C. 341 — 340]; and it was afterwards refounded by 
Cassander, after whom it was called Cassandreia, and having passed 
from the Makedonian to the Roman Empire, in the time of Augustus 
it received a Roman colony. It was finally destroyed by the Huns. 

PSYTTALEIA, CC. 76, 95. 

A small island lying between Salamis and the Peiraeus, now 
called Lipsokutali. Aeschylos descnbes it as ' small and offering ill 
harbourage for ships' \^Pers. 450]. It is about a mile long, 300 yards 
broad, and very rocky and low. 

Ptoum. Apollo Ptous, c. 135. 

Mt Ptoum was on the S. E. of the Lake Kopais extending to the 
Euboean Sea [Mod. Paled and StnUzind\. The temple and oracle 
of Apollo Ptous was in the slope of the mountain about 2 miles from 
the town of Akraiphia. 

Pytheas, c. 92. 

An Aegmetan, who was captured by the Persians when serving 
in B.C. 480 as a soldier on board an Aeginetan vessel, which was 
one of three vessels keeping watch at Skiathos. He fought with 
such gallantry that his captors in admiration gave him his life, and 
took pains to cure his numerous wounds [7, 181]. 

16 — 2 


Rhodope, c. ii6. 

A range of mountains in Thrakia separating the valley of the 
Nestos from that of the Hebros, mod. Despoto Dagh (with a part 
of the Balkan). 

Sakae, c. 113. 

A powerful Asiatic tribe [whose natne by some has been con- 
nected with that of the Saxons, by others with that of the Skyths] 
which was conquered by Kyros [i, 153], and seems to have furnished 
one of the most trustworthy contingents to the Persian army [6, 
113]. They appear to have inhabited the steppes of what is now 
called Kirghiz Khosacks in Tibet. 


(i) c. II. • 

A town in Kypros, supposed to be a colony from the island of 
Salamis led out by Teukros. It was destroyed in Trajan's reign 
by an earthquake, and restored subsequently under the name of 

(2) II, 40—2, 44—5, 49, 5T, 56, 60, 65, 70, 74, 76, 81, 86, 
89, 90^6, 121 — 2, 124, 126, 130. 

An island about 10 miles long off the coast of Attica, between 
which and the mainland the channel at its narrowest is about i mile 
across. It had belonged to Athens since about B.C. 600, when 
according to the common statement the claim of the Athenians as 
against the Megarians was confirmed by five Spartan arbitrators 
owing to the skilful pleading of Solon [Plutarch, Solon, c. 10]. 

Samos, cc. 85, 130, 132. Samians, c. 85. 

A considerable island off the coast of Karia, rich from its great 
pottery manufactories. From about B.C. 535 to B.C. 522 it was 
under the rule of Polykrates, who acquired a powerful navy, ex- 
tended his dominion over several of the neighbouring islands, warred 
against Miletos, and wished to form a great confederacy of Ionian 
states with Samos as the central power. After the fall of Polykrates, 
in the course of the disputes as to his successor, the Persian force in 
the island inflicted a cruel massacre on the inhabitants ; and then 
handed the island over to a brother of Polykrates, Syloson, whose 
son Aeakes continued to hold the tyranny, although tributary to 
Persia, until the deposition of the Ionian tyrants by Aristagoras 
in B.C. 500. When the Persians subsequently restored Aeakes, 
a number of the Samians accepted the invitation of the people of 
Zankle (Messene) to go to Sicily and occupy Calacta. Aeakes 
however appears to have died or been deposed about the time 
of the battle of Salamis, and Theomestor (q. v.) put in his place 
[3> 39~47» 54— 6> 120—5; 6, 13. 22, 25]. 


Samothrake, c. 9c. 

A small island opposite the coast of Thrakia consisting of a huge 
volcanic crater Mt Saoke [5,500 feet]. The inhabitants were 
originally Pelasgi, and practised a mystic worship called rd Ka^ei- 
puv ( = Corybantes, Strab.) opyta [2, 51]. The islanders possessed a 
tract of land on the continent, from Doriskos to Lissos, which was 
protected by a line of fortresses [7, 59, 108]. It was called 
'Thrakian Samos' to distinguish it from the larger island near Karia. 
See II. 13, 12 iir aKpordTTjs Kopv(p7]i Xd/xov vXTj^aarjs QprjLKLT]^. It 
was said in still earlier times to have been called Aapdavia [Steph. 
Byz,], and still earlier MeXirri [Strabo]. 

Sardis, cc. 105, 117. 

The capital of Lydia, situated on the slope of Mt Tmolos, and 
on either bank of the Paktolos. It seems to have been but slenderly 
furnished with defences, but its citadel was all but impregnable [see 
Polyb. 7, 15 — 17; 8, 17 — 1 8 J. After its capture by Kyros [i, 84] 
it became the chief seat of the Persian government in Asia Minor, 
and the residence of the satrap and sometimes of the king. 

Seilenos, c. 138. 

A satyr, always represented as the attendant of Dionysos. He 
invented a fiute, which he is constantly depicted as playing. It was 
a tradition that he could be captured and bound with flowers, and 
could then be compelled to prophesy : it is some capture of this sort 
to which Herodotos refers. For the moral Apologue which went 
by the name of the discourse of Seileaos to Midas, see Aelian V. II. 
3. 18. 

Sepias, c. 66. 

A promontory in Magnesia opposite the island of Skiathos. 

Seriphians, the, cc. 46, 48. 

The inhabitants of Seriphos, one of the Cyclades immediately 
south of Kythnos. It possessed iron and copper mines, but was 
poor and insignificant, and used in later times by the Romans as a 
place of exile. 

Sicily, c. 3. 

At the time of the Persian war the coasts of Sicily were studded 
with Hellenic colonies. The earliest was Naxos (Tauromenium) 
seitled in B.C. 735 by the lonians from Chalkis. Naxos in its turn 
had settled Catana and Leontini. Besides this Chalki? had also 
settled Zankle (Messene); and Megara had sent a colony u^ Thapsos 
(circ. B.C. 700). But the most famous and powerful of all was the 
Corinthian colony of Syracuse [B.C. 734], which had in its turn sent 
out at least five other colonies in Sicily, and was possessed of a 
decisive hegemony among the other states. These colonies were 


naturally for the most part on the eastern and south-eastern coast : 
on the western the Carthagmians were making settlements, and the 
Hellenic colonies in Sicily were engaged in a contest with them at 
the same time as the eastern Greeks were fighting for life with the 

SiDON, c. 67. SiDONiANS, the, cc. 78, 92. 

An ancient city of Phoenikia, celebrated as a great mercantile 
and naval centre, and for its manufactures in embroidery, dyes, and 
glass. The skill of Sidonian women in embroidery is alluded to in 
the Iliad [6, 292; see Pier. 2, 116], as also of its workers in metal 
[II. 23, 741]; it was however outstripped in prosperity by Tyre. 

SiKiNNOS, cc. 75, no. 

A Persian by birth, who having been captured and enslaved 
became the paidagogos of the children of Themistokles, and was 
employed by him to take his message to Xerxes. Plutarch, Themist. 
12, 82. 

SiKYONiANS, the, cc. I, 43, 72. 

The inhabitants of Sikyon, a town and district usually classed as 
part of Korinthia, though it was independent of Korinthos. It lay in 
the valley of the Peloponnesian river Asopos. It had formerly 
been governed by tyranni, of whom we hear of Kleisthenes, the 
maternal grandfather of the Athenian reformer [5, 67]. The in- 
habitants were Dorians and were accustomed to act in war under the 
direction of Sparta [6, 92] ; they appear from the same passage to 
have been wealthy, for they submitted to pay Argos a war 
indemnity of 500 talents (about ;[^24,ooo) for joining Kleomenes in 
his invasion of Argos about B.C. 510. 

SiPHNiANS, the, cc. 46, 48. 

The inhabitants of Siphnos, one of the Cyclades immediately 
south of Seriphos. The island once possessed gold and silver 
mines, but when these were worked out it became exceedingly poor 
and unimportant. 

SiRiS, cc. 62, 115. 

A town in Italy, in the district of Lucania, on the shore of the 
Gulf of Tarentum and at the mouth of a river of the same name. 
It was a very ancient town, believed to have been colonised by 
Trojans, — but between 700 and 600 B.C. lonians from Kolophon had 
settled in it. About 430 B.C. it seems to have fallen under the 
power of Tarentum, and its inhabitants afterwards were transferred 
to Herakleia. The Ionian colonisation seems the only conceivable 
ground for the claim of Themistokles for the Athenians of having 
any rights there. 


Skiathos, cc. 7, 92. 

A small island opposite the promontory of Sepias. A colony of 
Chalkidians has displaced the former Pelasgic inhabitants. 

Skione, cc. 8, 128. 

A city on the peninsula of Pallene. The inhabitants considered 
themselves to be Achaeans from the Peloponnese [Thucyd. 4, 120, 
i]. The town revolted from Athens to the Spartans under Brasidas 
in B.C. 423, was besieged by the Athenians, and very cruelly treated 
when taken [id. 5, 32]. 

Skiras, c. 94. 

An epithet of Athene (q. v.) of uncertain meaning. There was 
a temple of Athene Skiras at Phalerum [Paus. i, i, 4; 36, 3]: there 
was also a festival called Skirophoria or Skira [Arist. Eccl. 16]; 
and one of the Attic months was called Skirophorion. 

Skironian Way, the, c. 71. 

The coast road, — the most easterly of the three which passed the 
Isthmus of Corinth. It owes its name to the fact that for several 
miles it is carried along a cornice cut in the face of the rocks called 
the Skironian Rocks, from the name of a mythical robber who 
haunted the place and was slain by Theseus. 

Skyllias, c. 8. 

A man of Skione, a famous diver. He taught his daughter 
Hydna the same art. And for their good services on this occasion, — 
in the course of which they lost their lives, — the Amphictyonic 
Council honoured them by dedicating statues of both father and 
daughter at Delphi [Paus. 10, 19, i — 2]. 

SOSIMENES, c. 81. 

A man of Tenos, father of Panaetios. 

Spartans, the, cc. 2, 42, 125. Sparta, cc. 114, 124, 132, 142 — 4. 

The Spartans, properly so called, were only those who possessed 
full citizenship. They were the descendants of the conquering 
Dorians who had seized the land and reduced the population either 
to the state of unenfranchised farmers (perioekoi) or praedial slaves 
(Helots). They were comparatively few in number [about 8000 
at this period, 7, 234], and their peculiar institutions tended to 
check any increase. They were looked upon as the head of the 
Dorians, and the natural leaders of all Greece in the field ; they 
actually ruled two- thirds of the Peloponnese, and exercised an 
informal hegemony in the rest, except in Argos. We must distin- 
guish between 'Lakedaemonians' and 'Spartans', the former Her. 
generally uses as including all the inhabitants of Lakonia ; the latter 


refers simply to the ruling class as full citizens. See for instance 9, 
28, ' Ten thousand Lakedaemonian troops were on the right wing, 
five thousand of whom were Spartans.' 

Strattis, c. 132. 

A tyrant of Chios, who had accompanied Darius on the Sky- 
thian expedition, as far as the Danube [4, 138], and was probably a 
nominee or partisan of the Persian supremacy, which would help to 
account for this plot against his life. 

Strymon, cc. 115, 118. Strymonian wind, c. 118. 

The modern Slncina (or in Turkish Karasu) a river which forms 
the boundary between Makedonia and Thrakia. The sources of it 
mentioned in c 115 are in Mt Skemios, from whence it flows into 
the Strymonic Gulf, being navigable a few miles above Amphipolis. 
The 'Strymonian wind' seems to mean a wind blowing from its 

Styreans, the, cc. i, 46. 

The inhabitants of Styra, a town in Euboea, near Karystos, in- 
habited originally by Drycpians (q. v.). 

Susa, cc. 54, 99. 

Susa on the Choaspes {^Kerkhah) was the capital of the province 
of Susiana, which lies at the head of the Persian Gulf, and is 
bounded on the east by Persis, and the west by Assyria, and on 
the north by Media. From the time of Kyros it was one of the 
chief royal residences [ I, 18S; 4, 83]. 

TiiGEAN frontiers, C. 1 24. 

Tegea was a town in the south-east of Arkadia about 10 miles S. 
of Mantineia. It was on the road from Sparta to Attica and North 
Greece. It had been in close alliance with Sparta since about ]3.c. 

Telamon, 0. 63. 

King of Salamis, father of Ajax and Teukros. See Aeakidae. 

Tellias, c. 27. 

A mantis or seer of Elis. Another member of the mantic family 
of Telliadae is mentioned in 9, 37 as serving Mardonios as seer. 

Temenos, c. 137. Temenidae, c. 138. 

Temenos, of Argos, was the reputed ancestor 01 the Makedonian 
kings, hence called Temenidae. Temenos was an Herakleid, son of 
Aristomachos, and returned to the Peloponnesos with the other 
Jlerakleidae [Apoll. 2, 8, 5 ; Pans. 2, 18, 7]. 


Tentans, the, cc. 66, 82, 83. 

Inhabitants of Tenos, one of the Cyclades, separated by a very 
narrow channel from the southern point of Andros. It was also 
called 'TBpovaaa (well- watered), and '0<piovaaa (isle of snakes), 
whence the word Tenos is derived from the Phoenikian Taiioth — z, 
snake ; and a snake often appears on its coins. The island is about 
60 miles in circumference and is famous for its vines. 

Tethronium, c. 33. 

A city of Phokis, built on a plain in the valley of the Kephisos. 

Thebans, the, cc. 50, 134 — 5. Thebes, c. 134. 

Thebes subsequent to the Homeric age became the most power- 
ful city in Boeotia, that position being occupied in the Homeric 
times by Orchomenos. The district of Thebes, the Thebais, a rich 
corn land, was divided from that of Plataea by the river Asopos. 
The city was built on an elevation of 150 feet above the plain on a spur 
of Mount Tcumesos, and the citadel or Kadmeia probably stood at 
the southern end of the town. The Thebans were believed to be a 
colony from Phoenikia led by Kadmos. Perhaps this difference of 
blood may partly account for their zealous medizing ; but a long- 
standing enmity to Athens was the immediate motive. They sent 
400 men indeed to support Leonidas at Thermopylae, but these 
men took the earliest opportunity of deserting to the Persian side 
[7. 203, -233]. 

TliEMlSTOKLtS, cc. 4, 5, 19, 22 — 3, 57—8, 59, dl—Z, 75, 79, 92, 

108— 112, 123—5. 

Themistokles was the son of Neokles, an Athenian of moderate 
position. His mother according to some was Abrotonon, a Thracian 
woman, according to others Euterpe of Karia. lie was therefore 
only a half-blood Athenian. But before the age of Perikles the 
father's citizenship was sufficient to give a man his full rights. His 
abilities shewed themselves early, and he came forward in public 
life as an opponent of Aristeides, and an advocate of a forward and 
ambitious policy for Athens. He commanded the levy of his tribe 
at Marathon ; but it was between that event and B.C. 4S0 that he 
began to exercise a decisive influence in the state. It was on his 
advice that the profits of the mines at Laurium were devoted to the 
building a fleet, which, as Herodotos says, proved the salvation of 
Hellas, though their primary object was the prosecution of the 
Aeginetan war. We see in this book how powerfully he contributed 
to the successful resistance to Persia in B.C. 4S0. In the next year 
the command of the troops at Plataea was committed to Aristeides 
[9, 28], and that of the fleet to Xanthippos, Diodorus says, 
from the prejudice excited against Them, by the honours given him 
at Sparta [n, 27]. In fact although the reputation acquired by 
Themistokles in 480 made him the most famous man in Greece, the 


Athenians seem to have preferred to entrust their most important 
interests abroad to others, especially to Aristeides. Meanwhile 
Themistokles at home M^as busied in carrying out the great works of 
the town walls, and the fortification of the Peiraeus, which he saw 
offered a harbour far superior to the old one at Phalerum. This 
latter work was probably not finished at the time of his ostracism. 
But these things were not done without opposition and the loss of 
popularity. The Athenians liked being told that the Peiraeus would 
enable them if their town were taken 'to fight the world at sea'; but 
the expenses and self-sacrifice required brought odium on the author 
of the plans. And his opponents Kimon and Alkmaeon managed 
about 471 B.C. to secure his ostracism. He retired to Argos, and 
in B.C. 467 was accused of having been in correspondence with 
Pausanias, who had been condemned and starved to death at Sparta 
for treasonable dealings with the Persian court. Orders were given 
to arrest him ; but getting warning he fled to Korkyra, thence to 
Admetos king of the Molossians, thence to Ephesos. From that 
town he opened communication with Artaxerxes, was received 
honourably at the Persian court, and provided with handsome 
pensions and a residence at Magnesia. Theie he died, some say by 
his own hand, because he despaired of giving the king the help he 
had promised against Athens, or, as the story which Thucydides 
believed asserted, by a natural death, B.C. 460. Mr Grote seems to 
assume the guilt of Themistokles in regard to the correspondence 
with Persia ; but not so the authorities used by Plutarch, or 
Thucydides, who speaks of him with the warmest admiration. 

Life by Plutarch. Thucyd. i, 74 — 138. 

Theokydes, c. 65. 

An Athenian, father of Dikaeos (q. v.). 

Theomestor, c. 85. 

Son of Androdamas, made Tyrant of Samos in succession to 
Aeakes, who had been restored after the suppression of the Ionic 
revolt [9, 90]. See Samos. 

Thermaic Gulf, the, c. 127. 

That portion of the Aegean Sea which is enclosed by the coasts 
of Thessaly and Makedonia on the W. and N., and by the Chalkidic 
peninsula on the E. It takes its name from the city of Thessalonika, 
anciently called Therma, situated at its head. 

Thermopylae, cc. 15, 24, 27, 66, 71. 

The scene of the famous resistance to the Persian invasion, and 
of the death of Leonidas, was a narrow pass between the extremity 
of Mt Oeta and the sea. The range of Oeta stretches right across 
Greece, and the passes were few and difficult. It was necessary 
that so large an army as that of Xerxes should go by this as 


the shortest and easiest. The narrowest point was that between 
two mountain streams, the Asopos and Phoenix, which now fall into 
the Spercheios, but then into the sea: 'there there was only a 
narrow causeway sufficient for a single carriage' [7, 199]. Its 
name was given it on account of some hot sulphur springs. The 
nature of the pass is now quite altered, the sea has receded, the 
Spercheios has brought down so much alluvial deposit that its 
course is changed, and there is now a broad marshy plain covered 
by rice-Helds between the mountain and the sea. 

Thespians, the, cc. 50, 66, 75. Thespiae, cc. ■25, 50. 

The inhabitants of Thespiae, a town of Boeotia about six miles 
\V. of Thebes, which possessed a harbour at Kreusis in the Korin- 
thian Gulf. The Thespians had been as loyal as Plataea to the 
Greek side, partly no doubt from enmity with Thebes. At Ther- 
mopylae they were the only men who refused to quit Leonidas in his 
extremity, and all their 700 perished with him [id. 7, 222, 226]; the 
rest of the citizens took refuge in the Peloponnese ; and 800 of them 
were with the army at Plataea [9, 30]. 

THESPROTIANS, the, c. 47. 

The inhabitants of a district in the south-west portion of Epiros 
opposite the islands of Korkyra and Paxos. Their chief town was 
Ephyra (Kichyros) on the Kokytos. At one time they had the 
control of the oracle of Dodona, which was at Dramisos. 

Thessalians, the, cc. 27—32, 113— 5, 126, 129, 131—3, 135. 

Thessaly is the province between Makedonia on the N., Epeiros 
on the W., and Phthiotis on the S. It is a great alluvial plain 
surrounded by mountains and drained by one river system, that 
of the Peneus and its tributaries. The plain was exceedingly 
rich and fertile, and particularly famous for its breed of horses, and 
accordingly Thessalian cavalry were the most renowned in all 
Greece. There were several leagues or combhiations of towns in 
Thessaly, the most powerful being that of which the centre was 
Larissa, but there was no one central government. The Thessalians 
had joined Xerxes under compulsion [7, 172 — 4], except in the case 
of the Aleuadae [7, 6], and were ready to turn against him at the 
first sign of failure [9, 89]. 

Thrakia, c. 117. The Thrakians, c. 116. 

The district N. of Makedonia bounded on the E. by the Euxine. 
Towards the N.W. the frontier between it and the Keltic tribes was 
undetermined ; but Herodotos regards the Danube as separating it 
from Skythia [4, 99]. For the number and warlike nature of the 
tribes, see 5, 3. The Persians had extended their power along its 
coast, but had not penetrated far inland [4, 93 ; 5, 2]. 


Thriasian Plain, the, c. 65. 

The Thriasian Plain, skirting the Bay of Eleusis, was divided 
from Athens by the hills of Aegaleos, and was bounded on the 
north by Mt Parnes. Through it, close to the coast, went the 
Sacred Way to Eleusis. The greatest length of the plain is nine 
miles. It was in parts so low and marshy that the Sacred Way 
had to be raised like a causeway, while the northern and western 
part of the plain is stony and barren. Its name was derived from 
a hamlet close to Eleusis, of which the exact position is not known. 

TiGRANES, c. 26. 

A Persian, one of the family or clan of the Achaemenidae, to 
which the royal family of the Persians belonged [i, 125; 3, 65]. 

TiMODEMOS, c. 128. 

A man of the Attic deme of Aphidnae, who was a political 
opponent of Themistokles. 

TiMOXENOS, c. 128. 

A man of Skione (q. v.) who commanded a contingent of his 
countrymen in Potidaea 

TiTHOREA, c. 32. 

One of the peaks of Parnassos. The name seems to have also 
been applied to the district at the foot of the mountain, and to the 
toM'n of Neon (q. v.). The natives supposed it to have been derived 
from a mountain nymph, Tithorea. [Paus. 10, 32, 9.] 


An inhabitant of Torone, a town situated on the S,W. of the 
peninsula of Sithonia, the central one of the three Chalkidic penin- 
sulas. It was a colony from Chalkis in Euboea, and was originally the 
chief Greek city in those parts. Like the other Chalkidic towns it 
had been forced to supply a contingent to the Persian army and navy 
[7, 122]. From it the gulf between Pallene and Sithonia was called 
the Toronaic Gulf. 

Trachinia, c. 31. 
Trachis, cc. 21, (i6. 

A town and district at the foot of Mt Oeta in Thessaly. The 
name { = rugged) is derived from the nature of the rocks surrounding 
the plain. In B.C. 426 the Lakedaemonians built Herakleia in its 
territory as a centre of Lakedaemonian influence. 

Triteeis, c. 33. 

Triteeis or Tritea was a town in Phokis in the valley oi the 

Troezenians, the, cc i, 43, 72. 

The inhabitants of Troezen, a town in the S.E. corner ol Ar- 


golis. It was a very ancient town and had long been in alliance 
with Athens ; and when the Athenians quitted their town before 
the battle of Salamis, a large number of their women, children, and 
old men were received at Troezen and honourably entertained, a 
daily allowance being voted from the treasury, and free leave being 
given to the children to pluck fruit [Plut. Them. lo]. The reason 
of this was that Troezen, though occupied by the Dorians, retained 
a large admixture of its original Ionic inhabitants who came from» 
Karia ; and there had been from old times a religious connexion be- 
tween it and Athens as belonging to the same Amphiktyony, the 
centre of which had been the temple of Poseidon at Kaluria (Poros) 
in the Troezenian domain. Troezen was^^the mother-town of Hero- 
dotos' native place, Halikarnassos. 

Trophonios, c. 134. 

According to one story Trophonios was the son of Erginos, 
according to another of Apollo. He and his brother Agamedes 
built the temple of Apollo at Delphi, as well as a treasure-house for 
king Hyrieus [Pans. 9, 37, 5]. After his death he was worshipped 
as a hero, and his cavern near Lebadeia (q. v.) was visited as an 
oracle. An elaborate account of the mode of descending into this 
cavern, apparently artificially constructed, is given by Pausanias, 39, 
5 — 12. Cp. Aristoph. Nub. 597. The oracle of Trophonios was one 
of those consulted by Kroisos before the invasion of Kyros [i, 46]. 

Tyre, c. 67. 

An ancient city of the Phoenikians in the north of Palestine. 
The priests of the great temple of Herakles told Herodotos that the 
city had been founded 2300 years before his visit, i.e. circ. B.C. 2755 
[2, 44]. It consisted of two towns, one on the mainland, the other 
on two islands half a mile from the coast. Alexander the Great when 
besieging it made a causeway across this strait, round which sand has 
accumulated ; and the islands are thus connected with the mainland 
by a sandy neck half a mile broad. At the time of the Persian 
wars it was still rich and prosperous, with a great mercantile navy, 
though it was with the rest of Phoenikia subject to Persia. Alex- 
ander the Great entirely destroyed its inhabitants, and put in some 
Karian colonists ; and after being a subject of contest between the 
Egyptian and Syrian kings, who attained those dominions after 
Alexander's death, it finally became part of the Roman province of 
Syria. For an account of its former glories, and its 13 years' siege 
by Nebuchadnezzar, see Ezekiel cc. 26, 27. How completely Tyre 
fell from its old position may be gathered from the fact that the geo- 
grapher Stephanos [circ. a.d. 500] under the head of Tu/)o$ merely 
says vr\<jo^ kv ^oiviK-^y not noticing a town at all. 

XANTHirros, c. 131. 

Father of Pericles, Strategus at Athens B.C. 479 and commander 
of the Athenian contingent at Mycale. 


Xerxes, cc. io, 15, 16, 22, 24 — 5, 34 — 5, 52, 54, 64 — 7, 69, 81, 86, 
88—90, 97, 99, 100— I, 103, 105, 107—8, no, 113— 5, 118—20, 
J 29, 140, 143—4- 
Though a younger son of Darius he succeeded to the crown 
because his mother Atossa was a daughter of the great Kyros, and 
the Persians had only submitted to have Darius as king on the 
condition that by marrying a daughter of Kyros the royal line should 
be traced to the great Persian conqueror [7, 3 — 4]. Xerxes had 
been very doubtful as to the policy of invading Greece, but had 
been persuaded to do so principally by Mardonios. Though he 
was the handsomest and most stately man in his whole great army 
[7, 187], he presents all tli# worst features of an Eastern monarch, 
without the personal courage that did something to excuse them in 
the eyes of his people. If now and then- (see 7, 146; 8, 69) some 
traits of more liberal sentiment or greater insight into justice are 
related of him, they can do little to relieve the dark colours in which 
Herodotos portrays this man, whose character may be said to point 
the moral of the whole of his history. He is the embodiment of 
swollen pride and unchecked tyranny and luxury, against which 
the (pdbvo^ of the gods is inevitably wakened. 

XUTHOS, c. 44. 

Son of Hellen, and father of Ion and Achaeos, and therefore the 
mythical ancestor of the lonians and Achaeans [7, 93]. 

Zeus, c. 116. 

Herodotos represents here by the name of the supreme deity of 
the Greeks the Persian supreme god Ormuzd, as in 1, 131 ; 2, 55 ; 5, 

Zoster, c. 107. 

A promontory in Attica formed by the termination of Mount 
Hymettos, mod. Cape Lumbardhas. Opposite to it is the island 
Phaura, mod. Fleva. 


The Ionic Dialect. 

The dialect in which Herodotos wrote is called the New 
Ionic, that is, the language of the Ionic cities of Asia Minor 
in the fifth century B.C., and those islands of the Aegean 
colonised by lonians. By the ' Old Ionic' is meant the lan- 
guage of the Iliad and Odyssey (though it seems probable 
that the foundation of the language of these poems was 
Achaean or Aeolic,and that they were lonicised subsequently), 
the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod. The oldest Greek litera- 
ture therefore known to us was written in various develop- 
ments of the Ionic dialect. The Attic, such as we find it 
in Thucydides and the Tragedians, is a still later develop- 
ment ; but as the Athenian literature (from about 450 
onwards) is best known to us, and has surviv|9^ ia/^mich 
larger quantity than any other, we for^ftCnvomjeWce com- 
pare the forms of the Ionic dialect with t»^.orthe Attic as 
a standard, although in most cases Jj|p ronic forms are the 
older. Herodotos [b. B^ji8'4Ui^^ntemporary of Sophocles, 
lived just at the pa.rtin3\Jgm.i^ ways when the Attic literature 
was beginning to supp^nt all others, yet he deliberately 
adopted the Ionic dialect as still the best for prose composi- 
tion, though he was by birth a Dorian. He was, then, wriiing 
in an acquired dialect, and was moreover a wanderer and 
scholar who had conversed with men of all dialects, and 
studied their writings; it was likely therefore that his style 
should show signs of modification in word-forms, as well as in 
idiom, from the standard Ionic; but still the Ionic as we find 
it in his writings shows decisively how it had developed, 
sometimes less, and sometimes in a different way, than the 
other dialects. 

Many words are used by him in a sense different from 
that in which Attic writers of his own time would have used 


them, but yet in the same sense in which they are used in 
Homer ; or again, words which had become obsolete, or used 
only by poets in Athens, are still employed by him in their 
primitive sense as the natural and prosaic terms. The same 
phenomenon may be seen in our own and other languages. 
A Yorkshireman, or an Eastern Counties man, may often be 
heard using words that are almost or entirely unknown to the 
Londoner, but which were the ordinary terms in use in the 
days of Chaucer or even of Shakespear. Even with a printed 
literature men of the same stock, if divided by place and cir- 
cumstance, will develope the same language in widely different 
ways. Take for example the many idioms used by Americans 
differing from our usage in England, yet of which we may 
often find the counterpart in our older writers. What was 
likely then to be the case between two and three thousand 
years ago, with means of intercourse infinitely less efficacious, 
and a hterature often not written at all, and of course when 
written infinitely confined in circulation ? They did what was 
natural : each community gradually adopted peculiar terms 
and idioms ; sometimes one retained a more archaic form 
than another, sometimes the same community would diverge 
much more than the other from the primitive form. They 
did not always alter in the same way, and no one division of 
the Hellenic race could claim a monopoly of archaic forms 
or a distinct supr,emacy in primitive correctness. The laws 
which such phonetic changes follow help us to track the 
original form through the maze of divergent modification, 
but they cannot always tell us why one set of people modified 
less or more than another, or in this way or that. The most 
marked features of the Ionic as compared with the Attic 
dialect are (i) that the contraction of two vowels is generally 
resolved into its component vowels, (2) that the ?; sound 
(Etacism) is generally preferred to the a, though the reverse 
change is not infrequent. 

The following is a conspectus of the variations of the 
Ionic dialect of Herodotos from that of the Attic^ 

1 Taken with modifications and additions from that of Dr K. 
Abicht, Uehersicht iiher den Herodotischen Dialect. Leipzig, 1869. 


A. Letters. 

I. Consonants. 

(i) In three words the tenuis takes the place of the 
aspirated consonant, Se/co/zat, avris, ovkI (Att. dexo^im, avdis, 

(2) In three words the positions of the aspirate and 
tenuis are reversed, evdavra, ivdevrev, kiOcov (Att. ivravQa, €v- 

(3) K is found in the place of tt in the interrogative 
pronouns and adverbs, koTo?, koctos, Korepos, ktj, koI, kov, kco^, 
Ko6eu, k6t€ [Att. TToTof, 770(70? etc] ; in the relatives, okoIos, 
oKoaos, oKorepos [Att. ottojos etc.] ; and in the adverbs ovKore, 

OvdcKOTe, OVKO) [Att. OVTTOT€ CtC.]. 

(4) The prepositions ai/ri, otto, eVt, Kara, fxera, vno, neither 
in elision nor composition, take the aspirated consonant before 
an aspirate, e.g. an' ov, fxcr' a, Kara [ = /cri^' a], kot ej/a, vmcrTdvai, 
aTTiKveonaif vTrlrjfii, p.(TevTes. In the same way ovk does not 
become ovx before an aspirate. 

(5) (Tcr is not changed into tt, e.g. OdXaaaa, yXoiaa-a, 
rdaaat, iKdacrcov, are the invariable forms in Ionic. 

(6) aa- becomes ^, e.g. St^o's, rpL^os. 

II. Vowels. 

(r) a (Attic) into e, as eparjv 'male', reo-crepes, onecov {dndcov). 

(2) o (Attic) into rj, as 8nr\i](rios, 7roWa7rXi](Tios. 

(3) a (Attic) into rj, 

(a) In root syllables, as p;;i"Sia>y, rj^p, Kpijnjpj vt)6s, rpirj- 
Kovra, npfjyp.a, n€7rpT] 

{b) In derivatives, as Be-rjTpou, v€-T)vir}Sy Ip-rj^y Alyiv- 
rJTaif l-r]Tp6i, dvi-rjpos. 

(c) In compounds, as ycvftj-'Koyfa), ^h^-kovos. 
{(f) In the adverbs \u6pq, Xi'r/i/, neprjv. 

H. VIII. 17 


(4) a (Attic) into (n, as naioivlC^^, BatKos. 

(5) e (Attic) into a, as rdfivo), Tpdno) [but we find Tpey\ra>y 
erpe^a], fieyaOos. 

(6) € (Attic) into i, as laTirj (eVrm), €nLcrTios==e(l)€(rrios. 

(7) r] (Attic) into a, as fieaapf-ipir], a/i<^to-^area), 77ei^rnKoo-iot. 

(8) T} (Attic) into to, as tttojo-ctco. 

(9) 0) (Attic) into rj, as ^^t^t?, Geo-ffaXt^rii-, 'lo-rtai^rty, and 
the derivatives ^Birirrjs, 'A/xTrpaKtryr;;? etc. 

(10) o into a as appa>8ea> [Att. oppcoSe'co]. 
III. Diphthongs. 

(1) a into at, as aleros, aUl. 

(2) aO into co, as ^aJ/xa [but 6<ovpa, dcovfid^oi, also see I. 11], 

(3) 6 into €1, as e'iponai, elpario), dpixoy eiXiaaoi, eivaros, 
elvaKoaioi, ehcKev, Keivos, ^elvos, aT(LVos. 

(4) €1 into 6, as es, eo-w, p-e^cov, KpeacrcoVj irXecov, feni. of 
adj. in -vs as /Sa^ea, o^ea, and in the tenses of deUwpi, as 
de$o), ede^a, de^ai, edexOrj, ededeKTo, also epyco, €a)(9a, and in all 
proparoxytons in -eios, -eia, -eiov, as cnirrjdeos^, enereos. 

(5) €1 into t, as 'UeXos, TrpoaiKcXos, 'iXtj. 

(6) ev into i, as i^vs, Idea, Wv, Wvva> [Att. eu^i'fj. 

(7) o into ou, as fiovvos, vovaos, vovo-eoi, OvXvfnros, ovuofxa, 
ovvofidCco, 6 ovpos {opos a boundary), rb ovpos {ro opos)i 6 ovdos 
(threshold), but ») 6d6s (way) : in trisyllable forms yovvara, 
dovpara, from yopv, 86pv. 

(8) ov into o>, as au {oZv), rotyapcov, ovkcdv, y5>v (yovv). 

- Still the comp. and superl. of iviTrjdeos seem to be in -6repoj, 
-inaros as though the word were eTrcrr/Seios. 


B. Syllables. 

(i) Solution and Contraction. 

{a) ov into oe, as dyadoepyos, drjfxiofpyos. 

{b) or} into 0), as oybuiKovra, and in the following forms 
of /3oai/ and votlv, — ^Sa-ai, ^cocraa-dai, eSaxre, (^mcrdrfv, evpcoaas, 
evvcvcoKaai, evvevoiuTo, vevafxeuoSf fTrevdOq, also tiu)$i(o {0orjdeoi)* , 

(2) Diaeresis. 

(a) ft into T^i', (i) in substantives in -fid as fiaaiXrjit] 
= regnum [but /3ao-tXfia = regina], eTna-TpaTrjti] ; (2) in subst. 
in -eiov, as ;^aXK;)Voi', dpi(TTi]'iov [the forms TTpodaTfiov and npo- 
aoTrjiov are both found, see i, 78; 3, 142J; (3) adject, in -ftoy, 
as oiKjj'iov, ^aaiXrj'ios^. 

(d) rj into rfi, as hrfiooa, kXtjiSj xPV^C^j QprfiKir}. 

{c) G) into cot, as TrarpcoioSi npcot [except ^woi/, tpoj/, 
Tpwof, Kwoy, 'A;^fXc5oy]. 

(3) Elision. 

(«) V fcfieXKvaTiKoi/ is not used in the Ionic of He- 
rodotos^ ovT(o does not become ovtcds before a vowel (9, 82). 

(3) Elision (comparatively rare) takes place in (i) the 
prepositions dp,(f)i, dvd, dvrij dno, did, Kara, fierd, napd, vno ; (2) in 
most cases where dp,a stands before a vowel ; (3) most fre- 
quently in dWd^ Sf ; (4) often in /xj/Af, ovde, re, ye. 

(4) Crasis. 

{a) Like Attic, raXXa, ravrdy TdydXp-ara, rdpOpoiirovt 

^ Exceptions are the proper names Aapeios, 'Apyelos, 'HXeZos, 
Kadfieios. * In 7, 144 most MSS. have TrpolBorjdijcrai, but not R or S. 

* In some MSS. however, the v i(p€\KvaTiKbv is used throughout. 
It appears also in the oldest MS. of the treatise written by Lucian in 
imitation of the dialect and style of Herodotos. In the oldest Ionic 
we possess, that of the Iliad, it of course frequently occurs. 

17 —2 


{b) Of oi, and a with a, oJj/jyp, <ov6p<o7ros, avdpconoif 
ovrepos, rovTepov, rarfpa, ojW oi, TcSpxaiov, TwXi^^ey, tcotto, 
toi/^po)7re, (iW|. [The MSS. mostly have ol aXXoi.] 

(c) In the reflexive pronouns eavrov, epavrov, aeavrov, 
which in Ionic would be to avrov, e/ieo avrov, aeo avTov, we 
have icovToi), epecovTov, aecovrov. From 6 avTos, (ovtos, wvroi, 


(^) Four with Km, KaXbs KuyaOos, KaKcWe, KUKelvoSt 

KclpoL (as in Attic). 

C. Declension. 

[The dual forms are not used in Herodotos.] 

I. Substantives and adjectives. 
First Declensio7t. 

(i) The gen. plur. ends in -ecoi/, as yvcopeoiv, npeav, 
yeve4<ov {yeuerj), iraaecop, peXaivitov, avreayv (f.) [but we must ex- 
cept from this rule adjectives, pronouns and participles in 
-OS, -rj, -ov which have their gen. plur. fern, paroxyton, as 
a\\a>v, (fiiXiOP, (Kcivav, oXiaKopivaVf rovrav^]. 

(2) Dat. pi., universally in -t/o-i or fja-i, as yv<op,r)(rif avrfjat. 

(3) a in all cases of the sing, becomes -t] as x<^P^y 
-0^, -ff : l^X^PV, -V^^ -V' The a is retained in nom. and ace. 
but becomes t} in gen. and dat. as 

aXi]d€ia, -av, -rjs, -j} 
polpa^ -av, 'T)S, -T) 
pla, -av, -r}S, -rj. 

(4) -ris makes the gen. sing, in -tco, proparoxyton, 


'-'^^'^^K sing. 

— T^reG) I 

— rirr) ' 

— 7/ras ) 

— r]Tiaivy plur. 

— rJTTjai; 

* Stein gives rovre^v f. 5, 3^ 9» "5 and elsewhere; also dW^o,./ 
9. "5- 


Like this are declined proper names Mi'Sr;?, Aewi/iSj;?, 
Ilfpa-rjs, Sep^rjs^: also dfanorrjs, except that the ace. deanorea 
occurs I, II ; 91. 

(5) Words that in Attic are contracted are written in 
the uncontracted form in Herodotos, as /xi/a, a-vKfjf in 

[fivea] (TVKer) 

fxviai -erjs 

fiveav -erjp 

fjLveas avK€ai 

Xpvaeo?, -erj, -eov 

€OVj -frjv, -eov 

eov, -€»;?, -^ou 

— «>j -*ffj -^V 

Second Declension. 

(i) The only peculiarity in case-ending is the dat. plur., 
which always ends in -oktl or -oto-i, as Xoyoi(r», ^eoio-t, Kokoivu 

(2) Words in -00^, -orj, -oov or -eoy, -fj;, -eov are not 
contracted, as 77X00$-, dn^Xooy, -o-q, -6ov, oareov, xp^f^^os, -erj, -fov. 

(3) The so-called 'Attic Declension' in -cos is confined 
to proper names in Herodotos, as 'ApKfo-iXfwy, MeveXaos 
(from Xfco'r), as also Miv(os,''A6cos, 'A/i^tnpetoy. Instead of Xewr, 
v€(os, KoXwr, Xaycos Herod, uses Xr)6s* vrjos, kqXos, Xayos. So 
also instead of rrXecos, iXecos, d^ioxpcois Herod, uses nXeos, -rj, 
-ov, iXeos, -ov, d^ioxpeos, -ou. Thus too the words compounded of 

yrj, as ^advy€(os, /xeXayyewy, fxea-oyecas, vn6y€(as, are represented 
in Herod, by ^aOvyaios, ficXdyyaios, fieaoyaios, vnoyaios. 

(4) Herod. generaHy uses TroXXoy, -j;, -dv, though he also 
uses the commoner noXvs, noXXrj, noXv. 

" But the accusative H^p^ftt in 8, 22,69; 9' ' ^^ supported by some 
good MSS., as also AvKiSea in 9, 5. * But see Bahr on 5, 42. 



Third Declension. 

(i) In the uncontracted and imparisyllabic words the 
forms used by Herod, are the same as those used by Attic 

(2) The contracted declensions are declined as follows : 














Like TToXis are declined v^pis, ox//'if, (jivcris, Kpia-is, Trtorts, 
naibevais, KardiTTaa-is, x^Ttf, etc., and the proper names To/xvpts, 
Moipty, 2ix€pdis, 2ais, ^Attis, "Afiaais, Aaris, Me>0ty, Qeris, TJapis, 
"lais and the pljaral 26p8ics, -kov, -lai, -las. 


"Aprefiis, -tSoy, -i8a 
epis, -ibos, -IV 

X^Pt^Sj -LTOS, -IV 

(3) Neuters in -os, substantives and adjectives in i]s, 
substs. in -vs and -v, and adjects, in -vs resolve all con- 
tractions : 








aXrjB^s -es 

akrjQia -is 
dXrjdies -ia 
oXrfdias -ia 


Proper names contracted to -kX^s are thus declined : 

QefXKTTOKXerjs VOC, -kXcs 

Thus UepiKXerjs and 'HpaKXe?/?. 

(4) Substantives in -cos and -a, such as aljcos, ^<os, 
evfo-Tco, TTCLdco, 3.1^ dcclined as in Attic, except that some 
proper names as "ico, At)t(o make the accus. sing, in -oi/v. 

(5) Neuters in -as, as yepas, Kepas, re pas, have their 
genitives and datives sing, and plur., and ace. plur., in -eoy, 
-ei, -f<ov, -eai, -ea [not -aos, etc.] with the single exception of 
yfjpas, -aos, -di. 

II. Pronouns. 

(i) Personal Pronouns {_€y(6, av, e]. 

(a) Herod, uses the unconiracted forms of the gen. 
sing. e/A€o, a-€o, eo, and rarely e/xev, acv, €v. 

{b) Dat. (Toi, but in enclisis roi. 

{c) For the dat. m. and f. avrw and avrfj Herod, uses 
oi. Ace. p.Lv=^avTov -T)v and eavrov -r]v, and also for avro. 

{d) The nom. and dat. plur. of the three personal 
pronouns are the same as in Attic. The third person plural is 

N. (r0etf, A. a({)€as, G. a(f)e(iiv, D. cr^tVi, (T<f>i, 
but acf)iaL and a(f)i differ in usage ; a-(f)i (enclitic) = ai)roTs or 
avrais, a(f)€as = avrovs, -as, but a'(f)La'i = €avTois or iavrais. 
[There is frequent confusion in the MSS. between a0t(7t and 

The gen. and ace. plur. are not contracted 

i^p.ea>v vp,€(ov acfifoov (a(f)€(av) 

•fjfieas vfieas o-cf)(as {(T(f)eas) 

Herodotos also uses o-0f as ace. 3rd per. of all genders 
and numbers, and a(f)€a = avTa (n. pi.). 


(2) Relative Pronouns. 

{a) OS, oanep, in nom, sing, and plur. 

OS, i], TO 

ot, at, ra 

but in oblique cases the consonantal form is used, as 
G. rov, rfjs, Tov 

TO) I/, TCOI/, TC^P, etc. 

Note I. Of the prepositions not admitting of elision h, e/c, ^j, 

TTCpt, TTpO, irpbs, <TVV, VTT^p, 

irpb and inrip seldom occur with simple relative. 

TTcpi usually follows its case, as t'^s irepu 

ip, e/c, es, irpds, civ, take the consonantal form, as iv r<^, avv 
Tol(TL etc. Except where iv, e^, es form with the relative an expres- 
sion of time, as 

€v (^ = quo tempore 

h = usque ad id tenipus 

i^ oi = ex quo tempore. 

So also d'xpt o5, m^XP' oi5. 

Note ■2. On the other hand the prepositions which admit of 
elision — o,vri, airb, did, eirl, Kara, /xerd, irapd, vir6 — take only the 
aspirated form of the relative, 5i' ^s, iv' y etc., except when they 
follow their case, as, t^ irdpa [but Trap' <^]. 

(d) oaris, o Ti do not take the consonantal form. In 
place of the Attic otov, oTa, otoicti Herod, uses orev, 6t€^, 
OTeoKTi, and for anva he has aaa-a (not aTra). 

{c) Interrogative and indefinite Pronoun tis 



T€0 (rcO) 







D. Conjugation. 

I. The Augment. 

The usage of Herodotos with regard to the temporal and 
syllabic augments is the same as in Attic^ with the follow- 
ing exceptions : 

{a) The temporal augment is omitted in purely Ionic 
forms, such as, dytj/eco [aya), dfifi^ofiai, dvaia-LpLoo), appwSco), 
dpreoixai (aprao)), iaaoo) (jjcrorao)), opra^to (iopTa^co), oupi'^o) [but 
(ouoixaaraL 9, 32, though the Ionic form ovVo/xa^co is given in 
some MSS.; in 9, 44 however they all have ouofxd^o)], €pya> 

{b) Also in the poetical verbs, ae^Xeo), dXv/cra^a), i\ivvoi. 

{c) Also in all verbs beginning with the diphthongs 
at, av, et, ei», oi, as, ai5co/iat, alveo), alpeoo, alrea), av^co, etpcorew, 
ev8a), evTv;^eco, evpicrKU), oIkcq), dvoiyco, oi;^ojuat. 

(^) Also in the verbs fdw, ipyd^^ ecoOa [pluperf. 
eaBfo], while on the other hand the augmented forms ijo-aj/, 
flx^v, ^X6op, TJXaaa are always found. 

(e) In cases of double augment the syllabic is 
omitted as aipcov [Att. etopooi/]. 

(/) Neither temporal nor syllabic augment occurs in 
verbs with frequentative termination, as ayea-Kop, TvoiUaKovy 
ftaXecTKuixrjVj ifTXOv, ex^a-Kov. 

II. Change of v into a, when -rai or -to comes imme- 
diately after the stem. 

(a) In the 3rd pers. plur. of perf. and pluperf. pass.: 
First in impure forms, as dniKaTo, eTerdxaTO, Tcrd^arai, dyoavi- 
fiara«, cff<6ud5arat, dedexaraiy dTriKarai, 8Lf(f)6dpaTo ; in these 

• The augment, as in Attic, is often omitted in the pluperf., as 
TeTeXvTTjKee, dedoKTo, ivSeSvKee, etc. And when irpb is compounded 
with an augmented word there is no contraction, as irpoe^atve, 
TTpo^/SaXe (not irpoCfiaive etc.). 

^ Under this head may come the fact that the MSS. seem to 
favour (IJppTjTai (see 4, 16), but oppiaro (i, 158 ; 9, 61). 



forms the Root consonant is aspirated except when it is S, 
and in the word arcUarai -o ; SECOND in pure Roots, the pre- 
ceding vowel being shortened, as jjiria-Tiaro, ^yearai, Tjprearat, 
oiKearat, Kearai, apfiearai, ^e^Xearai, avail eivTiarai^ diroKeKkeaTO, 
eueTriBciKvvaTo, eKeKoafxearo. 

{b) In the 3rd pers. plur. pres. and imperf. pass, of verbs 
in -/xt, as Ttdearaiy iTiOearo, la-Tearai, dvvearai, earai, KarearOf 
(V€7ri8fiKVvaro, eKeKoo-fxearo, eVe^ffaro, 

(c) in optative endings pres. or aor., as dyoiaro, ^ov- 
Xoiaroy yevaalaTO, Ttcraiaro, dueXoiaTO, 

III. Resolution of Contractions : 

(a) pluperf. -ea, -eas, -ef, -eaav, as ecodea, icodeas, ccu^ee, 
ecodeaav, eX-qXvdee, eopyec. 

{b) 2nd pers. indie, midd. and pass, 
primary tenses -fat, as o'ixeai, eaeai. 
historic „ -eo, as eyeueo, €ni<€o. 

So also the present imperat. midd., as eneo, nddeo, aTraXXao-- 
aeo. But the 2nd pers. sing, of the subj. midd. is always con- 
tracted, as o'lxj), yevtjj de^r], vTTod^KTj. Also 2nd aor. infin. act., 
as fxaOdv, iXBelp, cr;^etj/. 

(c) CO resolved into -em in the Aorist subj. pass, of all 
verbs, in the 2 aor. subj. of verbs in -/ii or verbs formed on the 
analogy of verbs in -jxi, as alpedeco, €a-o-(oOe(i)ixcv, (^auaaT€a>[xev, 
TrpoaOeoi, OicoaL {edrjv), /3ea) (e^ijv), but the 2nd and 3rd persons 
are contracted, as viKr}6fjs, 4>aprj, ckIBtj, 6fJTai. 

(d) In Verbs in -e<o, -aa>, -ow, the uncontracted forms 
are used : 

(l) -eo), as 

pr. KaXeco -eofiai 

subj. KaXeo) 



KaXeoifii -eoiixrjv 

KaXecis -€T] 



KoXfois -eoio 

KaXeei -ierai 



KaXeoL -eoiTO 

imperat. xaXee 

imperf. cKoXi 

FOi/ -eofxrjv 




ff? -€0 




ff -eeTo 



ap. KaXeouevos 


Note T. The only exception is 5e?, hetv^ the imperfect of which 
however is #5ee. In five verbs dyvoio), diavoio/xai, drj^ofiai, voita, 
irotiu), in which the termination -ew or -eofxai is preceded by a vowel, 
CO or €ou becomes ev, as dyvoevures, idrjeOi'To {idrj^ovTo)^ drieOfievoL. 

The imperfect of d-qioiiai. has the Attic contraction, as idrjelTo 
(i, 10). 

iroiio) has €v throughout, iroLevai, iroievvre^, iirolevv^f Toiev/xaif 
TToiei^fxevos, iTrotevfMrju, iiroLevvTO. 

€10 remains uncontracted, as voiiou, but orj becomes w, as vevu- 

Note 2. This rule of resolving contractions applies also to 
liquid futures, as ip^ta, Kepdaveeis, vironev^ovcri, KaraKovrUet, KO/xiiei, 
aTpe/xiieiv, KOfxUai (mid.), x<^P'^f<^^ct'> duToK^ovre^, but when a vowel 
precedes eo or eoi» they become eu, as WTaytavLeiixtvos, KOfxuu/xeday 

(2) verbs in -aa> 

(a) With exception of the dissyllable verbs KXdo), ^aa>, 
afxaco [also €o5, ^Lapiai, lafiai] all contractions are resolved not 
into -aoi -ao -aov, but into -eo) -eo -fov, as opeco, opeovai, opeoiv, 
opeofiaif opeofievos. On the other hand -aeiy -ac become -a and 
-a as opeo), opas, opa 

copeoi/, ojpa?, cJpa 

[though in 8, 36 the best MSS. have dncopciv]. 

{b) And as in verbs in -ew, when a vowel precedes -eo 
or -fov they become ev, as di^ieCm-at, /SoeOio-es. 

(^) The future of e'Xavi/co is eXc'to, iXeau. 

{d) xpnoij xP^^f^^h contract in a [Attic ?;], as xp^ofiai, 
Xparai, XpaaOai^ ;^peo)/i6i/o?^^. 

* eiroievv 8, 64 ; 9, 25 etc., but also iroleov 9, 8 and 1 1 ; woieeo 8, 68. 

^ In 9, 6 we have d/xweuai for d/ivviovai, although -eov is not 
preceded by a vowel; cp. /3dXeu for /9d\ou [eo] 8, 68; doKevvrac), "j-j, 

^® In 9, 24 as in 4, 151; 7, 34; 9, 41, etc. one MS. (P) gives 
Xpf^ojjxvoi, but the greater authority in all cases seems to be for 
■Xpeu)fxevoi, while the best MSS. give x/Ofo" (iiot xp^^") ^s the neut. 
part.; see 9, 46 etc. 


{e) But in tenses of verbs in -aco where the Attic has 
a, the Ionic has »;, as ^ir]$fjvai, ^L^aaadaiy n€ipT]6fjpai, neip^- 

(3) Verbs in -oo). 

The verbs in -da> are contracted as in Attic, except that 
when -00 or -oov are preceded by a vowel they become ev, as 
avTievyievos, diKaievaOai, olKfjievvraif a^ifvueda, e^OfioieiivTeSf 81- 
KMevac. Thus d^ioco is conjugated in Herod otos 

Pres. Imperf. 

a'^toly d^iovre rj^iovs i]^iovT€ 

d^Lol d^cevai rj^iov rj^Uvv 

Mid. Inf. d^iovaOuL Part. Mid. d^uvfxevos 

Imperf. M. 


Thus also, dvTUvvraij irepoievvro, ibiKaievvTO. 
IV. Verbs in -[it. 

{a) ridrjiJii, Tidils Ti6€i...Ti6e1(n 

iT)p.i, le^s U7... Utai 

like a verb in -ea, 
i(TTr]fxif laras lara . . .iaracn 

like a verb in -aw. 

didcofxi, 8ido7s 8i8o'i...8i8ovai 

like a verb in -oco. 

Note I. Perf. pass. part, of fxerirjiMi, fie/xeTifxipoi (Attic fiedei- 

Note 2. Imperf. ind. act. of rWrjixiy 

iridea, iridees, iridee 

iTidrjfxep, iTidere, irideaau. 


The 2nd and 3rd pers. plur. perf. are eaTare and iaTacri. 
Partic. perf. eVrfou's. 
(c) dfiKvvfxi. 
The 3rd pers. plur. pres, indie, is dfiKvvcri (Attic deiKPhdai). 
Pres. partic. 8€ikvv(ou. Imperf. indie. fdeUwov -es -e. 

{d) elfii sum. 

2nd pers. sing, eh [Attic €i]. ist pers. plur. clfxiv [Attic 
eV/xeV]. 3rd p. plur. elai [but eaai in an oracle i, 66]. 

Subjunct. €0). 3rd p. plur. eoxri. 

Opt. c'ltjv. 3rd p. plur. (irjaav {fhvY'^. 

Part. i(iav iovtra eov. 

Imperf. t/i/, ^ada, ^ [fcricf 1, 196 : 6, 133, and i|e i, 181, and 
f7]v 7, 143]. ^a-av [eaKov 4, 129 ; I, 196. eaav MSS. 6, 5]. 

Another form less frequent is 

i'a (2, 19), las (I, l87),...eare (5, 92). 

Imperf indie, ^la, fji€i ^la-av [Att. 17a, ^e, fjea-ap]. 

{/) oiSa, olhas, olde, idfxev, lare, o'ldaai. 
For Idfiev is found o'l^a^l€v [2, 17 ; 4, 46; 7, 214], a-vvoidafiev 
[9, 60J. 

Subj. ciSe'o). Opt. eldeirjv. 

Pluperf. ( = imperf.) rjdeaj fjdeej rjdeare, ^bea-av, 


(i) coy is often used for oCrco. 

(2) The following Ionic Verb forms also are to be noted: 
(a) 1st aor. for eiTrop 

ctTray, 9, 45, 

(InaVf 9> ^ ^> 

dncnrdfjieda, 9, /» 

firrai, 8, 68. 

(^) From \a^j3dva> 

Xa/x\//'Ofiai, 9, 31, KaraXa^-\//-6/Ltfi^of, 6, 39. 

** In 7, 6 we have ip^oi as though from ivioifu. 


KaTa\afx(i)6€VTes, 9, 58, 
KaraXeXd^rjKe, 9, 60, 
anoXeXafiixivoi, 9j 5^* 

(c) From ^epw 

eaeVTjve^xOai {ivrjvelyjxai), 9, 4 1, 
€^€vr}V€iyix€vos, 9, 72, 
erreveiKas, 8, lO, 
avrjveiKavTO, 8, 32. 

(<a?) aipeti/ (deipeiv) 

depdevres, 9, S^* 

(^) deUvvixi 

fut. §6^0), 

1st aor. eSe^a, Be^ai, 

cde^dixrjv, ibix^^^i 
perf. pass, dedeyfiai, 
plup. pass. e'SeSeKTo, 
imper. pass, dedex^a, 8, 8. 

(y) ciKO) 

perf. oifca, 4, 82 ; part, oikw?, -o?, 8, 9. 

(^) TrXweii/ and TrXeeii' are both found in good MSS. 

(^) d^dfXT]U, a^avTO [ayw], 8, 20. 

(i) dvayvaa-ai, 8, 57 — 8. 

(J) Variations in accent eprnios 9, 3 ; o/xoios 5, 58 ; 
fToifxos 5. 31, 91. 


\^Reference5 are by page and line of the text.'\ 

A caisative, extension of time 57, 

19; with infinitive f 01' dative 

60, 23 
d7dX/AaTa burnt by Peisians 59, 
- 18 

ayafxai 81, 28 
dyyaprjl'op 52, 13 
dycLv rjav-xL-qv 58, 16 
dyCiva^ bpafielv wept 55, 10; 

d7(bi' iyiveTO irepl 79, 26 
a^di'aroi, oi 62, 19 
afvT; 61, 22 

ai(j}pe7adat vir^p [xeyaSojv 53, 7 
CLKLvdKTjs 66, 12 
d/coi^eiv dpiara 49, 4 
aKpcTos 67* 25 
dKpo^oXlaaadat. 32, 3 
dXaXa7/tt6s 20, 6 
dW oiJ 70/) 4, 28 
d\o7etJ' 64, 10 
dfm...KaL 51, 26 
dfxeipoi/es (^avTwy ij 45, 12 
d/M7)xo.vlr} 62, 8 
d/iTToms 70, 17 

d/i0i Ko'Xews 55, 27 ; oZ d;i0/ 62, I 
dc omitted in apodosis 31, 27; 

emphatic position of i^^^ 13 
dva^oXdi, is 11, 19 
' Auay Kair] 61, 2 
dj'a7»'W(rai 28, 23; 29, 9; 53, 4; 

80, 12 
dpaypd(peLu 48, 4 
dvafei^y^/uyut 29, 27 
dvaiaiix6(i3 21, 25 
dvaKivSvveuetv 35, 14; 53, 5 
dvaKpoveadai 44, 5 
dca/cas 59, 25 
dfaKajx^aveiv 59, 12 

dvafidx^crddi- 59, II 
d»'a7rXd<Tao'^w 59, 24 
dvapiraabixevoi 15, 29 

di'^Xe''' 5» 5 

dvofxaL 37, 22 

avri^oos 66, i 

dvTLTr6\€[xoi 35, 19 

ai/co 64, 4; 76, 3 

du(t)pir]u 62, 4 

dTraXXdtrcrctj' 35, 17; -ecrdai 40, 4 

dirido^e 60, 20 

direCKridhTes is dvayKalr}V 59, 9 

dirrjyopeveip fx-q 64, 10 

d7r6 m direction of ^o, \o; at 49, 

, 24; 50. 3 
aTToSoice? /xtjtc 60, 20 
aTTodrjKr) x^-pi-Tos 59, 27 
diroKoifidadaL 40, 23 
diroXa^eiv 64, 2 
dTToXi/ec^at 29, 17 
d/ro/xa£rTt76aj 59, 21 
dtroireipa 6, 21; dTroTr€ipd<xdai 

34. 27; 73, 22 
diropdo) 19, 15 
diroppiiTTfa 49, I 
aposiopesis 31,14 
a>a 53, 22; 59, 28; 74, 14 

dp€TT] 14, 22 

dpidfjLou voie'iadai 4, 20 

dpiffTTjiov 4, 22 : rd dpi(TTr}Ca6'], 8 

dppcjdieiv 81,11 

&<r/x€Vot. 10, I ; 71, 26 

dcTTTtSes 15, 16 

drdo'^aXos 59, 18 

are 36, 16; 38, 26; 45, 7 

avToi ultro 5, 20 

ayTOict dvhpdcn 9, 18 

avTbv 01X01 77, 28 



(xbrh^ eojvTov diirXyaios 76, ii 
auT6x^w»' 38, 9 
dxapt 81, 6 
&XPWT°^ 62, 7 

^dWea-dai. iwl a<f)i(av avTuiv 59, 7 
^dp^apoi 8, 17 
j3ap^ap6(po)v OS 11, 3 
0daayos 60, 7 
^i^Xivov II, 4 
pios 'means' 14, 8 
§ov\6ix€vos, 6, 25, 2; 33, 10; 
Pov\o/x4vois yeuecdai 54, 15 

captured city, the Gods desert a 

22, 1 
yap anticipatory 56, 13; 57, 245 

59'. ^^ 
yai/Xos 51, 20 
yecjireivrjs 62, 6 
yXiXo/J-euos 80, 22 
yXv^ides 70, I 
yvwfjirjv TiOeadai 58, 12 
ypoxTifxax^sLv 16, 13 
ypafx,uaTi(7Tai 48, 4 

dac/Mvioi 44, 15 

</a/. (t/" accompanying circum- 
stances 9, 21, 25; of agent 62, 

5e m apodosis 62, 18; «/ ^(?^/w- 
ning of a speech 79» 19 

Sei/ci'i^i'at ^s 63, 8 

SeiX?; irpwit] 3, 26; oi/'ia 5, 19 

Bix^adai {of omens) 6^, 11; 76, 

57}^ej/ 3, 9 

did exceeding 19, 25; 36, 17; 79, 
23 ; 5ta xpV'^TTipiojv 74, 9 

dia^dWeiv I2, 17; 60, r 

diaSex^adai 79, 17 

Sta/ceXei/ecr^ai 44, 13 

StaxwXeueiv /t?^ 8 r , 17 

5iaX^7et:' 57, 17; 62, 16 

diavavfiax'^ei.v 32, I 

5iaxo0j' 51, 19 

Sie/CTrXoos 4, 22 

StecTT act' 52, 5 

biKaiovv 69, 6 

8i'rr\7)<Tt.os ewuToO 76, 1 1 

boK^Hv i/xol 12, 14; 31, 24, ws 

e/xoi SoK^eiu 33, 28 
dpafieiv dywvas irepl 55, 10 
dpofMOV dieiv 38, 26, cp. 78, 12 

e^i', o^K-, V^ dissuade^ 3i» 3> S^i 

15; 54> 23 
^^/•M aw^ water given to the king 

24. 13 

earthquakes 20, 3 

iyKaTaKoifxrjdrjvaL 74, 13 

'i^effdai iK tov fxecrov 12, 7 

eli'tti, irpdrepov 53, 21; e/cwj/ 
eli^ai 64, 8 

e/c m 26, 22; ToOs e/f Karaarpu)- 
fiaros 66, 3; ^K Ttoj/ 53, 24; ws 
e/c KUKciiu 54, 5 ; — i)7r6 62, 26; 
65, i; e/c Ttuj' nXaraitfcwj' 68, 
27; iKTov(f>avipov6<), 10; wi'M 
gen. of agent 77, 25 

c/cas XP^^°^ 82, 7 

€K5wpl^eiv 38, 20 

€K€xdpL<TTO 3, 20 

iKXeLTretv is 2^, 16 

€k6ut€S elvat 16, 20 

€K(()ip€(rdai yvdb/xTju 35, 2; i^evel- 

KavTcs 73, 3 
eXevaecrdat. 71, 22 
Eleusinian mysteries, the 32, 19 

and 23 
ei' (Toi ccrrf 29, 25; 53, 26; 65, 


€vdijXLOV 2'J, 18 

evrerapiivos 64, 20 

ivTosxP^^^^ 55» ^8 

i^atpelv 60, 23; 61, 19; 66, 24; 

69, 21 
^Trdicrros 70, 15 
iirafifievos 56, 8 
eTredf 55, 26 
^tt' i^epyaa-fJL^oLS 50, li ; en-t rotj 

Kari^KOvaL irpriy/xaai 54, 27; 

e7r' 6/xoXoyLri 79, 14 
iire^eXdelp 52, 19 
eTrearpajxpiiva [^ttt;], 31 
^TrecJ-xo" 17, 21 
iir-q^oXos 61,9 
eV^ adverbial 34, 25; 62, 18; 



(i) ace. ^with a view to* 2, 5; 
extension of time 26, 20; 71, 
18; of space 57, 25; ^ so as to be 
upon ' 33, 20 ; ^up to'' 58, 1 1 ; 
64, 18; fTri TTji' v^a ()6, 18; (2) 
^^«. 'm directio7i of* 33, 19; 
limitation iir eufvrrjs 17, 15; 
eTri ve6s 49, 18; 65, 6; irri ttjs 
yiavirji 67, lo; (3) dat. 'de- 
pendiiig on ' iir ij/uv 1 6, 7 ; (4) 
'in circumstances of 50, 11; 
54. 27 ; 79» 14; ^^^ iiiaQi^ 
76, 5 

iiriXdfJLTreiv 61, 13 

iiriX^yeiv 25, 7; -eadai 11, 23; 
12, i; 25, 12; 70, 10; 75, I 

iiriffTafxat 3, 21; 13, 22; 46, 19; 
51, 23; 73, II 

^TTiTuxerv 54, 24; 55, 16 

iin(p4p€adaL ^i, 2; 47, 19 

^pyov 55j 4; 77. 7 

^y, audijuaL, 48, 23 ; es roaouTo 

68, 25; ^s TO. jUL^yLcrra 81, 21 
eaau/jL^uoi t^J ^u^lk^ 7i> ^7 
^crf fii' 3, 2; 80, 1 1, 26 
?(rw 2, 23; 70, 22; icrojT^pco 34, 

eC ^x^"* 81, 25 
eiepy^TTjs 45, 2 
evpTj/uLa evprjKevai 59, 13 
€v<pp6ur) nox 7, 2 
^Xet" dvafccDs 59, 24; avayKalias 

^X" 78, 2; ?(rxe 60, 16 
ix^adaL pass. 26, 28 ; 74, 25 ; 

with gen. 6, 17; 58, 20, 28; 

80, 10 
^cij* 'rear 35, 8 

fwi'771' XjJecr^ai 66, 15 

'fj following irapa do^av 2, 21 
^5?? 53, 30; 58, 27; w'zM jz^/<?r- 

lative 56, 4; 57, I 
ijdea 54, I ; 81, 24 
iJKUv eD 61, 5 
VfMp, 4\e66epov 41, 9 
ijv dpa 59, 28 
genitive y partitive 7, i; 41, 12; 

72, 21; 76, 27; topographical 

7, i8; 30, 23; of time within 
which 37, 25; 40, 23; 57, 19 

Bl(.iv irepl 78, 12 
6€o^\apr)S 76, 19 
drjTeieiu 76, 4 
6v7]t6v 52, 2 
6v/xidu dvfxirifxaTa 52, 17 
^u/u,6s 64, 12 
^w/xa 74, 13 
dcaprjKdcpopoi. 62, 1 1 
heroeSy worship of 20, 16 

i^effdai iwi 26, 9; es 37, 16 
166 straight toivards 20, 10 
hidicative future in oratio obli- 

qua 54, 6 
infinitive for imperative 35, 5; 

in subordinate sentences j^i^, 22; 

50, 2 ; for indicative 6r, 6 
Ionian revolt, the 12, 15 
I'ttttoj, ^, 15, 23; 62, 12 
\<jTia 49, 19 

Kadvnepde 75, 17 

Kai = or 38, 21 ; 'simultaneously* 
43> 25; TUivrb KaL 23, 16; 
To?(ri /cat 61, 16; Ktti zvith al- 
ternative clause ^g, 10; 53, 17 

Kai ykp 5t) Kai 13, 24 ; Kol drj KaL 
21, 22; 12, 5; 72, i,) follow- 
ing aXKa T€ 25, 17 

KairvoQoKri 76, 18 

Kapa^oK^u) 34, 17; 36, 22 

Kara with ace. 'opposite* 19, 2r; 
44, 16; cp. 27, i; 'in regard 
to'' 43, 25; 44, 15; 'on account 
of* 56, 20; zuith gen. 27, 5 

/faraSuecr^at 47, 18 

KaraKOLfxav 74, 6 

KaTaKoweis 48, 21 

KaTaXa/x^dveiv 'to overtake* 4, 5 ; 
27, 26; 63, I 

Karaixapyiiav 68, 17 

*cara7rX^/cw 43, 23 

KarairXricrauj 70, 11 

Karaji^ifjyvvcTdai toj>s Kiddvai 52, 

KaTa<ppov€7v construction of(), 4 



Kareirelyeiv 60, 5 

KaT€XOfi€vos 04, 22 

Karijpes 11, ii 

KaTopvaaeiv 19, 4 

KeipeiP 17, 21; 32, 15 

Keiffdat 49, 12 

xepaifw 45, 6 

Kivdvpeijecv, construction of ■>fi^ 9; 

33. 7; 39. 9 
>&2«^j of Sparta 22, 11 

/co^Xi; j'aus 66, 4 

/cotJ'^ 67, 5; rh Koivbv 74, 21 

KOfii^effdai II, 19; 57, 27; 60, 

Kdpos 41, 6 
Kda/Mov oiiSiva 64, 22; Kdafxov ^e- 

peiv 29, 23; 79, 22 
Kprj(r<f){)y€Tou 26, 7 
Kpiaii 36, 17 
KVfiaTiTjs 65, 8 

XttYXai'ft'' 64, 22 

Xa/J-Tradrjcpopir] 52, II 

Xeaivw 80, 12 

\dire<xdai 62, 10 

XiTrap^eiv 82, 4 

Xnrapds 41, 5 

X670J' StSomt 4, I4; X670S 'rt;^- 

counf 55, 11; 'reputation 6, 

13; /card X670J' 62, 4 

fioKtara /xh — ei 5^ firj 12, i, 

fieXedalueiv 63, 26 

IxeXiToeaaa 21, 24 

fx^Wd) construction of 2, 2; 4, 5, 

17; 45. lo*. 51. i^ 
fxifitpofxai 57, 7 
fjLev...S4 of simultaneous action 

69, 2 
fiiaai vvKTes 40, 7 
/A^o-o;/, t6 73, 15; /i^o-oi^. ^f Tov 

12, 7; 38. 23 
fieTa^dWcjv 59, 5 
/xeraaTTfadfievoi 54? n 

fX€T€^^T€pOl 5, 8; 45, 16 

u^XP' ^' 13'' 44. 16 

U7J 01) 28, 20; 52, 7; 53, 20; 66, 

2; 69, 7 
lULrjvoeidis 9, 6 

Wi?<?fl', r/^a;/^^ ''/SS. 3» 56. 34; 

66, 3 
fjLvpaivrjcri aropeffai 52, 16 

pi/xe<Tdai 64, 3 
y^0os 59, 13 

veibrepov Till, 15; ToUeiv 79, 10 
j/T/fTts 40, 5; 50, 23 
vrjcnwrai 60, 24; 61, 24 
vqcrwv, did 58, 10 
vtKoLu, eviKa placuit 4, 15; opp 
to i<T<rov(T dai ry yviofirj 39, 13 
v6dos 55, 20 
v6fJt.(i} xet/Jwi', ei' 47, 2 
p6ov, €k iravTOi 5[, 24 
number s^ mistake in 24, 25 

oMra.1 3, 22; 23, 9; 56, 26; 59, 

24; 80, 10 
oXoi T€ 10, 9 
6V0U63, 17; 53, 27 
OKOJS iterative 26, 11 ; 48, 14; 56, 

7; 69, 26; 76, 10; 56, 7; = 

oTi 66, 5 
Skus av 7, 21 ; 6/fws /at; w//// /«/. 

9. 2 
^/?w, M^ sacred 27, 23 — 28 

Olympic festival, the 7, i; 14. 

12; /n'z^ at 14, 15 

bfxaixi^l-t} 78, 15 

blxby\(j3<Taov 81, 21 

opiOTpoiros 81, 24 

fi-TTlS 81,2 

optative and subjunctive in co- 
ordinate sentences 4, 4 and 10; 
40, 13; also opt. andfut. 37, 5 

optative, iterative 26, 10; 63, 17, 
26; o/Z^r iXwi^eLU fxri 26, 27: 
see under 6/cws 

oracles 21, 19; 26, 5; 31, 20 

bpfiebixevos 61, 30; 73, 19 

bpoadyyai 45, 3 

ostracism 41, 20 

ou 7wV/^ /'«/?«. 58, 25 

ovK eav 31, 3; 36, 15 

oijTe...Te joining participle and 
verb 73, 9 

oi/TW 12, 25; 65, 20; 76, 17 



ovr^ji 5tJ 50, 9; 12, 25; dfi, 20; 

73, 4 
601S 21, 21 

7rd6^77, T^f Tt, 55, II 

TTCt^OJ 53, 28; 65, 26 

Taudrjfjiei 21, 6; 37, 26; irai'- 

(TTpariy 15, 2; 34, 8 
iravoiKtrj 56, 28 
Trap' ^wuTOu r/^ j'//^) 3, g 
TrapaKpiveadaL 36, 26 
irape^eXavveiv 69, 8 
trapix-i' impersonal 5, 1 ; 16, 18; 

39' }T* 53, 1?; 78, 13 

participle atzd indicative coordi- 
nate 45, 13; 60, II ; 73, 10; 

75, 15 
irarpodev 48, 4 

ireideadai construction of t^^, e^ 

Ilft^ct) 61, 2 

Treipaadai with infin. 53, 15; 58, 

16; 80, 24; ■KOLelv ireLpiap-evov 

57, 17 ; with gen. 54, 14 ; 62, 6 
irevTrfKovTepoL i, 11; 24, 8 
ireTToiTj/jL^vos mid. 2, 7 
iripriv 19, 8; Trepair) 23, 8 
irep^ M^/M ar^. 15, 19; 20, 17; 

w///z ^^«. 38, 26; 39, 9; 55, 

10; 78, 13 
repi^dWeffdai 4, 26 
irepie^vai 2, 8; TrepLjiyvecrdai 30, 


TreptTrexTjs 10, 26 

irepimiTTeiv 9,11 

irepi(XTp(ji}(f>(j}iJL€uos 74, 15 

iriTTTeiv ''happen'' 6Kr} Tretr^erai ra 
wpTjyixara 72, 4 

phantoms^ appearance of 20, •] 

plural [poetical) 28, 21 

ttXoioj' 60, 6 

TrXwo) = ttX^o; 3, 1 1 

iroiero-^at, dpuXXav 6, 1 1 ; dpid/xou 
4, 20; ^ov\i)v 2 1, 5; 5etj'6i' 8, 
14; ieivbv^ XPWO- 9, 14; 49> 
13; ioiVToO 29, 7; es dj/a^oXdj 
TT]v dTrox'^pT)<TLv /I, 19; du)upt.a 
39, 5; f^V^oeiS^s g, 6; vavpiax^W 
25, 2; Xt?^?/!/ 41, 25; X6701' 
39> 5; ^fP^ TrXeia-TOV 21, 9; 

avp-cfiop-liv 53, i; ffifxp-axov 75, 

wdXe/jioi personified 2, 11 
TToXXos •^;' 29, 13 
prese?itfor immediate future 6'j, 

irp-qytxaTa 55, 8; 75, 17 
Tpo 3, 6; 39, 9 
irpo^wdieiu 82, 11 
irpodelvai 25, i; 29, 12 
irpoKare 74, 23 
TrpoKaTT]<xdat 19, 16 
Trpovolrjs, e/c, 46, l 
wpo^eLvos 75, 10; 81, 7 
7rp69 adverbial 16, 8; 21, 3; 36, 

5; 48, 5; 49, II 
7rp6s c'W ///^ jz^(? <7/^, ewiTcDi/ 12, 

1 6 ; 17/icDj' 30, 14; * in the 

direction of 44, 18; 45, 23; 

dd^ 1 7 ; afT^r. ' in cotiiparison 

with ' 23, 2 
TrpoaK-qdees 75, 4 
TrpoaKW^etv 65, 19 
TT/Jocrxwpeij' adjjtngere se ad 30, 

irpoip-qTrji 19, 13 
Trpciibs 71, 13 
irpuiTOLaL, ev 36, 16 
TTTepdit) 70, I 
TTvpcpSpos 4, 6 
Pythiaji games, the 24, 20 
irihytav 56, I 

pairL^eaOai 29, 17 

relative, attraction of e,^, 20 

P'^X''? 7i> I 

rivers, sacrifice to 77, 2 

Schiste Hodos, the 20, 28 
ai)p.7}'Cov 48, 25 

o-t7^ 39. 5 . 

croi, emphatic position of '3^6, 8 

cro(p6s 60, 3; aocfxaraTOZ 68, I 

(TTa6pi.evpi.evoi 71, 25 

(TracricDrai 72, 19 

(TTopa, Kara 6, 18 

arpaTOTredou feet 22, 2; 43, I 

(TTpewTocpopoi 62, 18 

subject, change of '^i, 17; 73, 7 



subjunctive after historic tense 
{dramatic^ 4, 10; 40, 17; in 
orat. obi. 50, 9; with con- 
ditional relative without dv 12, 
16; 58, 26 

<ru7Xeet'' 52, 19 

avfi/xax^V 7o> 8 

av/M/xL^at 29, 4 ; 34, 20 ; ^2, i 

av/xTTiTrTeLV ware 8, 18; 73, 12; 

<Tvix(j>ip(a 45, 25; 46, 9 
avfx<poprj xpS'Crdai. 11, 18 
cvvearaadv rivi, 38, 25 
(Tvpdrjfia 4, 17 
(r0t(ri = dXX^Xots 72, 25 
O'xeiJ', Trpos 21, i; es 20, 27; 21, 

Tafxias Tou ipov 26, i 

Tairep Kai e^ivero 59, 30 

ra^iapxoi 34, 23 

rdxos, ws rdxeos clx^ 57, 22 

re. ..Kai denoting simultaneity 21, 

3; 43. 18 
re suffix 3, 5 ; 10, 9 
T^fievos, 20, 17 
Tir/pris xpi^o'o''''a(rros 66, 13 
TifJLuplr} 25, 9 

Tts = ^/cacTTOS 59, 24; 65, 16 
W(7t»' SoO/'ai 44, 13 
tmesis of preposition 17, 24; 34, 

23; 46, 26 
t6 = ri relat. 21,3 
ToOro -fiev . . .TOUTO 5i 40, 6; 46, 

9' 55. 2; 74.. 3; 77. 26; /A^ 

_^rj-/ rouTO omitted 30, 5 
Tpdireadai, es (pvyrjv 9, 15; trpos 

TCL Trpo^ara 10, 21; Trpos rds 

TTuXas 27, 7; Trpos dXXas [rpnj- 

peis] 46, 9 
trierarchies 9, 24 
TpLTjKovTepos II, 15 
tripod at Delphi, the fnemorial 

43' 10 
rdpavpos {Makedoman) 80, 14 

C/3/)is 41, 6 

vrrepappudeiv with dat. 38, 4 

virep^oXr) 61, 26 

{f7r€p(pvr}s 64, 7 

VTrepcpipeiv 77, 9; 81, 14 

yTTO to;' Trefov 49, 3 ; il'7r6 x^ *' 

fiQivos 77, 12 
VTroaravTes 48, 10 
verbal substantive governing a 

case 41, II 

^olveaQai eu>v 68, 3; viR-wi'Tes 
599; dTTLKoiiievos 73, 27 

<t>duai 46, 17 

0drts ^x^^ 50. 1 1 

<p€p6fX€V0L 48, 15; <f)epov(Ta 45, 
26; irX^ov ^(pepe tj yvwfjt.7] 53, 
7; TO Trd;* (pepwv 53, 12; 0€- 
p6fJt.€vos ov rd Se^repa 55, 23; 
^^peip es 76, 14; 80, I 

(f>d6vos of the gods 59, 16 

(pop^oL 37, 23 

cppovelv rd Tiros 18, 12; 39, 24; 
40, 2 

0iJXa/cos 21, 21 

0i)<rts 20, 13 

X^i-fialveadaL 65, 9 

Xeip virepfX-qK-qi 78, 25 

X^t-P'Jov pofxcp, ev 47, 2 

Xpa;/ 74, 29 

XP'n<yr'qpLd^e(TdaL 74, 4 

XoOs 15, 26 

X^PWi x^T^ 41. 18; 58, 2 

\f'€\c6<pOpOL 62, 18 

\l/r](pop ridecdai 67, 18 

(hdiafibs \dyoiv 41, 15 

u.>77 7, I ; 8, 9 

ws z£//M ^(?«. a^W. 40, 16; 42, 

21; 47, 14 
cos dv 4, 10 
ujs eiiretu 63, 16 
ws TOTe 5, I 
wcrTe = aTe 65, 9 
uiTaKOvareiv 72, /«, 
co^Xe deiKlrjv I4, 17 





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